General field marshal

the field marshal, also general field marshal (ahdt of. “marahscalc”, marshal, stable master or horse farmhand) were in 16. Century of the leaders of the Reiterei. In the dreissigjährigen war the field marshal was a higher general rank. Since the end 17. Century became the designation as the highest military rank inmany European armies uses.

Marschallstab von Generalfeldmarschall v. Richthofen (III. Reich) - Replik
Marshal staff of general field marshal v. Arranging yards (III. Richly) - replication

table of contents

field marshal

in the Roman languages corresponds to the field marshal the marshal. The French Maréchal de Camp as well as the Spanish Mariscal del campo meant literally field marshal, was however contrary to the marshal of Franceno marshal rank, but a general rank, which corresponded to the major general, compares also the Austrian-Hungarian Feldmarschalleutnant (lieutenant general) and/or. the British air Marshal (air marshal). A French Maréchal of the Logis is today again only one NCO.

history

the rank of the field marshal did not meanonly a military rank, it protokollarisch for the Minister on an equal footing and received thereby also a political dimension applied. The marshal staff, with the national emblems national gentlemen decorated, and only of this or sent, made him the partner at the power national gentlemen lent.

The “general field marshal” was in the Prussian army a rank, which could be lent to active officers only in the war. General field marshal could become, who had conquered for example a fortress or had won an important battle. Erwin Rommel became after the storm on Tobruk and Erich von Manstein after thatConquest appointed from Sewastopol to the general field marshal. In times of peace he was assigned in addition, honour for the sake of at princes of friendly states or as a “character” (honour rank is called) to earned generals for transfer into the retirement.

In the Prussian army and in the armed forces a general field marshal Anspruch had updetermined privileges. Thus for example a constant escort was entitled to it to the protection and as honour company, besides a field marshal did not separate from that active service and became up to his death as an active soldier led and honoured (this last regulation applied similarly in US armed forcesalso for their five-star generals (general OF the Army)). In addition in Prussia all field marshals were born members of the Prussian Council of State.

With prince Friedrich Karl and Kronprinz Friedrich William was appointed 1870 for the first time in history Prussian princes field marshals. Still in the year 1854 had to be invented the rank of the general-upper, in order to be able to carry prince Wilhelm, without offending against this rule.

In the German armies the rank was “general field marshal” as the highest military rank until 1945 used. Its correspondence at the navy was the large admiral.Today the rank in the German Federal Armed Forces is not no more used, highest rank is a general and/or. Admiral.

The national People's Army knew following the Red Army of the Soviet Union the rank marshal of the GDR, to which however never one lent.

General field marshals

- sorts according to the order of its appointment, if known -

course axles and Kingdom of Saxonia

  1. 21. June 1631 Hans's George von Arnim Boitzenburg (1583-1641)
  2. 24. November 1632 Franz Albrecht duke of Saxonia Lauenburg (1598-1642)
  3. 19. October 1638 Rudolf of Marzin (also Marazin)
  4. 1. January 1666 Ernst Albrecht baron von Eberstein (1605-1676)
  5. 28. August 1681 Joachim Ruediger baron of the Goltz (1620-1688)
  6. 8. September 1688 Heino Heinrich count von Flemming (1632-1706)
  7. 9. April 1691 Hans's Adam von Schöning (1641-1696)
  8. 10. May 1693 Jeremias of Chauvet († 1696)
  9. 30. September 1697 Heinrich VI. Prince Reuss Plauen
  10. 27. August 1699 Adam Heinrich count von Steinau († 1712)
  11. 3. December 1706 George Benedikt baron von Ogilvy (1651-1710)
  12. 22. February the 1712 Jakobs Heinrich count von Flemming (1667-1728)
  13. 17. April 1730 Christoph August count von Wackerbarth (1662-1734)
  14. 26. November 1735 JohannAdolf II. Duke of Saxonia white rock (1685-1746)
  15. 11. January 1749 Friedrich August count Rutowski (1702-1764)
  16. 27. July 1763 Johann George Chevalier de Saxe (of Saxonia) (1704-1774)
  17. 6. January 1775 Friedrich Heinrich Eugen of notion Dessau (1705-1781)
  18. 11. July 1871 Albert Kronprinz (late king) of Saxonia (1828-1902)
  19. 15. June 1888 George Crown Prince (late king) of Saxonia (1832-1904)

