George William Friedrich Hegel

George William Friedrich Hegel, porträtiert from Jakob Schlesinger, 1831

George William Friedrich Hegel (* 27. August 1770 in Stuttgart; † 14. November 1831 in Berlin) was a German philosopher and both central andlast shape of the German idealism.

Hegel was a idealistic philosopher, who drove and enzyklopädisch expanded dialectic thinking into speculative heights. Its system results from the principle: “The true is the whole.” (Phänomenologie of the spirit, Vorrede, S. 22). ThisTrue-whole realizes itself in history by antithetische partial truths, which together-find themselves in a higher synthesis. This becomes for its part the anti-thesis in a new contrast. The dialectic basic contrast is from spirit and subject. The spirit comes in thatSubject (its “different one”) arranging to itself. Under this perspective Hegel developed a comprehensive historical philosophy of large interpreting Kraft. It maintained a close friendship with Friedrich William Joseph of Schelling and Friedrich Hölderlin.

Hegels speculative, rather on the “large whole” ason the small detail arranged thinking is seen on the one hand as continuation of, on the other hand in addition, than clear contrast to philosophy Immanuel Kant. During Kant rather in the tradition of English philosophy and that saw itself still clear to the age Clearing-up belonged, is to be arranged Hegel in the German classical period.

The Hegel works became the starting point for numerous currents of philosophy, among other things the Hegelianismus and - unequally effect - the marxism. Numerous marxism critics see the origin in Hegels thinkingfor (their opinion after existing) the intrinsic errors of the Marxist system.

In the Hegelhaus in Stuttgart a permanent exhibition is over the life way Hegels. The city Stuttgart lends every three years the international Hegel price to it in honours.

Table of contents


George William Friedrich Hegel

early time(1790-1800)

GEORGE WILLIAM FRIEDRICH HEGEL (his family called it only “William”) became to 27. August 1770 in Stuttgart born.


his father George Ludwig (1733-1799), born in Tübingen, originates from a family from officials and ministers.He was a usual income officer in the fiscal service of Württemberg (“Rentkammersekretär” since 1766, starting from 1796 “pension chamber expedition advice”). Hegels nut/mother, Maria Magdalena Louisa (born pious, 1741-1783) originates from a wealthy Stuttgart family, which brought some theologians, attorneys and high-ranking Bürokraten out. Itsufficient Kentnisse was formed to teach the young Hegel the bases of latin for their time and had.

George Ludwig and Maria Magdalena have to 29. September 1769 married. Hegel was that oldest of their three children (still four further childrenafter their birth died briefly 1771, 1774, 1777 and 1779). Its sister, Christiane Louise (1773-1832), which 1807-1814 as Gourvernante for Josef of Berlichingen had worked, had 1820 a Nervenzusammenbruch and for one year to the lunatic asylum Zwiefalten one in-supplied.She committed three months after Hegels death suicide through drowns. Hegels brother George Ludwig (1776-1812), the youngest, died fighting as an officer for the army Napoleon in the Russian campaign.


at the age of three years hasHegel the “German school” visits, at the age of five years latin school. From seven to eighteen it visited the Stuttgart primary school and the High School. He was a serious, industrious and successful pupil. It showed remarkable curiosity, a broad spectrumfrom interests and visited most diverse lectures.

Hegel received

studies and interests at the age of eight years the complete expenditure for work from Shakespeare (18 volumes, in a German translation) from its loved teacher, Löffler. Under the Greek authorsits favorites were Platon, Sokrates, Homer and Aristoteles. It became enthusiastic for the Greek Tragödichter Euripides and Sophokles. It translated Sophokles ANTIGONE (in Prosa, and second time at the university as poem). In Greek it read and others the NEWWILL as well as the ILIAS von Homer. Among latin the authors were his favorites Livius, Cicero and Epictetus, it some their work also translated.

