Garden city

draft concerning town construction for the Ludwigshafener garden city: School, place and church
Raschigstraße in der Ludwigshafener Gartenstadt
Raschigstrasse in the Ludwigshafener garden city

the garden city is a model of the regular town development sketched by the Britisher Ebenezer Howard in the year 1898 in England as reaction to the bad living and living conditions as well as thosehorrend rising price of land in the large cities grown strongly.

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background andEbenezer

Howard aims was cooperative socialist and to a failed settlement experiment to America again to London had returned, where he worked as a parliament stenographer. Its goal was, the rapid growth, which British large cities (above all London) in the course of the industrialization experienced, into arranged courses toosteer. Instead of an uncontrolled growth of new boroughs at the edge of the existing large city and/or. Howard suggested the complete reestablishments of cities in the surrounding countryside to further compression in the city inside, which leads to the formation of Slums. These on past agricultural country, very consolidated of quarterly towns with millions of inhabitants cultivated which can be created again should from several (7) independent parts (thus: medium sized cities) exist, which would be connected by broad agrarian belts from each other separated and by railways. Each city should have their own - as clean ones as possible - industry apart from own agriculture also. Thus the past strict separation from city should andCountry to be waived and the disadvantages of the large city be avoided and the advantages of the large city (about easily attainable good cultural facilities) be maintained.

The profit from speculation during the transformation of cheap agricultural country into valuable development land should benefit (genossenschaftlich organized) the public of the new city and a large partthe construction costses carry. The soil remains genossenschaftlicher common possession and only in hereditary lease is lent. 1898 were called Howards book still Tomorrow - A peaceful path tons material reform, meant is the cooperative-socialist solution of the soil question. Only the second edition was called Gardencities OF tomorrow.

The book caused the emergence of the garden city movement, which aimed first at the establishment of such garden cities and so that connected also sozialreformerische ideas. The participation of the inhabitants and lifelong rental law were important.

realization

the garden city movement organized itself in the garden city company, those finallywide country in the English county heart-Ford-almost purchased and starting from 1903 in the sense of the movement cultivated: thus the garden city Letchworth developed. 1920 succeeded the establishment of the second English garden city Welwyn. After that 2. Dozens nationally created English new Towns followed world war approximately overLondon.

Howards sketches for the building of a garden city were very regularly geometrical: circular in concentric circles, but by no means as structural drawings meant. After plans of the architects Raymond Unwin and Barry Parker built first garden city Letchworth is stressed irregular against it with consciously bent roads along the area outlinesput on, the houses are built in the traditional English style.

This special building method of the first garden city Letchworth, i.e. the architectural and aesthetic concept, became the model of many settlements at home and abroad, which likewise called themselves garden city, although them with the originally underlying cooperative-socialist model at allnothing to do have.

The garden city movement resulting from it was a current concerning town construction. It publicised a life in the country, thus settlements with gardens to the self-sufficiency, park and small industry, the single family house with garden became the ideal of the living form.

the German garden city movement

the garden city ideamet with also in Germany strong approval, where already in 19. Century similar conceptions with the establishment of large Villenkolonien for the wealthy middle class developed were (Marienthal in Hamburg, Berlin light field west, mansion quarter in Dresden). In Germany developed with progressive industrialization as answer to thoseProblems and emergencies of the workers starting from 1900 non-profit building firms, so also 1902 the German garden city company (DGG) in Berlin. To the founders the pairs of brothers Bernhard Kampffmeyer and Paul Kampffmeyer, Heinrich hard originating from the surrounding field of the Friedrichshagener of poet circle and the new community belonged and Julius hard as well as William Böl and Gustav Landauer. First chairmen of the DGG Heinrich became hard. To the first members of the board William Böl, Julius hard, Fidus , Magnus deer field, Bernhard Kampffmeyer, Adolf Otto and Franz Oppenheimer belonged. After the death of Heinrich hard took overBernhard Kampffmeyer 1906 the presidency in the DGG.

The executive committee had only few of the original initial members in the year 1909 with Bernhard Kampffmeyer, Paul Kampffmeyer, Adolf Otto and Franz Oppenheimer. In addition Carl Johannes fox, Paul Schultze Naumburg, Werner Sombart, Joseph August lux, Ferdinand Avenarius came, Peter Behrens, Richard Riemerschmid, Hermann Muthesius and Karl Schmidt. Schmidt, Muthesius and Riemerschmid were already 1906 considerably in the establishment Heller from involved and brought material experiences also into the executive committee.

