of these articles acts of the currency; for the abbreviation in the stock exchange transaction see buying rate.
German money: 50 realm Pfennig
German money: 1,000 realm Marks
of 10.000.000 Danziger Mark (1923)
Braunschweiger cash note (treasury bond), 10 Marks
German money: 5 Pfennig (GDR)

money - of ahd. gelt (= payment, remuneration) - is an article of exchange, which differs from other articles of exchange by the fact that it does not satisfy the need of a Tauschpartners directly, but due to general acknowledgment to the further exchange can be used (see. Binsenweisheit: “Moneyone cannot eat ").

Table of contents


by passing on serves it settling calculations and debts and mediatethus the economic exchange of goods and services. By its stability of value it serves also the keeping of economic values (value storage means) in addition and is yardstick for comparing the values of goods, services and fortune (wertmassstab).

Moneyis usually present in gegenständlicher form (cash notes and coins) or in documentary form (stored data on bank accounts and value maps). The monetary transaction can thus as transfer (Giralgeld) or as material transaction (e.g. Deposit, Disbursement) take place. Standards like the cashless money transfer or Münzrollen simplify these transactions.

Money is usually nationally and internationally differently organized, in particular in the definition of the Münz and note system, and has an appropriate name. Name and organizational rulestogether currency are called.

For nationally spent money when settling debts acceptance obligation exists on the receiver. An obligation to the passing on of money does not exist however.

Money needs the confidence into its general transferability within a society. The confidencein money it is based on the fact that it can be exchanged other net assets desired by everyone at any time in useful goods or.

Money is administered today mainly by the banking.

Financial resources are only then currency, money, if them without previous transformation into oneother fortune form for paying to be used know. Popularly the designation'' money is generally used'' also for fortunes.

Historically determined desired goods attained such as gold, silver or shells money function, by being used as intermediate articles of exchange. One knows the currency alsowhen mediator regard, who converts the single-step, searchintensive direct exchange from goods and services into a two-stage exchange.

The regulation of the creation of money is thing of national legislation. The circulating currencies become - in accordance with Currency theory - when public property regards.

Money is a study object of the economic science, furthermore also of sociology and philosophy.

characteristics of the money after Keynes

the utilizable value of each economical property actual in accordance with J. M. Keynes - determines by the yield attainable with it, its liquidity premium (transferability and exchangeability) and its holding out costs (expenditure of maintenance, administration and security). Compared with all other economic goods money obtains no economic yield, possesses however the highest liquidity premium and causes the smallest holding out costs. Goods, for which thesespecial circumstance applies and which by comfortable management are characterised, is suitable as general article of exchange of a society. Money is therefore the most in demand economic goods at all. This let doubts about the money and calls arise again and again after reforms (see. and. A.P. J. Proudhon, K. Marx, S. Associate, to J. M. Keynes).

money functions

major items: Money function

in accordance with J. M. Keynes leave themselves mentioned for holding money with non-banks, also to demand for money or cash attitude, threeReasons differentiate. Over these determines itself also, what as money is to be defined. Money are therefore exactly those storage mediums, which fulfill the three money functions sufficiently (see paragraph kinds of the money supply):

  • Money attitude for the completion of intended and expected payments (Transaction cash strictly speaking).
  • Money attitude for safety reasons for the completion of unexpected obligations (caution cash, part of the transaction cash in the broader sense).
  • Money attitude for speculative reasons for the realization of expected security profits on exchange and/or. to the avoidance of expected security course losses (speculation cash).

currency function

Money is a generally recognized exchange and debt retirement means with arbitrary divisibility, so that it comes with the payment to no exchange losses. Thus money has a currency function. Money simplifies the exchange of goods (articles of exchange) and the admission and repayment of debts (Currencies).

As universal article of exchange money must frequented. The frequency, with which a monetary unit is used for economically effective payments, is called peripheral speed of the money. So that money works as article of exchange well, the peripheral speed must be as constant as possible.

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Value storage function

money is scarce and durable and fulfilled so a function as value storage means. - In money the promise of an equivalent for other goods (goods or services) can be stored and be redeemed at other time and at other place.

