newborn child

the birth of a child (seen from the nut/mother: relieving or the Niederkunft) is the process at the end of the pregnancy, by which a Fötus leaves the Gebärmutter of the nut/mother.

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different aspects the birth

the birth places for still the pregnant woman and if necessary. further involved ones, z. B. thatFather, a very emotional experience. The birth is usually with large pain, in addition, connected with large joys. It felt all the more positive, for each trusted friend the atmosphere from the view of the bearing is usually.

Births findin the European culture area usually in the circle hall of a hospital under the responsibility of the hospital leader instead of. More and more pregnant woman (however only approx. 2%) decide however also for a house birth, with which a midwife takes the responsibility. Occasionallycome children in the water to the world.Water births are considered as particularly careful, because babies are familiar after 9 months in the fruit water with the wet element, and because the nut/mother in the warm water can relax better, which the birth faster andmakes easier.

A most important goal the birth of accompanying personnel is it to turn damage away from child and nut/mother. Which exact that is called, is however disputed. The general approach and atmosphere with a birth are depending upon place, surrounding field and requirement muchdifferently. Two fundamental aspects of the event compete with one another, which set different emphasis:

  • On the side the birth is seen particularly as medical event, which brings a set of risks with itself. A goal the birth of accompanying personnelit is about above all to protect child and nut/mother against as much as possible risks and particularly against permanent damage. Other interests have themselves to subordinate to these goals in each case.
  • On the other side the birth than more normally becomes physicallyProcedure seen, which in most cases runs off without complications. Therefore also only few preventive medical interferences are necessary such as beta exercise means or dam cut. It is set rather on gentle methods of the support. Risks are judged thereby by their probability andlikewise very importantly taken.

As the birth is seen and as it runs off then, depends at most of the individual case; in addition, clear differences depend on the respective hospital, the treating physicians and the midwives. With house births is the stressclearly on the second variant.

expiration of the birth

the expiration of each birth is different, since it concerns a biological function of humans, who cannot be planned or steered in each detail. To that extent are statementsto understand over normality about procedures during the birth in such a way that the average value is normal and deviations are the rule.

The normal birth (also spontaneous birth) of humans begins a blowing with the initial phase, the first stage that. A goal thatOpening-sore is the Verkürzung and extension of the Portio (part of the cervix, which rises up into the Vagina) and/or. the nut/mother mouth (opening in the Portio). It begins with irregular blowing with a frequency of 2-3 blowing in 30 minutes. Contractions of the Gebärmutter. In the process of the initial phase the sore frequency increases to 2-3 blowing in 10 min. Also the rhythm becomes more regularly. The duration that blowing in the initial phase amounts to 30-60 seconds.

During a contraction the bearing nut/mother wall pulls itself over the precedingchildlike part (usually head) upward back, which one calls Retraktion. As consequence of the Retraktion the lower range of the Gebärmutter extends passively. The fabric is withdrawn upward over the head pushing downward. One calls thisThese traction. As consequence of contraction, Retraktion and these traction it comes to the Dilatation, the passive opening of the cervix (Zervix) as well as the nut/mother mouth.

In the transitional phase (last third of the initial phase) the sore frequency becomes faster and the pain more intensive. The head of the childarrived by the basin of the nut/mother. For this the child must make a 90°-Drehung.

If the nut/mother mouth is approximately completely open (8-10 cm), begins the driving out phase, the third stage of the birth. In it the character changes a blowing again for that. Itblowing comes into 15 min. to a frequency of 6-7. If the childlike head is accordingly deeply in the birth channel, it presses on the mütterlichen intestine. This has the consequence that with the bearing woman reflektorisch a press urge is released. ThoseWoman had to press now usually inevitably the need and supported thus the uterinen forces with those their abdominal muscles. In addition, driving out is alone by means of belly press, possible without uterine forces.

The fruit blister (the child surrounding Eihäute) can before beginning of sore as well as in each birth phase jump. The fruit blister remains rare with the birth of the childlike head. One speaks then of a so-called luck hood. In addition, opening the fruit blister strengthened those blowing, prevents that itself possible head bad positionsrepair automatically. Further the entire blowing jerk affects the Durchtauchreflex releases, which develops with pressure on the childlike back of the head the childlike head, which probably causes pain, above all however to early. Also after the birth one reaches with oneA newborn deep relaxation and dropping the heart frequency, if one presses it strongly on the back of the head. This dropping the heart tones is often measure-interpreted as Unterversorgung of the child. The pressure pain increases also the Sauerstoffbedarf of the child.

