George (of holy)
holy George (* in the 3. Century possibly. in Kappadokien /T ürkei, † 23. April around 303 possibly. in Lydda /Israel) was a martyr, that at the beginning that Christian pursuit among emperors Diokletian (284-305) to have died is. In the course of the centuries it became to the most popular holy one of the Christianity. In the east churches he is admired as large martyr and an ore martyr.
Special spreading found those to kite-dead - legend of George. With the kite George becomes only approx. 800Years after the spreading of its martyr legend brought in the time of the crusades in connection. Historical personal data its are uncertain. 1969 became George from this reason in a reform act of Pope Paul VI. officially from the catholic holy calendar removes. 1975 dip the name howeveragain in the Roman general calendar up. The popularity and admiration of the holy one were thereby hardly affected.
Pc. George ranks among the 14 emergency aids, is name giver of Georgien and the protection patron of different countries, (aristocracy) families, cities and knight medals. The first name George (and linguistic modifications) listensthe most popular first names in Europe.
Its symbol is the so-called George cross. The red cross on white reason is contained in many coats of arms and of flags. Further holy attributes, which serve beside the George cross than distinguishing feature, are the Drache, the lance as well as its representation than Knight and rider. The martyr is partly explained with Palmwedel.
the legends holy George
The source research at the George legend uncovers two telling rings, whereby the kite fight was caused to the legend later. Contentwise they do not have anything together, except the courage of George. While George in the older legend death than martyrs dies, he is power exercising hero and more activelyBesieger of the bad one in the more modern kite legend. Both in the indication of God, how it corresponds to the Christian legend.
George as a martyr
the oldest mention of George of the church father Eusebius († 339) reports scarcely of his death as a martyr. Here its death date is called,the today's name day of the holy one. Around that smallasiatically - Syrian area soon legends, which of different data and events report, formed however as their core of the statement the cruelty of the torture have and the overcoming of the agonies of George by its faith. Protests concretelyAnd through-stands for George against pursuit and discrimination of Christians different torture methods, with which it is to be persuaded in addition the Christianity to call off. George survives - depending upon legend - some of it, up to (even announced) the end. Further elements concern in different sources and later additives for examplethe Christian poverty ideal (George, represented as noble knights, given away its country the arms, before it makes its protest open) and the destruction of Götzenbildern of heidnischer temples.
George as kite-dead
as during the time of the crusades the ore gels Michael, a popular protection patron, at popularity lost, the characteristic of the Drachentöters (off 12.7-9) to George is transferred. This happened more than a half millenium after the spreading of itsMartyr legend. Since the martyr legend ends with death, the kite legend was placed in front. Particularly later the version spread legenda aurea, which was together collected even from different text versions. In it are also resemblances to further legends (as for example the kite legend thatHoly Martha of Bethanien). The kite legend George's von Kappadokien is similarly different knight fairy tales. The difference lies here in the statement. George saves the virgin king daughter from a Bestie, to the kite, by killing these. The king daughter is a victim, that thatDrache of the population demands. The country is released after the killing and George guesses to the baptism. This is on a large scale arranged. In different version of the legend at a differently large number of people, which is to clarify the effect of the miracle. Hubertus halfchamfer points to itthat George does not marry the king daughter, since the baptism is the contentwise goal of the legend. The kite fight is the courageous fight against the bad. In the Christian connection the Drache can be equated mostly with the devil.
further George legends
beside thatboth main legend strands, which form the life history of George together in the advanced Middle Ages, there are further around it. So for example a legend reports, how a Drache is defeated with the help of a broken off finger Reliquie George.
For the propagation of the George cult in Christian countries is importantthe income Jerusalems by the international cross knight army. Here George appears as white knights and helps with the income of the city. George as white knights possibly comes of to the Georgian tradition. By the internationality of the crusades this special picture spreads rapidly and coins/shapes soon the representations,to then also the Drache comes.
the George admiration
George was originally a holy of the eastern Christianity, on the basis of the front Orient, Ethiopia and Egypt. In the merowingischen Franconia realm the George admiration is already in 6. Centurytestifies, which became largest popularity George however in the high Middle Ages assigns. In the age of the crusades and ride ore around the common itself the cult around eastern martyr appreciably. George became the battle aid with conquest Jerusalems by the cross drivers (15. July 1099), became as miles Christi, as a soldier Christi for the identification figure of the knights and Krieger, to the holy one of knight medals like toward end 12. Century developed German medal or temp-learn. In the last centuries of the Middle Ages George was the patron of cities, castles, ruling families; itbecame first of the 14 emergency aids. Ritterlich--noble George brother shanks of the late Middle Ages (societies with pc. Jörgenschild) belong likewise here like the adaptation of George by the urban middle class.
