|of these articles describes the leaving teachings. For further meanings, see genetics (linguistics).|
The genetics (griech. geneá = descent) or leaving teachings are a subsection of biology and are occupied with the structure and the function of hereditary factors („genes “)as well as with their far transmission. Transmission is the passing on of heiress formations from generation to generation.
Those Molecular genetics examines, how genes are developed, how in the form of Desoxyribonukleinsäure (DNS) the existing genetic information is used to the structure by proteins and other functional gene products, like this information copy themselves (Replikation) and like molecular-biological realizations for genetic procedures to use leave.
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history of the genetics
since the antique one trying humans the regularities of the transmission by different hypothesesto explain. Thus the Greek philosopher Anaxagoras taught around 500 v.Chr. already correctly that the sex of a child is dependent on the father only. Similarly, but wrongly one hundred years of late Aristoteles , only the man hereditary factors thought, while thoseWomen excluding nourishing functions to have should. Such conceptions over reproduction and transmission coined/shaped the nature-philosophical considerations into the modern times inside.
1865 discovered the monk Gregor Mendel fundamental regularities with the distribution of hereditary factors on the descendants, which admit today as Mendel laws (or Mendel rules) are. It had crossed plants of the garden pea (Pisum sativum ) with one another and by means of statistic analysis observes mathematical regularities. It divided the hereditary factors into “rezessive” and “dominant factor” of genes and developed the term of the allele. Mendels discoveries remained unconsidered and became only at the beginning 20. Century rediscovers.
A further important development made Morgan, for thatthat there are also characteristics, those determined to be usually together left (coupled genes, which lie on the same Chromosom).
With the discovery of the structure of the hereditary property in the middle 20. Century the foundation-stones for the decoding of the genetic code were put.Today is white one, like the hereditary property developed and knows the situation of many genes in the entire hereditary property.
milestones of the genetics
- 1859 - Charles Darwin publishes the emergence of the kinds
- 1865 - Gregor Mendel published its work
- 1903 - Chromosomen are recognized as carriers of the heiress formation
- 1906 - William Bateson coins/shapes the term genetics.
- 1910 - Chromosomen contain genes
- 1913 - Thomas Hunt Morgan accomplishes crossing attempts with the baptizing couch Drosophila more melanogaster. On the basis the test results providesit gene maps, from which it follows that Chromosomen from linear arranged genes are developed.
- 1927 - Physical changes in genes as mutations designates
- 1928 - Frederick Griffith discovers that the molecules of the hereditary substance between bacteria can be exchanged (see Griffiths experiment, Plasmide)
- 1931 - Crossing more over is the cause for recombination
- 1944 - Oswald Theodore Avery, Colin McLeod and Maclyn McCarty isolate DNA as genetic material
- 1945 - genes code proteins (see also central dogma to thatGenetics)
- 1950 - Erwin Chargaff shows that the four nucleotides seem to 1951 - Barbara McClintock not in same
- portions in the DNA publishes its innovative results within the range of the genetics the jumping genes.
- 1952 - The Hershey Chase experiment shows thatthe genetic information stored by phages (and other organisms) in the DNA is
- 1953 - on basis of the x-ray structure analyses of Rosalind Franklin the DNA structure is cleared up for 1958 - proof of the semikonservativen by James Watson and
- Francis Crick as double helix Replikation of the DNA by Meselson and steel
- 1961 - the genetic code is developed in tripartite groups (triplet), Codons so mentioned,
- 1966 - Gurdon - Kerntransplantation bei Vielzellern-> genetic information lie in the cell core
- 1969 - Jonathan Beckwith succeeds first as the isolation of a particularGene (from E. coli); Discovery of the restriction enzymes durch Arber --> introduction of the age of the genetic engineering
- 1977 - Frederick singer places its Didesoxy Kettenabbruch method forwards, those the DNA Sequenzierung revolutionizes
- 1983 - Kary Mullis invents the polymerase nuclear chain reaction (PCR ) during a drive
- 1997 - the first eukaryotische Genom, that the baker yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, sequenziert
- 15. February 2001 - In the context of the Humangenomprojektes a provisional work version of the entire human gene COM is presented
- 14. April 2003 - The human gene COM reference sequence stands ready for the Download
- Benjamin Lewin: Molecular biology of the genes. 2002, ISBN 3827413494 (English expenditure: Gene. ISBN 0131439812)
- H. Frederik Nijhout: The context macht's! Spektrum der Wissenschaft, April 2005, S. 70 - 77 (2005), ISSN 170-2971
Web on the left of
|Wikinews: Genetics- current message|
- German Mouse Clinic
- introduction to the family tree analysis
- German version of “DNA from the Beginning” of the Dolan DNA Learning center
- genetics, DNS, genetic finger mark, Humangenom among other things
- MendelWeb (English)
- information to the molecular genetics
- genetics Science Learning Scenter: Route OF theTo Basics (English) English-language homepage with an animated “basic route”
- RNA, Transkription (biology), translation (biology), Transfektion, GMO, PCR, Ribosom, molecular biology, evolution, genetic drift, gene manipulation, genetic code, mRNA, bio computer science, gene therapy, mutation, development biology, in gene in enzyme hypothesis, PubMed, Epistase, reverse genetics, quantitative genetics, mapping (genetics)