the genetic engineering or genetic engineering is a subsection of the biotechnology. It is a procedure for the application of purposeful interferences, developing on the knowledge of molecular biology, into the hereditary property and/or into the biochemical control procedures ofOrganism and/or. viraler Genome.
Three large ranges of application of the genetic engineering are differentiated:
- Becomes green genetic engineering (alternative: Agro genetic engineering): The application of genetic procedures in the plant breeding, the use of genetically changed plants in the agriculture and in the food sector.
- Red genetic engineering: Application thatGenetic engineering in the medicine for the development of diagnostic and therapeutic procedures and of medicaments.
- Grey or white genetic engineering: The use of genetically changed micro organisms to the production of enzymes or fine chemicals for industrielle of purposes, in the microbiology and the environmental protection technology.
The terms red ones, the Greens and grey ones/white genetic engineering are not firmly defined designations, are however in the public linguistic usage established.
In particular the genetic engineering investigates the methods for the isolation of genes and for the production of again-combined DNA, above all also over kind - for bordersaway. This is possible, because (nearly) all organisms use the same genetic code (see however: codon usage). As goals of genetic applications the improvement of the seeds or the simpler production of medicines is called.
Table of contents
details is occupied thoseGenetic engineering with in vitro - linkage of nucleic acid - molecules to new, increasable molecules, the introduction of such molecules to a receiver organism and the Vermehrung of the again-combined molecules in this organism. First the DNA of a donor organism is mostly isolated and into fragmentsuseful size divides. Further a suitable vector (a transportation vehicle for the transmission of the donor DNA into a landlord cell) must be isolated and cut open. In a third step one brings the vector DNA together with the fragmentary donor DNA and ensures for the fact that a fragmentthe donor DNA is taken up by the vector. Afterwards one transfers in the vector again-combines available DNA into the cells of a suitable receiver organism and increases the cells with the desired new genetic information. New developments make an implanting possible from foreign genes predeterminedPlaces in the Genom; thus the production characteristics of the modified cell become predictable (RMCE Kassettenaustauschverfahren). If all this succeeded, the cells of the receiver organism place z. B. a gene product wished by humans, about a protein, ago, that in cleaned conditionto be marketed can. Kind of such genetically modified organisms one calls transgene organisms or genetically changed organisms (GVO) (for example Transgener corn).
As vectors Plasmide from bacteria cells are often used. With the Plasmiden it concerns small, circular DNA molecules, thosean interface for a restriction enzyme possess, which opens and thus to the admission of strange DNA makes the Plasmidring sensitive. By Ligasen the strange DNA is embodied firmly in the Plasmid. After this manipulation the changed Plasmid must still for Vermehrunginto a bacteria cell to be transferred. Assistance of certain chemicals can be made more permeable the cell wall and diaphragm of the bacterium for the admission of the Plasmids.
Alternatively the strange DNA can do that also by a modified virus, to the own DNA also the donor DNAand the DNA of a Plasmids carries, into the cell of the receiver organism arrives.See also: Cosmid….
genetic engineering designates the analysis or purposeful change of DNA sequences. Some products, which are interesting for humans (for example insulin, Vitamine), are manufactured by the industry with the help of genetically altered bacteria. For the medical range many medicines are today already produced genetically. In the agriculture useful plants are optimized genetically „“. For example resistances become against Pestizide (e.g. Glyphosat or Glufosinat) or resistances against parasits inserted. This procedure is however not whole without risks. Thus for example the danger exists that the changed genes will transfer plants the same kind inadvertently to other type of game - or even to other kinds (for example throughPolling flight). In which measure and under which conditions of this horizontal gene transfer takes place at present intensively one examines. With beginnings for use on a large scale (for example Biopharming: Production of medicines by genetically changed plants) is necessary strict control. It givesalso first beginnings, plants with improved oils (for example Raps) or increased Vitaminkonzentrationen (for example that golden Rice) with the help of the genetic engineering to manufacture.