The preventive (preventing) dam cutis nowadays very disputed. It stands that and a tear is too frequently cut mostly more easily heals, for fewer muscle layers firmly damaged and with a smaller Blutverlust as well as smaller infection risk accompanies than a cut.

With a birth in upright body attitude those becomesentire Kraft of the child head in the center of the birth opening, put forward by blowing, exercised, which causes an even distribution the birth pressure. Only with a birth in upside-down position and in the very deep squat the dam fabric pulls itself into the birth ways,so that the largest pressure in a place far behind the birth opening is exerted. Thus it comes to dam tears.

With the Kristeller handle is pressed from the outside during the sore one strongly on the bearing nut/mother upper edge. However is also this interference disputed, thereit a certain injury risk of the internal organs of the nut/mother as well as above all the danger of a premature Plazentalösung with itself brings, in particular by frequently wrong application. Further the respiration of the bearing is difficult, which causes that the bearing fewer Kraftto the Mitpressen has, and also the child is under-supplied with oxygen. Also it can come with the “Kristellern” to Uterusrupturen.

Further aids to the faster vaginalen birth completion are vacuum (suction bell) or pliers. One speaks here of vaginal operational birth completion. Also for this is primarily the childlike condition indication. Furthermore press inability of the bearing of different origin (exhaustion, Periduralanästhesie, protracted birth process etc.) is reasons.

After the birth the healthy newborn child is taken normally immediately from the nut/mother to itself and covered warmly. Nowthe first setting on the chest of the nut/mother should take place. Splitting of the navel cord is necessary only in exceptional cases, is however possible after their Auspulsieren without danger.

The last stage of the birth is the Plazentarphase (Nachgeburtsphase). As a function of strengthand duration of the Nachgeburtswehen stresses it on average 10-30 min. With discharging the Plazenta (Nachgeburt) the birth is terminated.

The duration of the birth is very different. One counts on the average 13 hours for Erstgebärende, (lat. primiparae)and 8 hours for women, who already bore a child. The times, which are regarded for a birth as normal, were however halved within the last scarcely 50 years.

Subjectively women often tell of a longer birth duration. This resultsin the fact that they feel the moment in that it first blowing as beginning of birth define. Für den Geburtshelfer bzw. the midwife began the birth however only then if those blowing for the Verkürzung of the cervix and the opening of the nut/mother mouthcontribute (so-called. portiowirksame blowing).

The Chronobiologie observes that the high point of the birth rate lies in the morning around approximately three o'clock.

medical aspects

boy, one month

the medical discipline, which is concerned with the birth, the birth assistance is old,a Unterdisziplin of the woman medicine; a physician, who specializes in births, is a birth aid.

A midwife is trained in special way, in order to carry not-medical birth assistance out.

Occasionally arising complications during the birth know interferences like a Kaiserschnitt orthe use of a Geburtszange or a suction bell (vaginale operation) require.

In the past a large number of women died during or after the birth in the childbed, often due to Wundinfektionen in consequence of hygiene lacking (see child bed fever) and more badlyNutrition.

Also today still die in developing countries approx. one half million women annually at birth complications, the largest group, approx. 25%, at Blutverlust after the birth, as well as infections and by monitoring lacking. The mother number of deaths reaches the 1% in developing countries - threshold, thoseChild number of deaths - around the birth - lies often more highly than 5%.

For the improvement of the birth monitoring recommended has oneself in the countries of the third world, which must do without a majority of the machine equipment with electrical/electronic devices, of the WHO Partogramm proved. It serves for it to recognize, when which medical measures must be introduced, in order damage from nut/mother and child to keep away (z. B. Infusion, oxygen, Katheterisierung, Vacuum, pliers, Kaiserschnitt).

the soziokulturelle birth in the sociology

in thatSociology is spoken with René king and Dieter Claessens of “second, soziokulturellen birth” of humans, also as transition of the “Humanisation” to the” Sozialisation “designated.

During the Humanisation the newborn child is about one year long on those at the same time anthropologisch (also: biosociologically) and socially coined/shaped dyad between baby and “continuous care person” dependent, in order to win the special Urvertrauen “, with which it can learn later socially (the Sozialisation becomes able). In the Zoologie becomes the Humanisation as that“specially uterine spring” designates (haven man;uterus (lat.) = the Gebärmutter).

see also

Wikiquote: Birth - quotations

Geburtenbeschränkung, birth rate, Geburtenregelung, Birth rate, birth announcement, date of birth, birth error, birth house, birth aid, birth assistance, birth right, birth certificate, birth, birthday, birth certificate, birth-sore, Geburtszange,

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Wiktionary: Birth - word origin, synonyms and translations
Wikiquote: Birth - quotations

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