Genova

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Genova (Genova)
State of Italy
Region Ligurien
province Genova (GE)
geographical location of 44° 25 ' N 8° 56 ' O
height m and. NN
surface 243 km ²
inhabitant 611,476
population density 2,516 Einwohner/km ²
postal zip code 16100
preselection 010
ISTAT - code 010025
name of the inhabitants genovesi (in dialetto: zeneixi)
Protection patron San Giovanni Battista
Website Genova


Genova (ital. Genova, in the ligurischen dialect Zena, like Geneva from genu = „the knee “) is derived with 611.476 inhabitants in the city (conditions to 30. April 2005) and approx. 800,000 inhabitants as dye(2004) the capital of the province of the same name and the region Ligurien in northwest Italy at the coast of the Mediterranean.

Table of contents

situation

in the bay of Genova the mountains of the Apennin rise steeply. Genova often got the additive in the Italian language: la superba or la dominant factor.

Port

the port of Genova is one the largest at the Mediterranean: in the Containerumschlag the third biggest after Algeciras and Gioia Tauro. It receives its meaning particularly by its hinterland, the industrial area from Milan and Turin. Until 1996 were the Ölhafen starting point of the cent ral European LINE, which leads until Ingolstadt (Bavaria).

old part of town

Genova possesses one of the largest old parts of town in Europe, perhaps even the largest. Patrizierhäuser and splendid palaces form a high-contrast contrast to the old part of townat the via Garibaldi, everything in front the Palazzo Ducale from that 13. Century. Militaryclung attachment plants witness from the eventful history of the earlier sea-republic. Landmark of the city is the Lanterna. The 117 m high lighthouse stands in the west of thePort and orienting point for sailors is for centuries.

different

Dom von Genua
cathedral of Genova
Palazzi in der Via Garibaldi
Palazzi in the via Garibaldi
Panorama von Genua, vom Hafen aus
panorama of Genova, from the port

the lack of space in Genova has the consequence that for the building of the airfield andthe new container port a special solution to be met had: Demolition of a hill and fill of the sea.

The city is seat of an archbishop and has a university.

Genova was - together with Lille - culture capital of Europe 2004.

The city Genovawith their name partially in strange way godfather confessed, among other things for the designation of certain trousers named Jeans or also for the trailers of the Argentine football club Boca junior, called Xeinezes.

history

there Genova, must it has a natural port of first rank as sea port have been used, as soon as one began to operate in the Tyrrheni sea navigation. From old sources nothing well-known over a stay or an occupation is by Greeks, but the discoverya Greek cemetery from that 4. Century v. Chr. points on it. With the building the via Venti Settembre was found a set of graves, altogether 85, by those the majority on the end 5. and 4. Century v.Chr. dated. The corpses had been burned in all cases and buried in small pit graves, whereby the grave was covered by a plate from limestone. The urns correspond to the last rotfigurigen style and became mainly from Greece orMagna Graecia imports, while the bronze objects from Etrurien and the Broschen came from Gallien. This illustrates the early meaning of Genova as commercial port and the penetration of Greek customs, because the usual practice of the Ligurer was the earth funeral. One assumes,the fact that the name Genova is derived from the form of its coastal line is to a knee (genu) reminds.

From emerging the Romans for the first time 216 v. become. Chr. reported, of the destruction by the Karthager and the direct reconstructionby the Romans 209 v. Chr. The Romans made Genova and Placentia their headquarters against the Ligurer. From Rome one came there over the via Aurelia along the northwest coast, and its extension, the late names Via Aemilia (Scauri) got; the latter became only 109 v. Chr. built, and it must have given for a long time before a coastal road, at least starting from 148 v. Chr., as the via Postumia of Genova by Libarna (today Serravalle, where remnantsa Amphitheaters and inscriptions found are), Dertona, Iria, Placentia, Cremona and eastward from there were built. There is an inscription of 117 v. Chr. (received in the Palazzo Municipale in details) with the decision patroni of the Q. and M. Minuciusfrom Genova, in agreement with a decree of the Roman senate in a controversy between the people of Genova and the Langenses (also Viturii called), the inhabitants of a neighbouring hill city, which was taken up to the Genueser territory. But none the others inGenova found inscriptions, which are practically all together grave inscriptions, can be assigned definitely to the antique city; one can assume equally that they were brought by other places over lake there. Only from inscriptions at other places we know that Genova municipal rightshad, but it is unknown, starting from which time. Classical authors report few of the city.