As value storage means the money rests and has not the function of an article of exchange. The function of the value keeping causes a reduction of the peripheral speed of the money.

value measuring function

money is wertmassstab and arithmetic and logic unit. Money serves as comparison yardstick for the quantityfrom Lohnarbeit, goods and services, which remunerate thereby, pays and/or. to be acquired can. The quantity money, which possesses someone, corresponds to the portion of the national product, which it can acquire, if it spends the money. The value of a monetary unit is designatedas purchasing power of the money.

circulation of the money

as universal article of exchange must money among the restaurant participants of its currency area frequented. The frequency, with which the same money supply is used during a certain period for purchase, is the peripheral speed of theMoney. So that a national economy functions troublefree, the peripheral speed of the money must be as constant as possible. It is substantial for the general price level. An increase of the peripheral speed affects just like an increase of the money supply increasing the price level (inflationary), a decrease of the peripheral speed just like a reduction of the money supply price level-lowering (deflation acre).

The following formulas apply:

  • Money supply times peripheral speed is equal Handelsvolumen (converted goods quantity) times price level. Or:
  • Price level is equal money supply times peripheral speed divided by Handelsvolumen (convertedGoods quantity).

Accumulation is holding back money beyond the measure certain from the preference for holding money (liquidity preference).

history of the money


Chinese Pu-money (Han dynasty)

before the invention of theMoney prevailed bartering, with which directly commodity for commodity were exchanged. With the use of the money as generally recognized and valid article of exchange the trade was simplified, as commodity is exchanged for money and money again for commodity. At the same time was the money in the antiquity, in the Middle Ages and also in the modern times however commodity, since Kurantmünzen are only handy miniature metal ingots with a fixed weight. The use of money is linked with the developing of the trade within a arbeitsteiligen economy.With the division of labor also the range of the money use grows. A self-sufficiency economy does not need money.

With the emergence of money essentially two paths were taken: .

On the one hand money developed, by generally estimated, in more limited, however sufficient quantity available and imperishablenatural articles as general exchange and currencies in use came (Warengeld). This were either nature articles (Naturalgeld), Schmuckstücke (decoration money) or general customs and utilizable articles like also utilizable animals. This first kind of money was originally usualwith nature peoples, who knew still no personal property (for example Kaurimuscheln in the south of Asia and Africa to in 19. Century) or automatically used as emergency money (for example cigarettes temporarily in Germany after the Second World War).

On the other hand cameMoney as vouchers for assets on pawnable private or public property in circulation. A condition for it was the presence of property at certain goods, against whose Verpfändung the money is published of its owners as credit. As pawned property came toExample Landbesitz or deposited coined money in question. The publication of the pawned property was entitled to the owners of money vouchers on demands. In this way money comes off by indebtedness and is legally seen a certificate of indebtedness and a debt retirement means. This procedure becameuntil today with business and central banks maintain, as money is spent by lending of pawnable securities of trustworthy applicants for the credit at interest.

Third, temporarily used form of the money emergence the intentional creation of emergency money is. For example have in Germany around 1923certain cities emergency money as replacement for official money given change.

During money initially over centuries to valuable physical articles of exchange such as z. B. Coins from gold bound was, today usually consist the money documents of nearly worthless material (notes outPaper). Accordingly in Europe gold and silver were deposited as value guarantors for the spent money with the issuing banks (see in addition gold redeeming warranty). Since the early seventies the gold redeeming warranty for cash in ever was waived more states and the internationalSystem the gold reserve more and more diminished. The most serious cut represented here the termination of the gold redeeming warranty Nixons for the dollar in the year 1973.

Criticism at the acceptance of the emergence of the money from the bartering comes from representatives of the debitism- Theory, in particular by Paul C. Martin. As argument, the introduction of a third article of exchange is stated became the exchange first still complicates. From only one transaction two became. Crucially rather the function of the money is, the time between thatTo bridge need of commodity A and the production of commodity B. From it it results that money was no commodity and no article of exchange from the beginning, but indications of an obligation.

nature aluminum or Warengeld

nature aluminum or Warengeld was to be found in former times far common and in all cultures and epochs. Were valuable, useful or beautiful things. For example stone money in Mikronesien, ring and decoration money in new Guinea and in the south Pacific, shell money in Africa and China,Dress money (z. B. Furs) in North America and coins in all regions. To it cattle, camels, goats, skins , Dolche, spade, decoration rings, special stones, continue to count salt and much more besides. To the Warengeld also shells, in particular to Kaurimuscheln , belonged those in the center20. Century still in Africa, south Asia and on the South Seas islands still far used were common. In Tibet still up to the invasion of the Chinese in the year 1950 often with barley or wheat one paid.