Hellerau (today: Dresden Hellerau; starting from 1906, built starting from 1909) first was planned,at the same time most complete and most radical German implementation of a garden city in Germany. The Krupp settlement Margarethenhöhe in meals, developed about at the same time, is often likewise called first German garden city (planned of George Metz village /Kruppsches building office), it is however garden city only in view to the building method, not at all upthe genossenschaftliche concept. The 1905 in Karlsruhe von Hans Kampffmeyer, the younger cousin of Bernhard Kampffmeyer, along-created garden city cooperative follow against it the holistic, socially coined/shaped requirement of the English garden city movement and united in a kind alliance of political economists, social reformers, architects, public health specialists, local politicians, Genossenschaftler and publishers.

In 1909Bernhard Kampffmeyer as well as Adolf Otto accomplishes a Exkursion of the DGG to English garden cities, which affect considerably the further development. 1909 are used the term garden city already inflationary for most different forms by settlements and the ball of building firms became partial. Kampffmeyer deplores “thatWord garden city became a large comprehensive term, into which one throws today rather indiscriminately the most diverse settlement things inside - without consideration for social bases and goals ". Kampffmeyer develops some theoretical considerations from the experiences of the study trip to the terms “garden city”, “garden village” and “garden suburb”, thoseit summarized 1919 publishes.

The beginning of the First World War stopped or prevented first the execution of many plans and building activities had to be adjusted temporarily. After the end of the Second World War only more the single family house than living ideal remained of the idea of the garden city.

Garden cities as world-wide concept

doubt around the relatively large land consumption prevented a more far-reaching spreading in Europe (and here particularly in the Federal Republic of Germany), while in the USA enormous populated areas and be realized the own house with garden for almost all population and income layers could develop.

Still before the models concerning town construction of the volume city and the Ville Radieuse of Le Corbusier the garden city model became the consequence-fraughtest model of planning concerning town construction in 20. Century. In contrast to a satellite city a garden city serves exclusively living, similarly as a satelite town.

Street names

the settlement thoughts well to recognize leave the street names of some garden cities. Exemplarily street names of the Mannheimer garden city are to be specified here from the north to the south:

  • Small beginning
  • tough will
  • large perseverance
  • of good ones progress
  • glad work
  • own Scholle
  • strong hope
  • new homeland
  • new life
  • light line
  • free air

Note: The roads mentioned do not have to do anything with the quarter garden city in Mannheim. They are all outside of the historical core of the plant, to the majority in the quarter Mannheim forest yard. The roads in the area of the garden city carry either Germanic names (Wotanstrasse, Freyaplatz) or landschaftliche (underthe Birken, at the green Hag, long impact).

garden cities in the German-speaking countries

genuine garden cities were not created in the German-speaking countries. With the following quarters it acts only around settlements with a garden city-similar character:

of pictures

Zschornewitz Kolonie
Zschornewitz To colony
Werkssiedlung Piesteritz in Wittenberg
company-owned housing estate Piesteritz in joke mountain

see also

literature

  • the German garden city movement. Recapitulatory representation over the today's conditions of the movement. Publishing house of the German garden city company, Berlin 1911.
  • Robert Fishman: Urban Utopias into the Twentieth Century, Ebenezer Howard, franc Lloyd WRIGHT, Le Corbusier. Basic, New York 1977, WITH press, Cambride 1982. ISBN 046508933X, ISBN 0262560232
  • garden city Hellerau. A report on the purpose, the organization, the settlement conditions. past successes and the goals. Publishing house of the garden city Hellerau, Hellerau with Dresden 1911.
  • Kristiana Hartmann: German garden city movement. Cultural policy and social reform. Heinz Moos, Munich 1976. ISBN 3787900942
  • Kristiana Hartmann: The citizens of Berlin garden city falcon mountain, a planning example of the German garden city movement. in: Forest, garden and park. Of the change of function of nature for the city.Hrsg. v. Bernhard Kirchgässner and Joachim B. Schultis. Thorbecke, sigma rings 1993, S. 83-97.ISBN 3-7995-6418-7
  • High control room. Illustrated half monthly review for the artistic, mental and economic interests of the urban culture. Catalog of themes garden city Hellerau. R. Voigtländer, vienna Leipzig 3,1907, 20.
  • Ebenezer Howard: Garden cities of mornings. Building world foundations. Bd21. Ullstein, Berlin 1968 (dt.v.Guards Cities OF Tomorrow. First 1898 as Tomorrow, A peaceful path tons material reform).
  • Bernhard Kampffmeyer: From the garden suburb to the garden city. German garden city company e. V. Berlin Grünau 1919.
  • Bernhard Kampffmeyer: From the town to the garden city. Flight writing - GermansGarden city company. Bd 11. Berlin battle lake 1908.
  • Hans Kampffmeyer: The garden city movement. B.G. Teubner, Leipzig 1909.
  • Paul Kampffmeyer: The building societies in the context of a national housing plan for reform. The housing question and the realm. Bd 3. German association for housing reform registered association, Goettingen 1900.
  • Mervin Miller: Letchworth. Phillimore, Chichester Sus 1989,2002.ISBN 1-86077-213-7

environments

 

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