The history of Genova during the langobardischen and karolingischen periods is only the repetition of the general history of the Italian municipalities, to which it succeeded, of contest-ends princesto attain and barons the first documents of their liberty. The patriotic spirit and the capability of the Genuesen on lake, which developed it in their defensive wars against the Sarazenen, led to the establishment of a civil condition and to the rapid growth of an effectiveNavy. From the necessity for an alliance against the common sarazenischen enemy Genova at the beginning of the 11 concluded itself. Century with Pisa together, in order to drive the Muslims out of the island Sardinien and ascend to medieval colonial power.

Already 1162 establishes Genueser in Salé, southwest from Ceuta a base at the African coast, to which 1253 that come likewise west the strait of Gibraltar Safi lain. 1277 opens it the first sea lanes of Spain with Flanders and England. Starting from 1251 they enjoyin Sevilla fiscal privileges. Genueser of buyers already made the trade with olive oil , wine, Thunfisch, leather, soap and mercury in Cádiz, Granada, Lisbon, Málaga and Sanlucar before the end of the Reconquista in Spain their domain. Those, Palmas and Teneriffas read conquests Gran Canarias financed by genuesisches handels and borrowed capital under active participation Spanish and Portuguese entrepreneurs, like z. B. the cloth manufacturers. Also in Valencia, Toledo and Cuenca Genueser had large portion of the kastilischenTrade. Among alberghi the ligures, the Genueser families, which became durably resident in Andalusien, the Boccanegra , Cataño , Centurión , Espinola , Grimaldo , Pinelo , Rey , Riberol , Sopranis , Zaccaría and ranks. A. Differently thanthe Venezianer does not have the Genueser a large war navy. Genuesisch pisanischer transfer of technology help gradually the iberischen monarchies Portugal, Kastilien León and Aragón Katalonien gradually to own, efficient fleets, those from the conquered ports along the road of Gibraltar the maurischeSea-barrier with the time break through.

In such a way acquired sardische area supplied soon opportunity for Eifersüchteleien between the allied Genova and Pisa. Between the two republics began long naval warfares, which finally went out catastrophically for Pisa. With not less skill than VeniceGenova noticed all the opportunities of extensive forwarding business traffic between Western Europe and the Near East, which arose as a result of the crusades. Those the Sarazenen in the same period entrissenen seas port along the Spanish coast and the ägäische lain before SmyrnaIsland Chios Genueser colonies became, while in the Levante, to which coasts of the black sea were established and along the banks Euphrates strong Genueser fortresses. It is not amazing that these conquests in the heads of the Venezianer andthe Pisaner renewed envy opposite Genova woke and new wars provoked. But the fight between Genova and Pisa was brought in the sea-battle with Meloria 1284 to a conclusion devastating for Pisa.

The success of Genova in trade and navigation duringthe Middle Ages is all the more remarkable, as it was constantly troubled contrary to the rivaling Venezianern of internal dividednesses. The simple people and the aristocracy fought against each other, rivaling parties under the noble ones strove for it, the supremacy in the state to attained.Noble ones and people equally turned to the conciliation and rule to foreign capitani del popolo, as only means, in order to achieve a temporary armistice. From these fights between rivaling noble ones, in which the names stand out Spinola and Doria, becameGenova soon into the vortex of the guelfischen and ghibellinischen parties pulled in; but its acknowledgment of foreign authorities - successively Germans, Neapolitaner and citizens of Milan - freed 1339 the way to a more independent state for them. The government took now a lasting formon, with the appointment of the first Dogen (an office on lifetime) Simone Boccanera. Alternating victories and defeats of the Venezianer and Genuesen - under the defeats the worst defeat against Venice with Chioggia 1380 - ended in the statementthe significant inferiority of the Genueser rulers, who times under the power of France, times the Visconti from Milan fell.