With the discovery that somethese things, but used no more than utilizable goods were passed on again and again, small and substantially less valuable reproductions of these articles than currencies were used. Thus it came for example to measurer money, spade money and the like.

The first counterfeit money were from bone, rockor Jade copied shells, as these about 2,000 v. Chr. the first Chinese currency were.

These are forms of prämonetären exchange. Aspects of the payability, the shelf-life and the easy transportability played already early a role with the choice of the material,also regarding the possibility of keeping values. To this need z corresponded. B. Ingots and wires from bronze or silver, which were to be kept very werthaltig and easily.

The following kinds of money coin, note, Buchgeld and value map are like generations of the moneyapart come out.

coined money

Der "Brüningtaler" - 4 Reichspfennig 1932
of the “Brüningtaler” - 4 realm Pfennig of 1932

major items: Coin

the first coins 7 became in. pre-Christian century struck by the Lydern.

Coins facilitated the trade substantially. They had the advantage, always same size of, same weightto possess and instead of weighed to be counted be able and same appearance.

paper money

major item: Note

paper money developed as a deputy for coined money. It was originally not as addition of coins meant, but as their replacement with lack onCoins. Paper money were securities with the request of their publisher to disburse the owner on demands the equivalent in coins.

The first European paper money was spent 1483 in Spain as replacement on missing coined money. In addition paper note with declared value and seal served, their acceptance as currencies for everyone was compellingly prescribed.

The confidence in paper money was based originally on the fact that it can be exchanged by everyone at any time in coined money. This confidence was by sufficient existence of coined money in the vaults of the publisherjustified. By the ordered acceptance obligation paper money beside the coined money became the currency.

Later banks took coined money against receipt in Verwahrung, in order to facilitate for the owners transport and guard of the money. The receipts were used as currencies. They gave theirOwners, of a bank obligated to it coined money would give at any time the right to the appropriate quantity to require. The receipts were called notes, the appropriate banks issuing banks. From this the requirement of the issuing banks developed, the notes spent by them throughExistence first of coins to secure later at precious metals (gold, silver) to cover (covering obligation). With the time the quantity of paper money exceeded the quantity of coins and precious metals clearly. Today notes in many countries no more do not have by gold reservesthe issuing banks covered its (abolition of the gold reserve obligation).

For instance since end 19. Century reached the states over to extract the right to the expenditure of notes from the different issuing banks of their country and to a central issuing bank, the central bank of the country,transferred. This supplies for its part clearing banks via credits with notes.

With the establishment of central banks often also a centralization of the monetary system and the creation of a uniform currency were connected. Up to then the individual issuing banks had often spent their own currencies.In addition two examples: 1907 were established the Swiss central bank and Franconias as new currency imported in place of several kantonalen issuing banks with own regional currencies. And 1998 became the establishment of the European central bank and the creation of the Euros as newEuropean currency carried out in place of the central banks of the individual countries and the national currencies.

Since paper money without large costs can be manufactured and it neither by existing fortune nor by sufficient acquisitionable goods is covered often, it can problem-free in the oversize spentbecome. This always leads to price increase and purchasing power loss of the money (inflation). From the connection of paper money with war and inflation was to in 20. Century regarded inside the paper money as worthless money felt and with distrust.


major items: Buchgeld

the next development step was the emergence of Buchgeld (also Giralgeld called) on personal accounts with banks. The account existence are view assets so mentioned - they must on view, D. h. at any time and immediately on demandsthe owner of an account by the banks in cash to be paid off. In the first decades of its use these existence were led in writing in account books - therefore the name “Buchgeld”. Today this happens electronically as electronic money (E-money) in computers. Buchgeldand electronic money are basis of the cashless money transfer.