Also in the medicine the genetic engineering attained meaning. The number of the genetically manufactured medicines on thatMarket constantly increases. Like that for example in Switzerland already 40 medicines were registered 1999 and in the circulation, whose production on genetic way took place. These became against the most different diseases of the sugar illness (insulin for Diabetiker) over blood poverty, cardiac infarct, growth disturbanceswith children, different kinds of cancer up to the blood getting sickness assigned. World-wide are over 350 Gentech substances in clinical examinations with patients and female patients.
In the cancer therapy genetically manufactured medicines are already to a large extent established. By the employment of monoclonal anti-bodies, interferons and haematinic growth factorsif the cancer therapies could be shortened with certain kinds of tumor be optimized, hospitalizations or avoided, as well as won quality of life, a Swiss cancer expert says. Also the infection risk sank as can be prove. Genetic medicines are not to be excluded thus from the cancer therapy no more.
The most well-known hormone, whichwith the help of the genetic engineering and on the market already is, is the insulin is won. The insulin produced in former times, came from cattle and pigs and was not not by hundred percent identically constructed with that of humans. By means of genetic engineering this could be replaced now.
“old person” genetic engineering
already before it became possible to manipulate on molecular level the Genom of an organism became germs of strongly ionizing radiation, warmth or other towards-changing influences (Mutagenen) suspended, around mutations in the hereditary property more frequently than underto cause natural conditions. The seeds will become sown and the plants, which possess the desired characteristics, further bred. Whether thereby also still different, unwanted, characteristics develop is so far not examined, systematically.
This technology was used with nearly all useful plants, andappropriate procedures also with some animals.
criticism at the genetic engineering
the question about the employment of the genetic engineering is controversially discussed. On the one hand the genetic engineering possibilities does not open, those on conventional way non or so fast -to reach would be. Examples for this are production golden one rice so mentioned by insulin or Erythropoietin by genetically changed (micro) organisms, the attempt of the fight against nourishing deficiency diseases by the employment of as well as by the Designen of particularly resistant and productive kinds thoseFight of world-wide hunger.
On the other side the possibility of the unreversible Auskreuzung insists genetically brought in characteristics (e.g. Herbicide resistances) in game herbs and the possibility of unwanted side effects by intentional or unintentionally transmitted as well genes. Besides critic sees a possibleDanger for the kind and sort variety, since patenting and the exclusive selling could lead of hybrid seeds as well as genetically manipulated seeds by individual manufacturers to the displacement of other kinds and make farmers in the long run dependent on seeds manufacturers. In the connection hereby standsa criticism at the Patent Act giving, stated often at the same time, which changed in the last 10 years crucially (see.Biopiraterie). The moreover one there are health fears, there in bioassays in rare cases incompatibilities with feeding with some geneticallychanged plants arose. The extensive procedures of admission in the countries of the first world can eliminate this risk not completely, there determined mutated proteins prove-measured not to be diminished and thus in the Nahrungskreislauf not be perhaps carried on could.
The argument, genetic engineering for fighthunger will use answered that the capacities are sufficient already now for food production and hunger disasters would have other causes, among them Missmanagement locally and distribution unfairness in the world trade approximately by agrarian export subsidies. The UN - Special correspondent for the right to food Jean Ziegler says with reference to data of the FAO that with present and conventional means up to 12 billion humans be sufficiently nourished could. Also lack nutrition, e.g. in the form of Vitamin A leading to going blind - lack, becomes rather upother causes as by insufficient hygiene caused failure illnesses led back. Thus the time is missing to the body to convert and the metabolism add beta carotin into Vitamin A. Besides fat is necessary for this process. Genetic engineering can change only few in these problems.
Besidesare located a row further arguments in the area:
- Liberty of the research: The possibility of the commercial use of scientific realizations becomes by patents the property of individual companies. At the same time the possibility for patenting places and thus to the marketing under large financial expenditurereceived scientific realizations a strong “impulse means” for the research.