cure Brandenburg and Prussia

German Reich (

Empire of) got a marshal staff

Edwin baron von Manteuffel
  1. 28. October 1870 - Prince Friedrich Karl of Prussia (1828 - 1885), nephew emperor Wilhelms I., army leader in the German agreement wars, inspectorthe Prussian Kavallerie, also Russian general field marshal
  2. 28. October 1870 - Friedrich William of Prussia (1831 - 1888), army leader in the French-German war, German emperor and king of Prussia 1888
  3. 8. April 1871 - Eberhard Herwarth of request field (1796 - 1884)
  4. 8. April 1871 - Karl Friedrich of stone-cutter (1796 - 1877)
  5. 16. June 1871 - Helmuth count von Moltke (1800 - 1891), “the large Schweiger”, boss of the general staff of the army
  6. 11. July 1871 - Albert Friedrich August Anton of Saxonia (1828 -1902), Crown Prince, since 1873 king of Saxonia, royal more Prussian and imperial Russian general field marshal, first not-Prussian general field marshal of the German Reich
  7. 1. January 1873 - Albrecht count von Roon (1803 - 1879), Prussian war and at the same time naval Minister, boss of of the Prussian Department of State (Prime Minister)
  8. 1873 - Edwin baron von Manteuffel (1809 - 1885), boss of the military cabinet, imperial governor in Elsass Lorraine
  9. 15. March 1888 - Leonhard count von Blumenthal (1810 - 1900), boss of the Prussian general staff and army leader
  10. 15. March 1888 - Crown Prince George (king George) of Saxonia(1832 - 1904)
  11. 19. June 1888 - Prince Albrecht of Prussia (1837 - 1906)
  12. 19. June 1888 - Ore duke Albrecht of Austria (1817 - 1895)
  13. 27. February 1895 - Emperor Franz Joseph of Austria (1830 - 1916)
  14. 6. May 1900 - Alfred count von Waldersee (1832 - 1904), boss of the general staff of the army
  15. 1. January 1905 - God-dear count von Haeseler (1836 - 1919), “the rough God-dear”, one of the most popular army leaders of its time
  16. 1. January 1905 - Williamof Hahnke (1833 - 1912)
  17. 1. January 1905 - Walter baron von Loë (1828 - 1908), general aide of three emperors and troop commander, the only catholic general field marshal of the Kaiser era
  18. 9. September 1906 - Prince Arthur, Herzog von Connaught and Strathearn (1850- 1942), third son of the queen Viktoria, British field marshal since 1902, general inspector of the British troops
  19. 20. April 1909 - King Carol I. of Romania (1839 - 1914)
  20. 1. January 1911 - Max one of support and polling oh (1842 - 1915)
  21. 1. January 1911 - Alfred count von Schlieffen (1833 - 1913), boss of the general staff of the army, inventor of the “Schlieffenplans”
  22. 1. January 1911 - Colmar baron of the Goltz (1843 - 1916), “Goltz pasha”, military adviser and army leader in the Osmani realm, governor general ofBelgium
  23. 16. May 1911 - King George V. of Great Britain and Ireland (1865 - 1936)
  24. 11. September 1912 - King Friedrich August III. of Saxonia (1865 - 1932)
  25. 8. August 1913 - King Konstantin I. of Greece (1868 - 1923)
  26. 2. November 1914 - Paul von Hindenburg (1847 - 1934), boss of the general staff of the army, realm president
  27. 27. January 1915 - Karl von Bülow (1846 - 1921)
  28. 22. June 1915 - Ore duke Friedrich of Austria
  29. 22. June 1915 - August ofMackensen (1849 - 1945), popular German army leader
  30. 26. June 1915 - Prince Ludwig (king Ludwig III.) by Bavaria (1845 - 1921)
  31. 23. July 1916 - William II., King of Württemberg (1848 - 1921)
  32. 1. August 1916 - Crown Prince Rupprecht of Bavaria (1869 - 1955), royally more Bavarian and royally Prussian general field marshal, the last-living German field marshal of the First World War
  33. 1. August 1916 - Prince Leopold von Bayern (1846 - 1930), commander in chief east in the First World War
  34. 1. August 1916 - Albrecht, duke of Württemberg (1865 - 1939), army leaders in the First World War
  35. 18. January 1916 - Zar Ferdinand I. of Bulgaria
  36. 1. February 1916 - Mehmed V. (1844 - 1918), Sultan of the Osmanen
  37. 1916 - Franz count Conrad von Hötzendorf (1852- 1925), Austrian-Hungarian field marshal (1916), Austrian general staff boss
  38. 12. February 1917 - Emperor Karl I. of Austria (1887 - 1922)
  39. 18. December 1917 - Hermann of squirrel (1848 - 1918, assassination attempt)
  40. 31. December 1917 - Remus of Woyrsch (1847 -1920)