George, who was martyr and knight, - so the Ikonografie (representation) of the holy one in the later Middle Ages- provided with palm, (more broken off) lance, sword and sign, the victory banner carrier with flag was, (riding) the kite fighter with the defeated kite, the symbol of the bad one to its feet; it was considered to that as a knight of the God nut/mother Maria on ground connection, in the rest of the kite-killing ore gel Michael inSky corresponded.
The admiration of George documents the change of the Christianity of the pazifistischen religion absolutely, for the religion of the crusades as holy from the passive, pain-suffering martyr to the patron of the war people. Probably George took over the kite attribute of the ore gel Michael, that here by failures with the crusadesat popularity had lost. George was explained already before the crusades as a knight, but solidified themselves this picture by these events.
late ancient times and earlymedieval reports on a journey over Palestine (6. - 7. Century)
of the George admirationin 5. to 7. We know century in at that time Christian, then also earlyIslamic Palestine due to of reports on a journey of pilgrims, who came into the holy country, toe-outs. Already soon after the death of the holy one formed at its grave in Diospolis, the earlier Lydda and today's Lod (with Tel Aviv), the center of the eastern George admiration. The archie deacon originating from North Africa (and librarian?) Theodosius, if the name is authentic, reports around 518/530 in its report on a journey of Diospolis as place of the Georgmartyriums. An anonymous pilgrim from the northItalian Piacenza mentions around 570 the same. Only the Pilgergeschichte of gallischen bishop Arkulf , who bereiste around 680 Palestine , written by the Irish abbott Adomnanus († 704 ) by the island monastery Iona, describes in more detail some eastern George legends. In earlyIslamic time connected yourself then the Christian martyr with the Jewish-ChristianProphet Elija, the Jewish samaritanischen priest Pinehas and the Islamic holy aluminium-Khidr („the Green “) to a synkretistischen figure, which is in all three abrahamitischen religions at home.
George legends of the late Middle Ages (13. - 15. Those corresponded
to century) of the extensive George admiration in the late Middle Agesat that time spread George legends, which enjoyed with the Gläubigen of large popularity. Variations and working on of the life and suffering the ore martyr accompanied whole medieval history. To in 12. Century was also included so the kite fight and the Errettung of the princess into the George legend, and thosearound 1263/67 Legenda wrote aurea the Jacobus de Voragine (approx. 1230-1298), an extensive collection of Heiligenviten, report in detail over the holy ones. One „George legend “in verse form is the Reinbots of Durne (over 1240), which leans against „the will stem “and „Parzival of “tungsten of ash brook (around 1200/20). ThoseGeorge legend Reinbots was transformed then in the late Middle Ages into the Prosafassung „book by holy George “.
George as a protection patron
George Reliquien are admired at different places. So z. B. in Toulouse, where its whole body is to lie. GeorgeArm Reliquie is in many places gehuldigt. The head should have been kept first in Ferrara. Since that 8. Century he is admired in Rome. The head, or a head part, is admired in the George monastery on the island Reichenau. Further Vermehrungen and allocations of Reliquien are reported. Also thoseFlag of George is admired as Reliqiue.
|23. April||23. April||23. April||6. May||23. November|
|(required anniversary in the general Roman calendar)||anniversary in some anglikanischen Kirchen*)||(legal holiday)|
|*) z.B. in the Church OF England, not however in the Episcopal Church into the the USA|
George in Georgien
in Georgien develops the myth „for white George “, „Tetri Giorgi “, testified since the center 9. Century. Georgian Ethnologen placethe emergence of the name into a connection with a heidnischen moon God, the mythologischen Krieger Giorgi. It is to have merged in the eyes of the population later with the Schutzheiligen Georgiens, holy George. Giorgi possesses the kämpferischen characteristics of George and fights against unfairness.
A legend reports that holy George was divided after his death into 365 pieces and its remnants over the whole country is scattered. Over his remnants the large multiplicity of the George churches is to have been built in Georgien.
It is reported likewise from Georgien that Georgevisibly in the battle against enemies fought. One calls thereby the 12. August 1121 in Didgori and the year 1660 or 1659 in the so-called Bachtrionischlacht.
George admiration in the German linguistic area (starting from 896)
George church on Reichenau
In the first centuries of the Middle Ages admiration and Reliquien of George had arrived also to Italy and in the merowingische Franconia realm. The Mainzer archbishop and Reichenauer abbott Hatto III. (891-913) 896 in Rome from Pope Formosus ( 891-896) received Reliquien, which admire since then in the George church in realm outer upper cellbecame. The cult around holy George, introduced by the Mainzer archbishop, lets itself be pursued on the island Reichenau also in the following centuries of the high Middle Ages well.