View assets on bank accounts result both from deposits of cash in the form of coins and notes with the account-prominent bank as well as by transfers by transfer of other accounts or by givingCredits of the bank. From the view assets the owners of an account can resemble payments by transfers on accounts of customers or other banks make to leave or whereupon cheques issue or to cash be disbursed let themselves.

By the possibility of the transfer from account toAccount view assets became additional the cash currency. They are thereby money and rank therefore also statistically among the solvent money supply, designation as M1, which cash and view assets cover. Buchgeld is not however - contrary to cash - legalCurrency and is not subject to a general acceptance obligation, because its acceptance possibility is limited by view asset accounts to the owners. These explain themselves however as the acceptance of Buchgeld by the opening of an appropriate account ready.

value maps

the last step inthe money development are the value maps with electronic value storage. On them money with special devices are storable and of it deductable.

Thus the step from the paper-bound carried out itself to the paperless electronic bank and exchange. (Credit cards are not value maps, because them noneMoney to have stored and only as documents of identification for the access to accounts.) [to work on

] problems with

coins in

18 can serve. The currencies of Europe were defined century inside over their precious metal content in their value. The national Münzstättensupervised beside own production the foreign coinages. Overestimations of a currency arose, if coins were charged against each other internationally over or under their metal value. Immense problems in practical handling coins prepared the deliberate sanded off, with that for the coin metalone abgefeilt. Here more careful coinages stop had to order, coinages, with which one saw at the integrity of the edges, if metal were removed.

The fluctuation of the precious metal values prepared still larger problems among themselves. Covered currencies gold -, silver - and copper coins,thus against each other their value could not be kept stable. Silver flowed off from Spain and England, since Spanish and English dealers gold coins attached slightly larger value than their international trade partners - a problem, which expanded in the international trade: InOne did not see a reason for the high appreciation of the gold in Europe to Asia. Thus silver flowed off against gold to Asia.

The solution of the problem became in early 18. Century in England the currency in principle gold-based, with that the bankOF England insured to disburse the respective market value of gold at any time the owner of a respective English coin (see gold redeeming warranty). The problems of this conversion were foreseeable: How it ensured was that the bank did not spend any more coins, than it covered by gold possession? Hereit came into the 1730ern years to a confidence crisis, in which the bank OF England was saved only by the readiness of the Londoner of wholesale, which took over the warranty. To the other side now each incentive was allotted to the Münzmanipulation and everyoneValue shift between nationalinternal species of money, like one them between gold-based Guinea and were based crowns in the course 17. Century with an uncontrolled discharge of silver money had experienced.

Still far in 19. Century inside were some currencies - like e.g. the US Dollar- gold-covered. Even some banks like the bank for international clearing payment in Basel assemble over shares, which are defined in gold Franconias. It did not become natural thus also today to give the gold reserve up.

The Gresham law describes, which kinds of moneyCompetition among themselves to be preferred. Afterwards the money with the smaller materials value drives that out with the higher of the market. (Example: One keeps the gold coins, if one can pay with copper coins.)

kinds of the money supply

major item: Money supply

as previously mentioned,the term “money” is not bound to a certain carrier. Rather each carrier is defined as money, which fulfills the three money functions. Since different carriers fulfill the functions in different degree, hardly is a clear demarcation of money and non--moneypossible. For this reason the central banks define the term money in repeated way. For this different money supplies are differentiated, depending upon fulfilment of the money functions:

The money supply M0 is the money created by the central bank and consists of the credit balances on current account of the bankswith the central bank and the cash in circulation present (coins and notes). It is subject to the direct influence of the central bank.

Money supply M1 covers the funds, which can be used at any time as currencies, thus cash and deposits at call.

Money supply M2 covers -according to a possible definition - additional to M1 the savings deposits changeable within an upper limit.

Money supply M3 covers additionally to M2 time deposits.

today's creation of money

process of the creation of money

major item: Creation of money

the expenditure from moneythe population of a currency area is called creation of money. On a theoretical level one can differentiate two different kinds from money. On the one hand the central bank money, which is created or destroyed by the central bank; for this also the cash counts. On the other hand the clearing bank money, which results or disappears from the private banks, whereby it concerns exactly taken only money demands, which are expressed in cash, however for their part exactly like this as currency be used can.

