Mountain country

as mountain countries states or larger regions are designated, whose surface is taken to the predominant part of mountains. They are usually coined/shaped by a small-scale Geografie, because the most important axles of the traffic system must be limited to the few main valleys. In contrast to this is a high country a landscape, within those only small differences in height arise.

Table of contents

linguistic usage

the usual linguistic usage understands countries with large portions of high mountains by “mountain country” mainly, while those of the low mountain ranges fall out of the term rather. In typical mountain countries such as Switzerland, Austria, Slowakei, Macedonia or Greece about 50-60% of the national surface tower above a sea-height of 1000m.

With the Caucasus - country Armenia are there even nearly 90%, with the high country of Tibet 100%. The altitude alone is however as criterion not sufficient, but with the aspects slope and/or. To link parallelism .

term and name “mountain country”

in relation to the word “mountain country” the term “mountain country” is locally understood, i.e. it refers to smaller mountain regions under exclusion of the surrounding flat and hill countries. Many of such areas carry the word “mountain country” in the name, for example

“mountain country” serve often also as label name and/or. as part of names. Thus there are hundreds in Austria, Switzerland and South Germany “hotel mountain country " or “pension mountain country”.
The publishing house mountain country leads the word just like different products of the food - and bio enterprises (e.g. Cheese, milk) up to clothing and sports articles.

more comprehensive definition of the European Union

as with difficulty “gebirgiges” area from the inhabitants to to be worked on is, does not only depend on the altitude. The definition of the term becomes more exact, even if one considers the typical slope inclinations and the elevator arrangement. The European union gave in the year 2002 such a study in order, in order to receive for the topics mountain peasants and regional promotion better bases. It was coordinated by Regionalforschungsinstitut Nordregio and the Federal Institution for mountain peasant questions and published at the end of of 2004:

classification after altitude and slope

the study arranges the area according to the criteria altitude, relief (roughness) and local differences in height, from which 5 classes for “mountain areas “result:

  1. Regions under 300m, if extreme local elevator differences arise (standard deviation in the 1km raster over 50m). Examples are areas in Scotland, along the Norwegian fjords and on mediterranen Steilküsten.
  2. Altitude 300-1000 m, if they fulfill either above criteria or around at least 300 m varies the area height on 7 km.
  3. Altitude 1000-1500 m (hpts. Low mountain range), if they fulfill the 2 above criteria or the slope inclination to the neighbouring 1km-Rasterpunkten over 5° (about 9%) amount to.
  4. Altitude 1500-2500 m (high mountains): the 3 above criteria as well as areas also over 2° inclination (e.g. Almen).
  5. Altitude over 2500 m: Hochebenen of this sea level are completely considered as “mountain area , because (like e.g. Tibet) does not give it in Europe.

Isolated still additional aspects for the final definition of the area window blind were considered.

the study the following surfaces (in 1000

km ²) lists surface portions of the gebirgigen municipalities in the European Union as result of two-year treatment by numerous institutions and/or. Percentages (over 10%) as mountain area on ¹):

 Entire European Union   4.760, 68   1.934, 65    40.6% of the surfaceEU-15:       3.318, 80   1.322, 91    39,9Greece   132,22     102,98    77.9%Austria      83,85      61,51    73,4Italy        300,59     180,78    60,1Spain        505,21     281,61    55,7Finland       326,76     166,08    50,8Sweden       450,00     227,70    50,6Portugal        92,36      36,14    39,1UK             245,49      62,56    25,5France     637,90     142,12    22,3Germany    356,77      52,59    14,7Ireland          70,14       7,44    10,6Entry countries: 
 Slovenia       20,27      15,91    78.0%Slowakei        48,99      30,37    62,0Bulgaria      101,74      54,18    53,3Cyprus           9,23       4,00    47,6Romania       238,40      90,24    37,9Tschechien      78,79      25,41    32,3 ¹) the 2 right columns cover the entire  municipality surfaces, which are allotted even 91.3% and 

with Switzerland to 90.7% predominantly been allotted to mountain country according to the same definition to Norway to mountain area municipalities, which is connected however apart from the altitude and slope also with size and structure of the municipalities.


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