Whether the old-high-German George song belongs to the Bodensee, is disputed. Around the center of the 11. Century wrotethe well-known Historiograf Hermann of Reichenau († 1054) a Historia sancti Georgii („history of holy George “), latin a seal, which was lost unfortunately. From a Reichenauer handwriting 12. Century finally come several with Neumen, the medieval notation provided, latin lines, a praise song upthe martyr-holy.
the old-high-German George song (9. - 11. In particular Otfrid
of white castle admitted century) in a handwriting first of old-high-German poet (* approx. 800 † after 870) carried at the turnor at at the beginning of the 11. Century an unknown quantity writer the old-high-German seal of the George song . The song reports of the Bekehrung, the condemnation, the Martyrium and the miracles of the holy one.
archbishop anno II. of Cologne (11. Century)
as example of onestrong George admiration in the German linguistic area knows the person of the holy Cologne archbishop anno II.(1010-1075) to be represented. Anno originated from pc. Gallen, where since the turn to 9. Century the George cult is occupied. Also during Annos of religious training in Bamberg, to under others thatholy George geweihten cathedral church, was present the holy one. Thus it was logical that anno the far George admiration anhing. Visible certification is the establishment Cologne George pin in the years of the 1056/1058. Perhaps anno occasionally also a house inhabited directly at pc. George, that with a George chapelwas equipped. Also the George admiration in the monastery victory castle, an establishment Annos, was likewise obtained probably by the archbishop. From the following centuries then further certifications of the George cult are delivered, which can be brought with the holy admiration Annos in connection: The victory citizen Benignusschrein,around 1190 developed, the holy ones show anno, Erasmus, George and Nikolaus on its right side. In Cologne monasteries the pc. Pantaleon around 1186 manufactured Albinusschrein illustrates likewise - under the sieved Christian main virtues - the martyr. Had turned around in Cologne George pin the Reliquien of the archbishopTo find anno.
pc. Georgen in the Black Forest (11. Century)
the monastery sank Georgen in the Black Forest goes back on the George admiration on the island Reichenau, those the Reichenauer Klostervögte, in 11. Century from the family of the pc. Georgener of monastery founder Hezelo came,to have affected must. Their prayer house with their master castle in Königseggwald was probably at the turn of 10. to the 11. Century holy George geweiht and provided with appropriate Reliquien. In the course of the black forests establishment of monastery Hezelos and Hessos (1084/1085) Reliquien arrivedthe holy one finally after pc. Georgen in the Black Forest and led to the name donation.
George as a patron of the German knights
after George the holy one the knight and war people became, its role also by the German knight medal further promoted. So z. B. inPoland and in the Baltic. This very day it is nationalholy of Lithuania. Alone thirteen knight medals designate themselves after it.
The habsburgische emperor Maximilian I. (1459-1519), which also the surname „the last knight carries “, leaves sank George into its family tree to register and makes itProtectors of its family. Maximilian is buried in the pc. George church in Vienna.
George in the people customs
apart from the described spreading beginnings and examples of the admiration in the German linguistic area by churches and monasteries, aristocracy and Rittertum, as well as the seal and literature plays George also in People faith a role. Thus its kite legend probably forms the collecting main to ford ago the kite pass (starting from 1590), which was up to the prohibition part that ford ago Fronleichnamsprozession.
Around George also important farmer rules developed . For example were allowed starting from the George day (23. April) the fields not to be any longer entered.
George in England
on the Synode of Oxford in the year 1222 is to have been selected George to the patron of England and became protector of smelling pool of broadcasting corporations lion heart and its descendant.
Different medals, like the noble trousers volume medal (establishment 1348), the George cross or the George medal,understand themselves in the indication of George.Edward III. (1312-1377) the George chapel in lock dedicated Windsor to him. William Shakespeare leaves in its play Heinrich V. (1600) the soldiers proclaim „God with Heinrich! England! Sank George!”.
The red George cross comes above all meaning in thatHandels and war history of the country too. It is considered as one of the first indications, which represent the country. The cross on white garb becomes the clothes of the English soldiers. Over 1277 become the flag national flag and enter later also union Jack. As indicationsEngland pulls it with conquests of the English crown around the world and by many former colonies is taken up. Both in state coats of arms, as well as in handels and war flags. This very day the White Ensign with the George cross is the war flag of Great Britain and India.