Money can by the interaction of central bank, Clearing banks, enterprises, private households and public hand to be created. The most frequent way of the creation of money is based on the grant of credits. Cash (coins, notes) can be created only by the central bank, Buchgeld on view asset accounts (Giralgeld)both of the central bank as well as of the clearing banks.

To clearing banks can scoop money on view asset accounts, by it their customers against the Verpfändung of collateral (Hypotheken on properties, securities) credits to grant. After grant of the credit that can Applicants for the credit of an account with its bank out (current account in Germany, current account in Switzerland) assets up to the height of the granted credit have and of it payments by transfers on accounts of other customers of the same or other banksmake let or whereupon cheques issue or to cash to be disbursed to be able. Money is created by this procedure. On the side money is brought to the bank in the form of view assets in circulation, on the other side develops a demand approximatelythe applicant for the credit on repayment of the credit (proof of indebtness) as asset - position in the balance of the bank. Turned around money is destroyed in the form of view assets, if a credit is paid back to the bank and the proof of indebtness is dissolved.

Minimum reserve afterCountries
State of mindest
sentence (%)
Australia no
Canada no
Sweden no
united Kingdom of no
Mexico of no
euro zone 2.00
Switzerland 2.50
Chile 4.50
China 7.00
Bulgaria 8.00
Hungary 8.75
Ghana the 9.00
USA 10.00
Zambia 17.50
Croatia 19.00
Tadschikistan 20.00
Suriname 35,00
Jordanian ones 80.00

the granting of credit of a clearing bank must be by own capital funds of the bank and inserts of its customers sufficient secured , covered. If own capital funds of the bank and the inserts of the customers are not sufficient, in order to accomplish the granting of credit to the desired extent,it has the possibility of borrowing itself central bank money with the central bank; one speaks here of refinancing.

The once deposited cash is practically never more in its entirety withdrawn by the banking customers, because paying by transfer is more favourable. Therefore those must Banks over the full existence of cash do not order, in order to be able to implement the current removals of cash. This is on the other hand the reason, why in crisis situations banks must close their switches, if their customers from fear of losses their assetsto dissolve and all cash take off want.

Since the again created money can serve the clearing banks again as basis for further creation of money, there is theoretically no upper border for the quantity of the money created by the banks. Around the creation of money thatClearing banks within limits to hold, there is the obligation apart from balance regulations for the banks (no insolvency, minimum own capital funds covering of the bank) depending upon country to hold with the central bank a minimum reserve by central bank assets a certain percentage with them of the lyingView assets of their customers constitute (z. B. 1.5%), the “fraktionale reserve system”.

A further border is system-dependently given, since in the long run banks do not scoop the money, but the society. If the banks do not find additional applicants for the credit, then they can scoop also no money (inSenses of increase of the total money supply).

The cash requested by the bank public with the clearing banks is delivered by the central bank in the form of coins and cash notes, which clearing banks with the central bank debited to its assets at central bank money can refer.

Everyone overInevitably paying interest draws credits spent money . Money is bound therefore always at interest, and paying interest to the publishing banks is a condition for the presence of money.

Economicalally seen money is only created,if the total raising of credit of the society (state, economics and households together) is larger than the total credit repayment, if thus a positive net total raising of credit took place.

money market

major item: Money market

for those on loan conveyance of money exists exactly the same as for goods andServices a market with supply and demand. The private households and enterprises inquire money as applicants for the credit and offer it at the same time as savers. The bank system serves as a mediator between the two groups and makes the market thereby more efficiently, theresavers and applicants for the credit to be not individual must. The banks with the difference between asset and credit interests can this service be remunerated. The interest rate, which develops at this market, is certain of supply and demand. It places thatPrice of the borrow-wise conveyance of the money. If many market participants want to borrow money with a small money offer, then the interest rate rises. Thus the incentive rises for offering money for others. Turned around the interest rate sinks with small demand and large offer.

The central bankinfluence takes on the money market, by itthe money offer in the context of a free-market policy in such a way specified affects either actively or over the interest rate for central bank money on supply and demand influences indirect.

