geography (also: Geografie, Greek Γεωγραφία geographia; gē „earth “; graph in „scratch, write, draw “) seized, describe and explain the spatial structures and procedures at the earth's surface as well as their effects on humans. It forms thusa seam between nature - and the social sciences. It develops concepts to understand and for the solution of problems between humans and environment. The subject of geography is the entire Geosphäre. As applied geography it is concerned with thatAnalysis and planning of spatial structures and processes.
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the meaning of geographical knowledge became for the first time in the antique one recognized by the Greeks. Their realizations continued to use the Romans . During the European Middle Ages geography, like other branches of science, came also again into oblivion. Only from the empire China and the rising Orient came new impulses.
In the beginnings thattoday's scientific geography in 19. Century was their goal essentially the discovery and investigation so far unknown quantity regions of the earth (terra incognita); it had made the replenishment and discovery of the “white marks” on the map it's duty. At that timeGeography can be described therefore as a science “of where”. Geography must one in 19. Century inside as a science describe, which collected facts and for example in the form of pictures, maps and reports documented. It was thus purely descriptively (describing). “Innocent” was never geography thereby. Geography promoted on the part of the states (Universities of, expeditions) always stood in the context of history. For the colonialism for example the descriptive results were indispensable on the part of the geographersand products of the same are in this sense.
By the increasing specialization in 20. Century developed those for variety of the today's partial disciplines and in particular splitting between physical geography and Anthropogeographie. At the latest with the 1960er years and the pressure after stronger more publiclyAuthentication turned geography also increasingly to close-to-applications questions and looked for their topics in connection with town construction, space planning or environmental protection. This reflected itself in the German-speaking countries also in the introduction diploma - of the course of studies.
In thatConsequence of strong fanning out of geography was raised again and again the question whether geography was to be regarded at all still as a uniform science. So far this remained however an academic question, those to no resuming consequences would have led or tooAttempts to abolish geography as independent academic science.
See also: List of the discoverers
the Physiogeographie (physical geography) concerns itself primarily with the natural components and structures of the earth's surface. Becomesthe activity of humans for the explanation of the landscape genesis also treats.
Subsections of the Physiogeographie are:
- climatic geography
- vegetation geography
- soil geography
- hydraulic geography
- bio geography
- landscape ecology
human geography (geography of humans, also human geography) concerns itself with the influencehumans on the geographic area, like also with the influence of the area on humans for example in connection with the spatial distribution of population or of economic goods.
Subsections of the Anthropogeographie are:
- Economic geography
- population geography
- town geography
- settlement geography
- traffic geography
- political geography
- Historical geography
- culture geography
- social geography
- perception geography
mathematical geography concerns itself with the measurement of the earth.
Subsections of mathematical geography are:
„it is not anything that the trained understanding morecultivated and forms, as geography. “
„geography is the nut/mother of the sciences! “
„and it threw a view around itself on the planet of the geographer. He had not seen ever a so majestic planet. “
„how often has I it already said that - apart from any occupation blindness - which consists characteristic ones of the geographer in my opinion of it itself preferably on strange terrain to mad… because the geographera personality erred is. Because it does not shrink from itself to admit that it got off the way to admit its assessment to explore the distance, without agitating itself from the place to. “
- Brigitte Paulino Neto: The melancholy of the geographer
for furtherQuotations see here (under Wikiquote).
- portal: Geography
- of countries in the world
- list of geographical names in several languages
Web on the left of
|Wiktionary: Geography - word origin, synonyms and translations|
|Wikiquote: Geography - quotations|
- virtual technical library
- portalwith current message, literature references about geographical
- Web version of several geography theses (diploma)
- official operational readiness level of the German society for geography
- official operational readiness level German federation for applied geography
- official operational readiness level of the Federal Institution for geosciences and raw materials (BGR)
- geographical information system inclusive Literature, address andLink search as well as Web Mapping application
- geographical portal www.mygeo.info with on-line dictionary German English
- geo link.de - geography/geology portal
- Geosciences forum: Geography
- society for geography
- Institut for geography and space research of the University of Graz inclusive Geography magazine, European-wide meeting calendar and. v. m
- map master data base
- critical geography inclusive Download material
- www.critical-geography.de.vu - the side of the open AC critical geography of Studis for Studis
- Ernst Klett publishing house - geography - TERRA ALEXANDER data base
- geomagazin.net extensive link collection as well as news and Buchtipps