Hegel has starting from the 5. Class also Hebrew learned, two hours weekly. It seems during thatMidday of French courses to have visited, which were offered by its school. He learned also English, perhaps at the latest of a private teacher, reads that starting from Frankfurt he English newspapers in the Orginal. Favourite works of German-speaking authors become Goethe, Schillers FIESKO, Lessings VALUE AGONATHAN, Klopstocks, MESSIAH and Hippels of PERSONAL RECORDS. At German philosophy it reads as a pupil and others Moses Mendelssohns PHAEDON, and wolf LOGIC.

The favourite plays of Hegel were chess and maps. It began tobacco to cold. 1783, at the age of thirteen, experienced Hegelits first own tragedy; it lost its loved and affectionate nut/mother due to of Gallenfieber. Hegel and its sister got sick thereby also even heavily with this illness and it with it would have almost died.

From his school time is us ofAbove all Hegel (apart from its translations) a diary (partial in latin) delivers, written, with tracing, during eighteen months (it began it with 14, to 26. June 1785, the last entry is expressed in the 7. January 1787, with sixteen).

Butthe outstanding feature of its studies was its love for notes and Exzerpten, which it continued to collect and kept its whole life long. This collection, alphabetically arranged, contained notes to classical authors, Exzerpte of newspapers, treatises to the philology, stories of the literature,Arithmetic, geometry, applied mathematics, physics, moral, psychology and education from the standard works of the period. These notes were the raw materials for further elaboration, he were also not only passive in this Exzertpen; the young Hegel wrote also papers, itsAdmiration of the classical world express, an admiration, which it never lost.

the Tuebinger “pin”

as Hegel eighteen was years old, in the autumn of 1788, it in theological seminar of the Tübinger of pin registered themselves. However hasit no large interest in traditional theology shown: its lectures were considered as boring, and it pointed more interests in the lectures to the classical authors. It has its whole life to the advantages of the study (Greek and latin) of the classical authorsbelieved. In particular it studied intensively Aristoteles, beside it also Schiller, Spinoza, Jacobi, Herder, Voltaire. It develops a special preference in the pin for the writings of Rousseau.

Hegel felt the atmosphere with that Tübingen as oppressively. The strict and artificial disciplinethe pin appeared to it like an outdated inheritance of a dark past. The explosion of the French revolution, those for many students, and probably also for Hegel, which meant at the beginning of a new epoch, has pin (where also student in the Tübinger tooWuerttemberg belonging Moempelgardner from France studied) clear impression made (see below).

But Hegel loved the far study and an academic occupation aimed at. After only two years Hegel received the degree of a “Magisters of philosophy” in September 1790. At the 23.Septemberit received the desired theological certificate to 1793. The Absschlussbescheinigung of Hegel means that he had good abilities and various Kentnisse. The original certificate meant that Hegel dedicated many efforts to philosophy. This was written as follows in latin:“Philosophiae multam operam impendit”. However due to the error of a Kopisten the word was transferred “multam”, (much, many) as “nullam” (none). Many Biografien repeat the later, wrong version. (See in addition the document of 46 in the 1977 expenditure of Nicolin of “letterof and at Hegel ", volume of IV/1 “of documents and materials to the biography” inclusive. the comment there).

Hegels dark feature has it from its Mitstudenten, which he followed on its migrations, in order to drink beer and play maps, pointed nameslike “old man” brought in. As Terry Pinkard noticed in its Biografie of Hegel:

“Like up SAE victory Hegel against the ways of the seminar was also always, it remained thereby the industrious, serious companion, who was always he; its friends at the seminargave it the pointed name “the old man” ()…. It was to be sat not contently thereby with simply tavern in the tavern to play maps and it well to be gone be able; it read beside it a good deal and took that learnsextremely seriously ". (Pinkard, 1996)

Hegel profited much from the intelektuellen exchange with its later famous (occasional) room mates Hölderlin and Schelling. From Hölderlin he learned Schiller and the ancient Greeks to love still more, while the pseudo Kantiani theology of his Leherer himmore and more pushed off. Schelling divided these ideas. It all protested against the political and church internal conditions in their mother country and formulated new principles of reason and liberty.