Also overthe Church OF England spread the symbols of George. For example the Episcopal Church uses the George cross into the the USA likewise, even if the anniversary of the holy one in the current calendar of the Book OF Common Prayer does not appear from the year 1979 any more.
sankGeorge in the art
holy George was at all times a popular motive in the art. The probably oldest secured representation is a Fresko from that 6. Century in Egypt. Perhaps the most well-known paintings come from Albrecht Dürer (Paumgartner altar, 1503, old person Pinakothek Munich), Donatello and „George and Michael “of Raffael in the Paris Louvre. The probably umfassenste representation of different George legends was created with the picture cycle in the lock Jindřichův Hradec in Neuhaus/Böhmen. In the Baltic Sea area are the package hallsGroup of riders of the pc. George as kite-dead of the Lübecker of sculptor Bernt Notke, 1489 manufactured for the Swedish realm Weser Sten stubborn one in the Nikolaikirche of Stockholm, outstanding for the outgoing Middle Ages. A gypsum casting of the Stockholm group stands in the Lübecker Katharinenkirche. In the Lübecker pc. - Annen monastery rulesitself a further group of sculptures of the Lübecker of artist Henning of the Heyde in the 3/4 format. Under the multiplicity of the representations also the group of bronzes of Martin and George von Clausenburg ( 1373) in the Prager Burghof is worth mentioning.
important George monasteriesand - churches
- rock church in Lalibela (Ethiopia)
- George church in realm outer upper cell
- monastery pc. George in Leipzig (George nun monastery)
- monastery pc. Georgen in the Black Forest
- Cistercian interior monastery in pc. Jöris (frz. Pc. George)
- refuge Brunner: History of the German literature of the Middle Ages in the overview (= RUB 9485).Stuttgart 2003, S.267, 326
- Michael Buhlmann: Like holy George after pc. Georgen came. (= Vertex Alemanniae, H.1). Pc. Georgen 2001
- Michael Buhlmann: To the beginnings of the George admiration in the Christian-earlyIslamic Palestine (6. - 7. Century), in: The homeland messenger 14 (2003), S.37-47
- Michael Buhlmann: Sources tomedieval history Ratingens and its quarters: XII. Possession Cologne George pin in Homberg (1067? ; briefly 1148 ago), in: The couch grass 73 (2003), S.21ff
- harsh ore thunder: Pilgerfahrt in the holy country. The oldest reports of Christian Palästinapilger (4. - 7. Century). Stuttgart 2. Aufl. 2002
- harsh ore thunder: Pc.George in the large religions of the tomorrow and evening country, in: H. M. Mueller (Hrsg.): Reformation and practical theology. Anniversary publication for W. Jetter. Goettingen 1983, S.51-60
- George, in: H. L. Cellar (Hrsg.): Reclams encyclopedia of the holy ones and the Biblical shapes. Reclam, Stuttgart1987, S.248-252
- Wolfgang Haubrichs: George song and George legend in the early Middle Ages. Text and reconstruction. King stone in the Taunus 1979
- A. Krefting: Pc. Michael and pc. George in their spirit-historical relations (= German work on the University of Cologne, No. 14). Jena 1937
- hitting a corner hard Meineke, Judith Schwerdt: Introductioninto the old high German (= UTB 2167). Paderborn and others 2001, S.115ff
- E. Lucchesi Palli among other things: George, in: Encyclopedia of the Christian iconography, volume 6: Iconography of the holy Crescentianus from Tunis to Innocentia. Rome among other things 1974, Sp.365-390
- Gabriella thrust ore: “Holy George and the George day upthe Balkans ". In: Magazine for Balkanologie 4 (1985).
- Ewald Volgger (Hrsg.): „Sank George and its picture cycle in Neuhaus/Böhmen (Jindřichův Hradec) - historical, art-historical and theological contributions “series of publications: Sources and studies for the history of the German medal; 57 - N.G. Elwert publishing house, Marburg 2002 - ISBN 3-7708-1212-3
- therein among other things: „Hubertus Halfbas „the truth of the legend “
- Jacobus de Voragine: Legenda aurea. Latin/German, Hg. v. R. Nickel (= RUB 8464). Stuttgart 1988, S.192-197
Web on the left of
|Commons: George (holy one) - pictures, videos and/or audio files|
|Wikisource: George song - Source texts|
- http://www.bautz.de/bbkl/g/georg_h.shtml entry in the BBKL
- entry in the Ökumeni holy encyclopedia (ÖHL), the data in the ÖHL are however frequently unreliably
- Maia Zuraschwili, technical University of Georgien: The excessive quantities over holy George in Georgien - Caucasian post office No. 45 January/February 2004
- martinus.at over the patron George
- BenediktinerabteiKornelimünster over George
see also: Pc. George (term clarifying)
|SHORT DESCRIPTION||of Christian of holy,at the beginning of Christian pursuit under Diokletian death as martyrs to have died is, legendary kite-dead.|
|DATE OF BIRTH||in the 3. Century|
|PLACE OF BIRTH||uncertainly - possibly. Kappadokien|
|DYING DATE||around 303|
|DYING PLACE||uncertainly - possibly. Lydda|