the Gelug - school (Tibetan: དགེ ་ ལུགས ་ པ ་) is the recent school of the four hauptschule (Nyingma, Sakya, Kagyü and Gelug) of the Tibetan Buddhismus (Vajrayana). The trailers of this school are called also “yellow caps”. It was in its beginnings rather the pure Mahayana intimate. The nominal head of the Gelug school is the Ganden Tripa (Dga' ldan Khri Pa). Further important religious authorities are the Dalai Lama and the Panchen Lama.
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emergence and teachings
the Gelugpa school also as the “school that virtue clinging” one designates and comes out from the training statement of the large Reformators Tsongkhapa (1357-1419). It represented the ideals of the Kadampa - school and deleted the meaning of the Vinayaregeln . Therefore the Gelug attaches great importance to monk discipline and Zölibat. The core of the transmissions of the Gelug is appropriate for teachings Atishas, which kept Tsongkhapa (1357-1419) conveyed in the theories of the Kadampa - school, in particular in the Mahayana - from teachers of the Sakya, Kagyü and Nyingma school. The earlier Kadampa school did not remain than independent school. Tsongkhapa summarized the Mahayana teachings of the philosophers Nagarjuna, Asanga and Dingnaga in its work “Lam rin chen mo” (large statement of the stage way). The “Lamrim - stage way to illuminating " is up to the today's day the basis of the illuminating way taught by the Gelugpa.
also the theories of the Kalachakra - Tantra are in the Gelug school of great importance. It is beside practice on Yamantaka, Chakrasamvara and Guhyasamaya one of the tantrischen main transmissions of the Gelug. The Dalai Lama gives inaugurations as Gelug Linienhalter in the west in regular intervals to the Kalachakra Tantra. Practice connected with this inauguration is called also “Kalachakra for the world peace ”. Different tantrische theories from the other hauptschule were taken over in addition, by the centuries, among other things for example the “six Yogas of Naropa”. To these teachings Tsongkhapa had already written a fundamental comment, which becomes estimated in all schools of the Tibetan Buddhismus due to the comprehensive paper of the topic. Also different other Mahamudra teachings from the Kagyü and Sakya school, as well as the different tantrischen theories of the Nyingma are passed on by the Gelug school. Dzogchen the theories over the “large perfection” became above all at present 5. Dalai Lama Ngawang praise-sang Gyatso transferred to the Gelug.
Ganden created important monasteries monastery university Drepung with Lhasa that his head office became. Close pupils of Tsongkhapa created 1416 the monastery Drepung at Lhasa and 1419 serums the monastery, the lower Tantra college (Gyumed) 1440, the upper Tantra college (Gyutö) 1474 and in the year 1447 the Tashi Lhünpo monastery in Shigatse, which became late head office of the Panchen Lama. Tsongkhapa had never political ambitions, it fled, when he should be invited of an envoy Chinese emperors to China. Despite its clear refusal at politics and power the three monasteries Ganden, Drepung and serums became later after assumption of political power in Tibet by the Gelug, the “three columns of the state”. Whether the later combination of “state and church” was always exercised within the Gelug medal to well-being of the Tibetan people (and the other schools) is differently evaluated, by the trailers of the different schools. Power-politics distortions play however, in the comparison with the excesses historically well-known from Europe, a probably subordinated role.
an important teacher
the head of the Gelug school is the Ganden Tripa, which is selected in a democratic procedure by the monasteries and as “throne owner of Ganden” the follow-up of Tsongkhapa symbolized. Present 101. Ganden Tripa, is the venerable Khensur Lungri Namgyel Rinpoche, which was born 1927 in Kham (Osttibet). In Germany Lhoden Sherab Dagyab Rinpoche, high-ranking Gelugpa Lamas, lives which already works since 1966 on the University of Bonn and gives since 1984 buddhistische instructions as buddhistische centers cared for.
The Dalai Lama and the Panchen Lama is the most important Lamas of the Gelug school. The 14. Dalai Lama Tenzin Gyatso is among other things by the award of the Nobel peace prize 1989 world-wide admits become.
of the titles of the Dalai Lama decreases/goes back to the year 1578 . The Dalai Lama is the most important Lamas of the Gelug school. The 14. Dalai Lama Tenzin Gyatso is by the award of the Nobel peace prize 1989 world-wide admits become.
in 19. Century developed among the masters Jamyang Khyentse Wangpo, Jamgon Kongtrul and Orgyen Terdak Lingpa the “Rime movement in such a way specified “, which collected group-spreading theories from all areas Tibets and of masters of all traditions to also prevent in order competition (Sektierertum) under the Tibetan schools. This movement followed also different Gelug Lamas. The present Dalai Lama, even owner of many transmissions of the other schools, stresses again and again the importance of a nichtsektiererischen attitude in relation to all schools.
beside the tibetomongolischen culture area Gelug communities are to be found also in America and Europe. An emphasis of the spreading of this tradition in Europe lies in Switzerland, where many Tibetan refugees settled, in addition, in Germany and Austria there are Gelug communities.
- L.S. Dagyab Rinpoche, eight-SAMness and sinking, Diederichs, Munich 2001, ISBN 3-7205-2264-4
- B. Alan Wallace, from Tibet to New York, diamond publishing house, Arnstorf 1995, ISBN 3-924045-12-7
- Jonathan Landaw and Andy weber, pictures of awaking, diamond publishing house, Munich 1997, ISBN 3-9805798-1-6
- Alexander Berzin, Kalachakra The wheel of the time, O.W.Barth publishing house, Berne Munich vienna 2002, ISBN 3-502-61068-1
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