Rezeption of the French revolution in the pin

in the summer1792 participate Hegel in the meetings of a revolutionary-patriotic student club, which brings ideas from France to Tübingen. They read French newspapers and Hegel and Hölderlin with large interest (its former Mitstudentens Leutwein zumidest in the review) as Jakobiner are designated. Afterthe same source is Hegel thereby “the enthusiastische advocate of liberty and Gleicheit” to have been. With a group of gleichgesinnter students they study Plato, Kant and Jacobi. At 14. July 1792, are Hegel, Hölderlin and Schelling (the straight MARSEILLAISE inGerman had translated), around a liberty tree on an nearby meadow to have danced. This old history is doubted again and again (see in addition the classical study of Dieter Henrichs: “Leutwein over Hegel” in the “Hegel studies” volume 3, in those however infirst line the place of the liberty tree), history is doubted illustrated however the probable tendencies Hegels and its friends, how we know it from Hegels letters and the Zeitumständen in the Tübinger pin.

“YARD MASTERS” in Berne…

Hegel strucknot the church career, after it had left the university. Instead it, in hope for time and leisure for the study of philosophy and the Greek literature in its spare time, became a house teacher. 1793 receive Hegel, byJohannes Brodhag (the restaurant operator/barkeeper of Schillers favourite hotel in Stuttgart, the “ox”), an employment in Berne, where it is to give Karl Friedrich of riser private instruction to the children of the captain. In those days a young Magister of theology from the middle class hadessentially only the choice to become minister or yard master. Hölderlin and Hegel decided for the loads of the occupation of yard master.

As Anthony La Vopa in its essay BEAUTY, TALENT AND EARNINGS/SERVICES reports:

“one of the standard complaints at the end of the century was,that exaggerated expectations of parents in a grotesque contrast to the poor payment and the degrading working conditions stood, which had to bear the yard masters ".

Like all important citizens of Berne, also captain (“Dragoon captain”) was Karl Friedrich of riser (1754-1841) memberthe legislation, large the advice of Berne (“Conseil Souverain”). It took this post after the death of its father 1785. Karl Friedrich and its father Christoph of riser (1725-1785) belonged in former times to Bernese to oily archie, but their criticism at their condition comradesgrew and withdrew themselves in such a way you from the advice. Those comparatively liberal ideas the riser fell with Hegel on fruitful soil. They introduced Hegel also to the social and political situation at that time into Berne.

After Martin Bondeli, thatprominent expert for Bernese the period Hegels, had Hegel and riser the some lively controversies over politics and philosophy, altogether however was pleased the young Hegel that the risers family strove for science and education and from them the criticismto hear that Bernese politics.

studies in the library the riser

in the winter remained those of riser in their Bernese city dwelling in the June core lane 51, close that Bernese municipal library. They spent the summer on their Weingut in Tschuggwith Erlach (in the peripheral area of Berne). There Hegel their private library was at the free disposal, which was created of of Christoph of riser the older one (1651-1731). The library was by Christoph of riser (the younger one), a statesman, the one special interestat the political literature the antique one and from the Middle Ages to the modern times had. This library was rich one at books of the French and English authors, who were rather rare otherwise in Berne. Karl Friedrich of riser carried less to thisLibrary, although it listed its 3,871 books later (the full catalog is in “Hegel in Switzerland” published, published from H. Cutter and N. Waszek).

In Tschugg Hegel read a considerable part of this library, with special emphasis on Montesquieu(ESPRIT of the Lois), as well as Grotius, Hobbes, Hume, Leibniz, curl, Macchiavelli, Rousseau, Shaftesbury, Spinoza, Thukydides and Voltaire. These authors were also the favourite authors Christoph of riser. One can say thus that Hegel in its Bernese period the basis forits broad knowledge in philosophy, Sozialwisssenschaften, politics, national economy and the political economics put. The traces of this far and specialized knowledge e.g. are. in Hegels of famous philosophy of the right (1821).

in Frankfurt

also in Frankfurt toMain denied it its living costs with house positions for teachers (1797 to 1800). The death of its father 1799 made it for it possible to live some years financially independently.

youth writings

Hegels theological youth writings are religiously and politically oriented. Already these writings,around the topics separation, dividing hardened contrasts and difference circle, anticipate later dialectic through „to abolition “and reconciliation of these separations. Among its youth writings for a long time also a system program of the German idealism was ranked, which however Hölderlin and Schelling to be added must.