Opinion from Genova around 1490

the Banco di San Giorgio with its large possessions mainly on Korsika formed that during this phasemost stable element in the state, until the national spirit its old Kraft recovered 1528, when Andrea Doria could shake the French supremacy off and repair the old form of the government. In this period - the end 15. and at the beginning 16.Century - the genius gave and the daring courage of a Genueser of sailor, the new world to Christoph Kolumbus, Spain. Perhaps it could have become the possession of its homeland state, if Genova had been able, it the ships and sailorsTo place order, which he requested so urgently. The government, like it reinserted by Andrea Doria was, with certain changes, which lent it a more conservative character, remained up to the outbreak of the French revolution and the education of the Liguri republicinvariably. During this long period of nearly three centuries, in which the dramatic incident was „the conspiracy of the Fieschi “, the Genueser discovered reconciliation for lost trade with the east in the enormous profits, it as bankers of the Spanish crown andAusrüster of the Spanish armies and fleets both in the old person and in the new world made. Differently than many other Italian cities Genova was comparatively immune to strange supremacy.

Toward end 17. Century became the city of thatFrenchmen fired at and 1746, after which defeat of Piacenza, to which Austrians hand over, who were however fast hunted. 1729 a revolt begun in Korsika with the help of the Frenchmen one suppressed, who took 1768 even the island in possession (see Korsika).

The short-lived Liguri republic, based 1797 and completely dependent on France, was already incorporated 1805 by the French empire. 1804 rose Genova against the Frenchmen, on the warranty from lord William Bentinck that the allied ones thatRepublic again their independence would return. It had been however specified by a secret clause in the contract from Paris that Genova should be combined with the rule area of the king by Sardinien; this precaution was confirmed by the Viennese congress. Certainly has throughthis clause caused discontent contributed to the fact that in Genova the republican spirit remained alive and by the influence of the young Genuesen Giuseppe Mazzini not only for the sardische monarchy, but for all governments of the peninsula a constant threat remained.Even the material use from the combination with Sardinien and the constitutional liberty, which granted king Karl Albert all its subjects, could not prevent republican unrests of 1848. After a short and sharp fight those became temporary of thatRepublicans occupied city by general Alfonso La Marmora again recovered.

traffic

the city extends over a relatively steeply dropping coastal strip. Under this topography the road system of the city is nearly horizontal by different the contours the followingMain street axles arranged. In addition the slope seat-backs in the deeper parts of the city through in the city of tunnel are cut through. Approx. 5 km behind the coastal line sea-height the motorway, those runs again here through deeply cut valleys arranged areas in somewhat 200 mz. B. with Staglieno with tunnel cuts through. Along the port pulls itself the urban motorway on a continuous viaduct, which is rather detrimental to the townscape however.

In the city from Genova two larger stations, the two are from the main route Ventimiglia- La Spezia to be happened. In the special the station Principe is impressing by its spatial conception, since it is eingeschachtet between two tunnel exits and has an impressing founder-temporal stairway into the city. Darüberhianus is isolated in the eastern partthe city on approx. 80 m sea-height the head station of the meterspurigen local railway after Casella, that approx. is appropriate for 20 km north of Genova. The local passenger traffic in the city is operated by the urban transport enterprise OFFICE. Apart from an expanded bus network, a O bus line and a metropolitan railway into the suburb Brin several mountain railways are in the city. The largest of it is running the endless rope haulage system on the Righi now already for more than 100 years the upper boroughs opens partly underground. Besides exists stilla smaller endless rope haulage system as well as a rack railway into the mansion place Granarolo.

Far characteristics are numerous elevators, the z. T. in private houses end and/or. under way with code switch private buildings open, however by the transport enterprise of the city to be operated. Close one of theStation Principe is one the largest, by one approx. 200 m pedestrian tunnels in the Bergesinnnere to be reached knows and which one leaves some floors more highly in one of the höhenlinienparalllen roads. Besides there are also still curiosities, like z. B.a pedestrian tunnel a road tunnel with traffic light circuit crosses.

Genova had to in fünziger years of the last century own streetcar net. The streetcar tunnel after Brin is today still used.

demonstrations against the G8-Gipfel 2001

in June 2001 took place on the occasion of the G8-Gipfels demonstrations, into whose process of the 23-jährige globalization opponent Carlo Giuliani came to death. Whether it concerned thereby around an intentional or approving of killing taken in purchase or an accident, is disputed. The ItalianPolice reached through altogether extremely hard against the globalization opponents, let a large number arrest and brought many demonstrators in the Bolzaneto prison, where these were also tortured. See also Bolzaneto process.

sons and daughters of the city

monument of Christoph Kolumbus in Genova

Web on the left of

Commons: Genova – Bilder, Videos und/oder Audiodateien




coordinates: 44° 25 ' 0 " N, 8° 55 ' 26 " O

 

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