Genetics

of these articles describes the leaving teachings. For further meanings, see genetics (linguistics).

The genetics (griech. geneá = descent) or leaving teachings are a subsection of biology and are occupied with the structure and the function of hereditary factors („genes “)as well as with their far transmission. Transmission is the passing on of heiress formations from generation to generation.

The classical genetics examines, in which combinations the genes occur after crossing experiments with the descendants and how the development of certain phänotypischer characteristics affects that.

Those Molecular genetics examines, how genes are developed, how in the form of Desoxyribonukleinsäure (DNS) the existing genetic information is used to the structure by proteins and other functional gene products, like this information copy themselves (Replikation) and like molecular-biological realizations for genetic procedures to use leave.

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history of the genetics

since the antique one trying humans the regularities of the transmission by different hypothesesto explain. Thus the Greek philosopher Anaxagoras taught around 500 v.Chr. already correctly that the sex of a child is dependent on the father only. Similarly, but wrongly one hundred years of late Aristoteles , only the man hereditary factors thought, while thoseWomen excluding nourishing functions to have should. Such conceptions over reproduction and transmission coined/shaped the nature-philosophical considerations into the modern times inside.

With the development of the microscope and the following discovery of the sperm cellses by Antoni van Leeuwenhoek in 17. Century becameimportant progress made.

1865 discovered the monk Gregor Mendel fundamental regularities with the distribution of hereditary factors on the descendants, which admit today as Mendel laws (or Mendel rules) are. It had crossed plants of the garden pea (Pisum sativum ) with one another and by means of statistic analysis observes mathematical regularities. It divided the hereditary factors into “rezessive” and “dominant factor” of genes and developed the term of the allele. Mendels discoveries remained unconsidered and became only at the beginning 20. Century rediscovers.

A further important development made Morgan, for thatthat there are also characteristics, those determined to be usually together left (coupled genes, which lie on the same Chromosom).

With the discovery of the structure of the hereditary property in the middle 20. Century the foundation-stones for the decoding of the genetic code were put.Today is white one, like the hereditary property developed and knows the situation of many genes in the entire hereditary property.

milestones of the genetics

Literature

  • Benjamin Lewin: Molecular biology of the genes. 2002, ISBN 3827413494 (English expenditure: Gene. ISBN 0131439812)
  • H. Frederik Nijhout: The context macht's! Spektrum der Wissenschaft, April 2005, S. 70 - 77 (2005), ISSN 170-2971

Web on the left of

Wikinews: Genetics- current message

see also

except-biological word meanings of genetic: Genetic algorithm, genetic relationship in linguistics, Genetic instruction.

 

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