Jena (1800 - 1807)

in the year 1800 went to Hegel to Jena, habilitierte in the year 1801 and became private lecturer. After recommendation by Goethe it became 1805 a.o. Professor appointed. In Jenathe “Phänomenologie of the spirit “developed. Due to the occupation of Jena by the French troops under Napoleon Hegel 1807 left the city and changed to Bamberg as an editor of the Bamberger newspaper.

Nuremberg (1808-1816)

The time as Gymnasiallehrer

of the occupation as an editor of the Bamberger newspaper arrived to Hegel 1809 after Nuremberg. The switching there procured the friend Friedrich Immanuel riveting hammer, even at the time upper school advice and member of the section for public instruction andEducational establishments in Munich. Riveting hammer woman horchte in a Beibrief to a food supply package already once forwards, since riveting hammer was not safe whether it insulting by a such offer work not nevertheless. But Hegel was, after itself a Professur in Heidelberg had smashed, gratefully for the safe income quite. And in such a way was issued to 15. November 1808 the appointment as the professor of the preparation sciences and rector of the Egidiengymnasiums in Nuremberg.

Paying amounted to 900 guldens plus a Rektoratszugabe of 100 guldens andfree Logis, which one tried to lay out it initially however toward 100 guldens or free Logis. Hegel held now instruction in philosophy as intended, beyond that in addition, in substitution for Germanistik, Greek and higher mathematics. The requirements thateducational switching affected themselves according to its own statements in the direction of an increase of the transparency of the representation extremely positively. As a teacher “personality” he seems to have belonged thereby rather to the good-natured ones.

The arrangement of instruction was strict -thus the material was discussed for example in dictated paragraphs, also by the individual pupil was expected to be able to saw that in the past hour of Durchgenommene in the next -, this system became again permeable however then by the fact that intermediate questions not onlypermitted, but also were desired and so the “information giving” of the teacher the largest portion of the hour to fill was able.

The philosophical knowledge brought into the booklets in such a way was compiled later by Karl Rosenkranz from the pupil with writings and than philosophical Propädeutikgiven change. In addition, Hegel fell back in the Heidelberger time to its recordings of the philosophy hours at the Egidiengymnasium gladly.

The hoped for order of financial conditions did not adjust itself however. So few the public funds for a Pedell, a Kopistenetc. to have been enough, so few seem one probably able were to insure the rector regular payments. Arrears of months in the instruction of the content could occur and brought Hegel into new old difficulties. Inthe Nürnberger brought time however something new to other regard. Probably to its own surprise Hegel became acquainted with here a young woman, who was determined with him into the conditions of the marriage to step:

earliest and Hegels

Marie of Cloths was straight twenty years old, as its Hegel to 16. April 1811 the marriage offered. It was approximately half as old thereby in as Hegel themselves. The doubts of the father nevertheless seem, Jobst William Karl baron von Tuch tooSimmelsdorf, senator of the city Nuremberg, and also the nut/mother Maries, geb. Susanna Freiin Haller of Hallerstein on another areas than that of the age lying.

As riveting hammer of the piece of news with the date 18. April 1811 experienced,Hegel wrote in addition, its „luck is partially to the condition bound that [he] a place on the university receives “, since Marie nevertheless beside control with an annual Apanage by 100 valleys be granted should. Around the thing notto dramatisieren, riveting hammer proves recommendation letters for Hegel quite suitable for the collecting main with the Tuchers also here as a friend and answers with a kind.