- Financial perspective: Genetic engineering is considered as one of the restaurant industries of the future. The question arises, in what respect financial profit may tempt be received risks or play down these.
- Dependence of agricultural enterprises:Manufacturers genetically changed seeds are also the manufacturers of pesticides. Both are co-ordinated. This specificity permits a minimization to the side effect of these means. If a farmer uses such Pestizide, it can use the “suitable” seeds in many cases only,since other sorts would be damaged or destroyed (e.g. see.RoundUp). Besides the contracts of the seeds companies usually forbid the resowing of parts of the harvest - farmers must buy each year on the new seeds. The seeds manufacturer requiresRoyalties both for the seed and for the harvest products.
- Religious aspects: Some religious humans see in the manipulation of the hereditary material an interference in “God creation” to that humans are not entitled.
A material debate difficult by the widespread unawarenessover the possibilities and dangers of the genetic engineering in the population, so that, similarly as with the modern EDP (e.g. to the monitoring of individual persons), who are under at the same time and are overrated possibilities and dangers. At present in the discussions over bio ethicsimportant aspect is, in what respect also different interference and manipulation possibilities should be limited or expanded. Thereby also the possible pro and cons must be considered, not alone the methods, which lead to these.
tooinstitut for plant genetics and cultivated plant research (IPK) belongs to the important research establishments in the area of the green genetic engineering in Gatersleben and the molecular-biological center of the federal research institute for nutrition and agriculture (BFEL ) in Karlsruhe in Germany.
Researchers, who operate practical genetic engineering,are obligated to the adherence to numerous safety regulations. The GenTSV, genetic engineering - safety regulation, regulates the work with genetically changed organisms in Germany.
marking obligation of genetically changed products in the European Union
since that 18. April 2004 exists a marking obligation within the European Union for genetically changed products. It includes that all products, which possess a genetic change must be marked, even if the change in the final product is no longer provable.
Excluded fromthe marking obligation are meat, eggs, milk products and assistance of genetically changed bacteria manufactured product additives. Likewise enzymes, additives and flavours, since it in the legal sense not when food applies. In addition a marking does not have to take place, if the pollution with genetically changed materialbelow 0,9 per cent is and coincidental or technically unavoidable is. With products, which come from biological cultivation, genetic changes are not permitted.
Critics of genetically changed food indicate that at present (conditions: 2005) about 80 per cent of the cultivated geneticallychanged plants into the feed industry flow, why by them also the marking obligation for these animal products is demanded.
27 tuned moratorium in
Switzerland Swiss with the tuning of. November 2005 by the majority for a moratorium toUse of genetic engineering in the agriculture. For for the time being five years thereby the cultivation of plants or the attitude is forbidden of animals, which were genetically changed.
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- history of the genetic engineering with the years of well-known research results
- genetic changed organism
- geneticchanged food
- gene drift
- DNA chip technology
Web on the left of
- Genetic engineering I
- Virale strategies for cell modification
- as plants are genetically changed? (Pdf)
- Bases: Methods of the genetic engineering
- Portal for life sciences with the most current one outthe research
- overview of data bases to the genetic engineering
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- Telepolis: Becomes green genetic engineering: Full Kraft ahead?
- Genetic engineering in the medicine
- safety research in the Green genetic engineering
- transparency for genetic engineering with food
- portal to much information against the genetic engineering applications
- Doubt to the genetic engineering in food
- summary of current messages to the genetic engineering
- information of the University of Kassel to Professor. Arpad Pusztais „gene potatoes “
- green biotechnologie.de - portal about “the Green biotechnology” with emphasis horticulture/useful plants
- critical text of the Öko institute (Institut for applied ecology) to the genetic engineering
- gene-ethicalNetwork registered association. - News service to the genetic engineering
- institute for Max-Planck for breeding research
- entry into philolex a final speech for the genetic engineering