  • With the free-market policy the central bank of the clearing banks buys And this pays securities with central bank money. In this way money is put to the clearing banks at the disposal, which it enables for giving credits. Turned around it can securities also sell and from the clearing banks money extract.
  • The interest rate for central bank money and/or. forInserts clearing banks with the central bank the money market indirectly, because it creates for clearing banks the incentives, credits to grant and by it the money supply affects increase or higher inserts with the central bank too maintained, in order to reduce the money supply.

monetary policy

major items: Monetary policy

central banks pursue generally a concrete and firm goal during the money supply control. This goal is frequently the price stability, D. h. the fight of the inflation. In order to limit the inflation rate to an economicalally meaningful measure,tries the central bank the money supply in the equal step with for overall economic development to hold. The quantity theory manufactures a direct connection between growth of money supply and price level.

In times of small inflation rates the central bank can also try to pursue secondary goals howfor example the increase of overall economic growth.


major item: Inflation

if the money supply excessively grows or with constant money supply the peripheral speed of the money increases, comes it to an imbalance between the disposable money and the goods, thosewith the money to be paid could. This imbalance leads to a rise of the general price level, which one calls then inflation. Since the economic value of the money results from the goods, which can be acquired thereby, those can Expenditure of additional money the total value of the money rotating in a national economy do not increase, but leads to inflation.

An increase of the money supply knows z. B. by (interest) the policy of the central bank (see. Hyperinflation after the First World War in Germany) or a suddenDevelop for increase of the national indebtedness under increase of the money supply by central bank credits to the state. Also suddenly changed expectations of the consumers, that lead to removing savings balances, are conceivable.


major item: Deflation

if the money supply sinks orsame money supply the peripheral speed of the money , it decreases/goes back to can come one period of lastingly falling prices, which is called deflation. A decrease of the money supply can be released also here by measures of the central bank (interest policy). The peripheral speed can sink, if the private households and enterprises become more reserved concerning consumption and investments and money rather to save than spending.

legal to the money

coins and lights change the statement often belonged, those into the property of the owner,European central bank is the owner, the owner only entitled owner, is wrong. The acceptance linked with it, the destruction of money is illegal or punishable, is just as incorrect therefore. In Germany § 903 of the civil law book applies, according to which thatOwner with its things in principle as desired muddled may. However the Federal Bank does not carry replacement out for perfectly destroyed cash notes.

there are popular designations

of the money due to the meaning of the money and the far spreading numerous designationsand idioms for money. Some of it are:

  • Coal (coal became after that 2. World war as currencies uses)
  • Mammon (of aramäischen or Arab aman = that, on which one trusts)
  • Moneten (of Moneta; see. English. money)
  • Penunzen (over Polish pieniądze of lat. Pecunia)
  • Zaster (originates from Rotwel and leads themselves from the word “more saster” for iron off.)
  • support (Swiss for Franconias)
  • Obolus (Obol (Obolos) old-Greek Münznominal. Literally Obolos Bratspiess means, originally a metallic article of exchange)
  • paper money: Giant/Tausi/Taui (thousands),Bluer/Hunni (hundred [bluer only at DM times]), Fuffi (fifties), Zwanni (twenties), lights, rag
  • coined money: Heiermann (piece of five-Mark), groschen (10 Pf. or, however rarely, 10 euro cent), Zwickel (piece of two-Mark, two-euro piece), five-dear (piece of five-Franconia in Switzerland)
  • further one: Ash, Bimbes, cash (from the English: “cash” =Money), wire, eggs, fat, flakes, wood, gravel (the jiddische goes word gravel (= purse) back) on, clubs, Kikerlinge, blocks, Knaster, kneads, club, coal (n), coke, Krazacken, toads, mice, mosquitoes, Moos, Ocken, Öcken, beep, Pimperlinge, Pinke, Pinkepinke, pin ounce, powder, Schabangas, loops, snow,Crushed stone, Sickel, stones, valleys, Diridari, Zaster
  • small amount: Peanuts
  • for counterfeit money: Bloom, „wrong Fuffziger “(usually for dishonest persons)

money in other sciences

money in the sociology

even most primitive national economiesMoney. But comes again and again - particularly in more recent time an uneasiness over the money and an associated feeling of unfairness to light. There were therefore many drafts of utopian societies, which tried to get along without money. They all were howeverconnected with a work obligation, which limited the liberty of the particular. Such drafts come for instance from Robert Owen, Francois Babeuf or Pierre Joseph Proudhon.