Austria Hungary (1. World war)

  1. 8. December 1914 - Ore duke Friedrich of Austria (1856-1936)
  2. 23. November 1916 - Ore duke Eugen of Austria (1863-1954)
  3. 25. November 1916 - Franz count Conrad von Hötzendorf (1852-1925)
  4. 5. November 1917 - Hermann baron Kövess von Kövesshaza (1854-1924)
  5. 5. November 1917 - Alexander baron von Krobatin (1849-1933)
  6. 30. January 1918 - Franz baron Rohr von Denta (1854-1927)
  7. 31. January 1918 - Eduard baron von Böhm Ermolli (1856-1941)
  8. 1. February 1918 - Svetozar Boroëvić of Bojna (1856-1920), “the lion of the Isonzo
  9. 24. October 1918 - Ore duke Joseph August of Austria (1872-1962)

German Reich (in the time of the national socialism)

- (L) = member of the Air Force -

shoulder straps of a general field marshal (1935-1945)
  1. 20. April 1936 - Werner von Blomberg (1878 - 1946), realm military Ministers: 1933-1935, realm war Minister:1935-1938
  2. 4. February 1938 Hermann Göring (1893 - 1946, suicide) (L), commanders in chief of the Air Force (transport to the realm marshal to 19. July 1940)
  3. 19. July 1940 - Roll ago of Brauchitsch (1881 - 1948), commanders in chief of the army from 1938 to 1941
  4. 19. July 1940 - Albert Kesselring (1885 - 1960) (L), air fleet leaders, against end of war commander in chief west
  5. 19. July 1940 - William Keitel (1882 - 1946, executed), boss of the supreme command of the armed forces
  6. 19. July 1940 - Günther of intelligent ones (1882 - 1944, suicide),Army group leader
  7. 19. July 1940 - William knight of Leeb (1876 - 1956), army group leader
  8. 19. July 1940 - Fedor of support (1880 - 1945, fallen), army group leader
  9. 19. July 1940 - William cunning (1880 - 1971), army group leader
  10. 19. July 1940 - Erwin of joke lives (1881 - 1944, executed), army leaders and resistance fighter
  11. 19. July 1940 - Walter von Reichenau (1884 - 1942, impact accumulation), army group leader
  12. 19. July 1940 - Erhard milk (1892 - 1972) (L), general inspector of the Air Force
  13. 19. July 1940 - Hugo Sperrle (1885 - 1953) (L), air fleet leader
  14. 19. July 1940 - Gerd of Rundstedt (1875 - 1953), army group leaders and commander in chief west
  15. 31. October 1940 - Eduard baron von Böhm Ermolli (1856 - 1941), Austria-Hungarian field marshal, army leader in the First World War (a character,i.e. Honour rank, a German general field marshal)
  16. 22. June 1942 - Erwin Rommel “the desert fox” (1891 - 1944, in a forced manner to the suicide), commanders in chief of the German Africa corps (late army group Africa) late general inspector franz. Atlantic barrier
  17. 30. June 1942 - George von Küchler (1881 - 1968), army group leader
  18. 30. June 1942 - Erich von Lewinski towards. of one stone (1887 - 1973), as reward for conquest Sewastopols as commanders in chief of the 11. Army
  19. 30. January 1943 - Friedrich Paulus (1890 - 1957), commanders in chief of the 6. Army, capitulated inStalingrad
  20. 1. February 1943 - Ewald von Kleist (1881 - 1954), commander of the group of tanks of Kleist, late army group A, 1944 because of diversities of opinion dismisses
  21. 1. February 1943 - Maximilian realm baron von Weichs (1881 - 1954), army group leader
  22. 1. February 1943 - Ernst Busch (1885 - 1945), army group leader
  23. 16. February 1943 - Tungsten baron von Richthofen (1895 - 1945) (L), air fleet leader
  24. 1. March 1944 - Walter Model (1891 - 1945, suicide), army group leader
  25. 5. April 1945 - Ferdinand Schörner (1892 - 1973),Commander in chief army group center
  26. 25. April 1945 - Robert knight of dirt (1892 - 1945, suicide) (L), air fleet leaders and against end of war as a successor Görings commander in chief of the Air Force

literature

  • Klaus Borchert: The general field marshals and large admirals of the armed forces. Podzun Pallas publishing house, Wölfersheim Berstadt 1994, To ISBN 3-79-090511-9

see also

Web left

 

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