On this or other way the Tucher doubts seem to then have itself absent-minded, because forthe 16. September 1811 was fixed the wedding. A daughter, who deceased however briefly after the birth, rose from the marriage. The following son after Hegels grandfather Karl designated and later than professor for history admits. The following (second) sonHegels received the name Immanuel after its godfather riveting hammer and brought it to the Konsistorialpräsidenten of the province Brandenburg. Also the relationship of the married people was described as up to death continuous coined/shaped of affectionate affection.

drawing up of the logic

inexactly Hegel began briefly to write the time after the marriage ceremony also at its science of the logic. „It is not little thing to write in the first term of its marrying a book of most abstruse contents [...] “got riveting hammer in February 1812 toohear. In the year 1813 Hegel was then appointed the school advice, with which its material situation improved somewhat.

Heidelberg (1816-1818)

to 19. October 1816 arrived Hegel in Heidelberg . To 28. It held its start lecture for Octobers. As lecture manualthe first edition „of the encyclopedia of the philosophical sciences appeared “in May 1817.

It cooperated in the editorship „of the Heidelberger of yearbooks for literature “. There its writing appeared over the negotiations of the national princes of the kingdom Württemberg.

To 26. December 1817 received the offer to Hegel from to the old person stone, the first Prussian Secretary of cultural affairs to come to the citizens of Berlin university.

Berlin (1818-1831)

grave of George William Friedrich Hegel

in the year 1818 followed Hegel the call to the universityof Berlin, whose rector was at this time Schleiermacher. Hegel became even a rector of the university in the year 1829. To 22. October 1818 holds its start lecture for Hegel. From then on it reads usually weekly ten hours. Its lecturesbecome fast popular and are not must only for students. Also colleagues and civil servants visit the training meetings. It died 1831 to the Cholera spread strongly in Berlin and on the Dorotheenstädti cemetery was buried.


Schleiermacher, professor for theology, was a prominent colleague Hegels. Their relationship was difficult and could be kept on both sides able to work probably only with strained abdominal wall.

In a preface to a book review Hegel polemisiert 1822 violently against feeling theology Schleiermachers:

„Is basedthe religion in humans only on a feeling,… like that would be the dog the best Christian, because it carries this “- the feeling of its dependence (note. the author) - „most strongly in itself… also the dog has release feelings, ifits hunger by a bone satisfaction becomes. “(zit. n. Franz Wiedmann: Hegel. S. 74)

communion wafer controversy

Hegel was Protestant and rejected the catholic communion understanding therefore. In a lecture he noticed once that, if a mouse the communion wafersin the Tabernakel, a strict creditor their Kothäufchen anknabberte anbeten would have. This example annoyed naturally the catholic Klerus, which weighted promptly in higher place. Hegel, which could be safe the solidarity of its students, was nevertheless forced, to the expressions publiclyTo take position.

the state State of

the political attitude Hegels was always violently discussed. The different lines would have to be discussed in further Wikipedia articles. Here only a short estimate is given: Hegel was into the citizen of Berlin years inTrailer of the constitutional monarchy of Prussia. After its enthusiasm for the revolutionary departure 1789, frightening over humans „in its illusion “ (Schiller) and the failure Napoleon at Hegel a political re-orientation had taken place. It söhnte itself with thatpolitical conditions out. He was reliably no friend of Stechschritt and Duckmäuserei, but he was also no rebel. He was a civil philosopher, i.e. Citizen of a state. And in these it arranged itself, like it it its students thenalso taught. But the state was not self purpose, but had a center, around which it should circle: the implementation and organization of the liberty.

the popularity Hegels

Hegels popularity and effect power far beyond its death is upto lead back the citizens of Berlin time. The university was a scientific center of that time and many generations coined/shaped. And there the Hegelianer over decades power factor at the university was, was noticeable their stable smell in all faculties - and not always benediction-rich.If Hegels teachings could give valuable impulses to the Geisteswissenschaften, she worked in the natural sciences as hindrance or was at best ignored. Its pupils arrange them after death Hegels from its deduction and from the Mitschriften of individual listeners of texts, asBooks publish



