Gazprom (Russian Газпром, wiss. Transliteration and English. Transkription Gazprom, German Transkription gas PROM) is the world-wide largest natural gas promote-undertakes and the largest enterprise of Russia. The former state company, which was converted 1998 into a corporation, is today with approximately 330,000 persons employed the largest employer of the country.
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development of the enterprise
in the course of the dissolution of the Soviet Union was converted in the year 1989 the division for gas promotion and gas transports of the Ministry for oil and gas economy of the USSR into the Russian state State of Gazprom. The past Minister for oil and gas economy, Wiktor Tschernomyrdin, was selected to the first acting chairman of the board. When Tschernomyrdin became 1992 Prime Minister, its deputy rem Wjachirew followed him as a Gazprom chairman of the board.
Since May 2001 is Alexei Miller of chairmen of the board. Supervisory board chairman is Dmitri Medwedew, the first deputy Prime Minister of the Russian federation. Both are close trusted friends president PUT in, who the president already from its activity in the city administration in sank Petersburg knows.
the gas economy of the Russian
federation controls most important divisions and enterprise strategy Gazprom to a large extent. There are only few other promotion and commercial companies within the natural gas range. To Gazprom approximately 85% of the Russian natural gas extraction are allotted, approximately a fifth of the world-wide promotion. For the natural gas export from Russia Gazprom has a monopoly. Russia - and thus Gazprom - is with distance world-wide largest gas exporter.
In the year 2005 an agreement between the German Federal Government and Gazprom took place to lay a natural gas pipeline via the Baltic Sea. After the defeat at the polls of Federal Chancellor Schröder accepted these an offer from Gazprom to the cooperation in the supervisory board of the NEGP .
Gazprom is however not only in the natural gas range active. Further divisions are in Russia - apart from the oil range - in particular the current economy, the medium range and the banking. Critics of the managerial policy demand a concentration from the Gazprom guidance however on the energy industry. They see a frittering away, which makes the enterprise difficult-to-understand. Gazprom is accused also again and again in press reports a particularly minted susceptibility for corruption, although the Gazprom coworkers in the internal-Russian comparison are considered as privileged.
A avowed goal of the Gazprom guidance is to remove the enterprise to the energy company leading world-wide. In the last years it acquired important participation within the oil range (Sibneft) and current range. Gazprom wants to be limited not to Russia and the export of energy from Russia, but strengthen over its export company OOO Gazpromexport also their activities abroad, including the selling of energy at final consumers.
numbers and facts
- natural gas reserves and - resources: Gazprom has for instance a Sechstel of all surely economically profitable gas reserves of the world. In addition extensive potential resources come, particularly into west and north Siberia.
- Natural gas extraction 2004: 545 billion Cubic meter (m ³)
- power mains: The long-distance line net of Gazprom, with a length of approximately 150,000 kilometers the world-wide largest, transports natural gas to 179 distribution stations. Over a far distribution network of 428,000 kilometers are supplied enterprises and households in approximately 80,000 cities and localities in Russia.
- Conversion insg.: approximately 45 billion Dollar (2005, estimated, without Sibneft)
- export conversion: approximately 25 billion Dollar (2005 estimated)
- clear profit: 161 billion Rouble or 4.689 billion € (34.3347 roubles for 1 €)
- security identification number (WKN): 903276
- the total number of the shareholders approximately 460,000 legal and private persons amount to.
- Legal entities from the Russian federation possess 36.81 per cent of the shares
- legal entities from the foreign country possess 11.5 per cent of the shares
- private people from the Russian federation possess 13.32 per cent of the shares
- the Russian federation possess 38.37 per cent of the shares (conditions 2005)
among the legal entities from the Russian federation are various Gazprom subsidiaries, at which the state holds again portions. As the state acquired 10.74 per cent of the Gazprom portions in June 2005 of four Gazprom daughters, the state secured itself a Kapitalanteil of scarce over 50%.
The delimitation of the stock share of foreigners on at the most 20% was waived at the end of of 2005. According to estimate of analysts foreigners possessed a quarter of the Gazprom shares however already before this liberalisation of the stock broking over stooges already well.
- strategic management commitee is the supervisory board, which is selected by the general assembly of the shareholders for in each case one year. Chairman of the supervisory board is Dmitri Medwedew, the first deputy Prime Minister of the Russian federation. On Dr. belongs to the supervisory board as only foreigners also a German. Burckhard miner, member of the board of the E.ON corporation, which holds well 6% of the Gazprom shares.
- Chairman of the board of Gazprom is Alexei Miller; General manager of the export company Gazpromexport is Alexander Medwedew
gas price strategy
inland demands Gazprom of gas prices, which are clearly lower than the prices for supplies abroad. Thus it explains itself that Gazprom sets quantitatively scarcely two thirds off of its gas inland, so that however a third of the sales profits obtains only approximately. Some experts do not regard the home-market prices cost-hitting a corner as individual consumer groups for. Demands from Gazprom to price increases are however partly approved by the government regularly only.
In the export trade Gazprom computes according to press releases very different prices (in each case for 1.000 standard cubic meters natural gas; Conditions 01.01.2006):
- White Russia: 46.78 dollar
- Ukraine: , At the beginning of 2006 gradual increase on 160 dollar Georgien agrees upon 50 dollar (to 31.12.2005
- ): 110 dollar (for 2006) 
- Western Europe: Of
Gazprom it is indicated to 230 dollar as reason for the low price for gas supplies at white Russia (46.78 US Dollar) that white Russia delivered and for approximately 50 years at Gazprom leased in response control of its gas pipeline net at Gazprom. The Ukraine had been made by Gazprom 2005 according to enterprise data a comparable offer, which rejected her however.
For the purchase of natural gas from Turkmenistan Gazprom 65 dollar pays (for 2006) 
conflict with the Ukraine
of detailed articles see: Russian-Ukrainian gas controversy
at the end of of 2005 ran out the contract over gas supplies of the Gazprom to the Ukraine. Negotiations over a new contract led to no agreement. Gazprom demanded a drastic increase of the very low price (50 dollar ever 1,000 of cubic meters) on the level of the supplies to Western European customer countries (230 dollar). A rise of the gas price corresponded not only to the interests of profit of the Gazprom partners, but also demands of the world trade organization (World Trade Organization), which rejects competition-distorting energy price subsidies. The Ukraine was only ready for a weaker increase of the price. Gazprom placed the supply against the Ukraine thereupon at the year end 2005 completely in.
In the further process of the controversy Gazprom accused the Ukrainian gas servicer of Naftohas to tap illegaly pipelines which lead by the Ukraine and transport natural gas to Western Europe. The Hungarian gas servicer MOL determined a decrease of the mass of gas according to own data around 25%.
Few days after attitude of the supplies to the Ukraine it came to an agreement. Gazprom took the supplies to the Ukraine.
Web on the left of
- Vanessa de l' Or: The Kremlin gives gas, in: Cicero, February 2006
- Stefan Scholl: The gas oil medium bank scour trousers - in: German society for foreign policy (Hrsg.): International policy, number 2 2006
- critical article for the emergence and meaning of Gazprom with netstudien.de
- donation science and politics: Dossier power supply
- Roland Götz: After the gas conflict, January 2006
- Russia sits at the longer lever information about the natural gas conflict with the Ukraine Telepolis
- Gazprom heats Europe in Russia the rules of the Neoliberalismus fast learned. Now also the proponents of the European Union market protectionism Telepolis notice that