Actually and give there were national economies, which get along without money. Such restaurant economics are as Naturalwirtschaft or Subsistenzwirtschaft admits. In these either a distribution economy ( in master cultures the harvest is brought in jointly and distributed according to certain rules to the master members) prevails, or it prevails large self-sufficiency, with which hardly trade and then only bartering floatedbecomes.

Sociologically to the fact it is referred that the establishment of “money” encountered historically large difficulties, and that thereby the antique temples facilitated its introduction as the first Depotbanken, because those first a vague symbolic (sakrale ) warranty to the gemünzten money gave (see. the temple of the Iuno Moneta in old Rome).

The triumphant advance of capitalism made the money in the modern times a suspicious symbol.

Without getting along money, tried communist Soviet Russia become after the First World War.

moneyin philosophy

some classical authors (so George Simmel and Alfred son Rethel) submitted important contributions. The knowledge-sociological analysis son Rethels is noteworthy that the abstract value form, those the money since its introduction as coined money in the Lydien 7. pre-Christian centuryembodied, also denkerischen abstractions within other ranges (so in early ionischen nature philosophy) initiated. To a large extent unconsidered, but indication and worth-theoretically effective and importantly that is early (1897) from Ferdinand sound-sneezes prepared beginning of a detachment of the terms from onenatural kind of thinking to one the science appropriate terminology. With an analogy of term and money tried sound-sneeze the meaning of the indications - and then the category of the values - and the understanding of money as indication to manufacture. One at firston a situation experience which is based terminology strives to one independently of other conceptions and thought entkontexualisiertem construction principle of a pure science, i.e. that actual science itself their „terms exclusively for their own purposes, as bare thought things, indifferently against their occurrence inany experience, with the knowledge of the impossibility of such an occurrence “forms (sound-sneeze 1906: 30 f.). Over the natural emergence of general terms and/or. Term name, which sound-sneeze „general conceptions “calls (ebd.: 31), the indication meaning relation away developed up to the invention, D. h.Construction and Fiktionalisierung, the article which can be designated, which becomes meant as „thing or procedure “(ebd.: 32). The identity of article and idea, implied thereby, makes an appropriate, tendentious almost unlimited Merkmalaustattung for the general conception possible during the abstraction process contrary to characteristic depletion of thedesigned term (see. ebd.: 33), thereby its own idea which idea of a general one, which is singular (individually) at the same time, corresponds. Like the terms also meaning comes to the money. Like terms to the natural speech to attribute are to that extent empirical andare given, then also „the abstract “money has empirically only meaning by its reference to the natural, thus the gemünzte money. Sound-sneeze differentiates between „the original money “, which becomes established by the use as salable property generally valid article of exchange, but onlyby the public faith as coin coined/shaped by the community with warranty stamp certain weight and thereby certain meaning receive. By the obligation of the community money as credit of the state government to recognize, conventional paper money - for the time being as only commercial credit - becomes thatMoney angeähnelt, in accordance with artificial social will meaning assigned as legal tender. The meaning of the money as something that is not, but only means and applies, becomes in the note the indication of material value, by the birth of the coins however stillalong-thought as article. Thus sound-sneezes the social function of the respective indications, here for example the money, in relationship with the respective requirements of social organizations regarding the generation and stabilization of normative regulations of the social life, those increasingly more abstractly and more purpose-rationally placesbecome.

also the money a role

plays money in mythology and psychology in myths and fairy tales. The antique legend that the smallasiatic king Midas wished itself of the Gods, everything that it affects, is to goldit becomes and which threatened therefore too verhungern and to verdursten, an echo of the fact is probable that coined money was coined/shaped historically first in Lydien.

In dreams and fairy tales money knows the meaning of wealth and power as also of, In addition, those of the morally dirty one have life energy.

see also


Web on the left of

Wiktionary: Money - word origin, synonyms and translations
Wikiquote: Money - quotations



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