the central term, which one connects with Hegels thinking, read dialectic. This term has a very long tradition and meant originally only „art of the discussion guidance “. Hegel interprets dialectic upa new way. It is now a movement, which concretizes itself over contradictions historically. That differentiates it clearly from the epoch of the clearing-up, that 18. Century, and concomitantly of Immanuel edge. The clearing-up was tendentious ahistorisch and aimedon a pure reason, an absolute truth as vanishing point and measure of all real one. For Hegel have themselves reason, truth to only realize self-confident its during an historical process. This happens in famous - however from Hegel themselves never alsothese terms designated - dialectic three-step: Thesis - anti-thesis - synthesis. Everything that is, has also its contradiction; „the truth “is meeting saying and contradiction in „the higher “combination of the synthesis, in it is the contradictions„waived “. Abolition, again a central term with Hegel, means a threeness, after latin the words negare (answer in the negative), elevare (raise) and conservare (retain).

Examples of it:

1. from Hegels logic. Philosophy begins with „its “. „Its “has directly the contrast„nothing “actually. With more exact analysis Hegel states however that „its “and „nothing “are identical. It calls the synthesis of both „“, constant ignoring of both into one another. Is a new thesis, which bears the existence as anti-thesis.This dialectic is the engine of the system, from which Hegel develops finally each reality, also each thought reality.
2. Example from „the Phänomenologie of the spirit “of 1807: Sinnliche certainty - perception - understanding. Hegel wants of the spirit to itselfeven conceptually seize („on the term bring “). Again the question about the beginning is extremely important. The Sinnliche certainty is the richest form of the spirit, when close regarding the poorest, it sees themselves however at the same time everything, can however at nothingremind. The perception stands to it in contrast, because it had memory, it can determine connections over the time. But it can be mistaken. Therefore the understanding is the synthesis of Sinnlicher certainty and perception.
The 3. Example closeshere directly on and one of the sinnfälligsten and effect-most powerful moments of Hegel thinking, the dialectic of rule and farmhand shank, is which explain the self-confident its. With the thesis of consciousness the anti-thesis of another consciousness associates. Both commit themselves together, butnot peacefully, but in one „fight “, in which over „acknowledgment “is. The synthesis is not finally the self-confident its, but is independent it into a case, in the other one, gentleman and farmhand. Hegel seizes here - like also otherwiseoften - to a very drastic word choice, it writes from a fight for life and death, which meanwhile would be senseless, if actually stronger consciousness killed the weaker, because thus would be it with the acknowledgment past. The farmhand shows itselfin the further process of the happening than the stronger principle, because it works on nature. By working on nature, he becomes gentleman over these and thus at the same time gentleman over his knechtische nature, which manifests in itself in its death fear.He can attain true liberty, if he overcomes this fear and against its gentleman revolts themselves. (Work, also a Hegel category. There are certain points of contact to the today's principle aluminum agent theory, as there an information - projection/lead of the farmhand, the agent,against the Mr., who Prinzipal is maintained,).
The synthesis of this dialectic is now the liberty. One can interpret this stage as the transition of a feudalen society with body-own farmers to a civil society, or one can do hercompare with (mythischen) a phase of the heroischen establishment of state, as they are described for instance in antique dramas or modern Westernfilmen from Hollywood. Marx derives from this the idea of the class warfare . Axel Honneth developed afterwards to this chapter in the 90's20. Century a socialphilosophical theory about social conflicts.

circles, system, world history

Hegels a large goal was it to seize systematically all sinnlichen and mental realnesses. Therefore its philosophy culminates in one „all to “comprehensive encyclopedia. It follows therebyconsistently a three-membered pattern. This calls it one „circle of circles “. The first circle is marked by „the logic “, second is called „nature philosophy “, the third „philosophy of the spirit “. The logic gives the conceptual bases, nature philosophy seizes the physical,chemical and biological bases, the spirit finally the human interests including politics and world history. World history has a terminator point, which is in waived way (s.o.) the beginning at the same time. One compared Hegels concept with the odyssey, with that thatHero, Odysseus, at the end again lands, of where he is broken open, Ithaka.

