a Genduplikation is the durable duplication (to multiplication) of individual genes or groups of genes (with following separate development). This kind of the Genmutation results for example from unequal “Crossing more over “either between homologous Chromosomen or between Schwesterchromatiden. One differentiates between partial and complete Genduplikation.
The Genduplikation is considered as a substantial mechanism of the evolution. From mutations of the gene copy functionally new genes can result and/or. the spectrum of the original gene activity to be extended. For example humans became only by the Genduplikation of the L of tap tri chromates, which enables him for the perception of colors. Another example is the family of the Hämoglobine, with different affinities for oxygen. In addition, from gene dupe ions pseudo genes can develop.