In detail is to be said to it: under „logic “Hegel seizes not what is understood since Aristoteles and to a certain extent until today by it, but quasi the structure,the possibility reason, on which its (scientifically) and spirit develop themselves. Hegels nature philosophy is to be agreed upon only heavily with the today's understanding from natural sciences to, it reflects the knowledge of its time however very precisely. It is striking, which masses at literatureHegel and into its system processed integrated. In addition completely overhauled models belong like that to the geological earth age regulation (Hegel believed probably not in it, oriented themselves however at the Bible) like also future-powerful research like the Alexander of Humboldts. OneRenaissance also this part of Hegel philosophy clears on (see literature).

Hegels historical philosophy is the effect-most powerful part of its system. While that 18. Century worried about the term (ungeschichtlich understood) of the reason, leads Hegel one century of historyand the development. Its definition of history reads: „Progress in the consciousness of the liberty “, with which one of the first denominations of the concept of the progress was given. As the first menschheitliche consciousness was like that that only one was free, the emperor, thatPharao. Then one became consciously that some were free, the free ones in Greece, when there were still slaves and quasi enslaved women there. In the Christianity consciousness is like that that everyone is free, even if he in according to HegelPrison sits.

Hegels pattern is ingeniously simply, in the detail however often extremely complicated. It is accused to the historical model all the time that it is extremely eurozentristisch. In particular its expressions over Africa and African are with application of today's yardsticks indiskutabel, although are held outit can that Rationalität on the African continent must be defined differently than in Europe (Léopold Sédar Senghor speaks of a European “eye reason” and an African “embrace reason”). Indiskutabel also, as Hegel installed the German as the highest stage (world) of the spirit, althoughthis, from a valuation once apart, within its system is clear, since he embodies the straight so far highest reached philosophical synthesis, and its philosophy purely coincidentally in “Germany” did not develop (although certainly different European language cultures and nations “Germany”fertilized have, and in reverse).


for the dialectic development of its terms avails itself of Hegel of a completely own language. Today as during its lifetimes one does heavily to understand these. Some sentence constructions provoke the grammatical possibilities of the GermansLanguage over fee out, because Hegel often copies the more fastidious Greek syntax in German. Darkly a Hegels term language blows against. For Arthur Schopenhauer - who was Hegel of time life a decided opponent - the devil seemed already in the word buried:

“these monströsen joining of words, which waive themselves and contradict, so that the spirit something in vain destroy themselves thereby to think abmartert, until it exhausts and together-sinks finally, in it (the young man, who studies Hegel original works) gradually the ability toSo completely it thinks that from then to hollow empty empty phrases it to thoughts apply. “(Arthur Schopenhauer)

Ernst Bloch judges in subject - object. Explanations concerning Hegel differently:

„Hegels language breaks the usual grammar only, to say because her outrageoushas, to which the past grammar does not handle offers. “(Ernst Bloch)

the description of Karl Rosenkranz, pupil and later bio graph Hegels, offers a psychological explanation:

„The obviously cumbersome at Hegels language I can explain myself by the fact that he to a certain extentin nouns it thought that during view of an article the designations appeared as it were to it as shapes, which stepped with one another into actions, and whose actions he had to then translate only into words. As if the rules would not have been missing to it somehow, butbecause it translated contents of its thoughts only, so that each language seemed to a certain extent strange to it. “(Karl Rosenkranz)

Hegel philosophy it placed itself to the task to represent or in itself returning of the world spirit then and illustrates themselves this opensProject in the special one in the language, those it avails itself. Language and requirement must accompany in the question about the sense of the dark mode of expression Hegels. The tremendous Satzkonstrukt, which opens itself with Hegel or locks rather in itself, is above all also expression of Hegels requirement: It, as a founder of absolute philosophy, must become a world spirit, in order to master this task. Hegel justifies itself in such a way by the project. God speaks by the feature Hegel. Godargued over its opinion, it does not supply no explanations to understand, it requires no justification.Theodor W. Adorno says therefore:

„Hegel distrusts to the argument deeply and with good reason. Primarily the Dialektiker knows [...]: the fact that, which remains argumentative thus always thatRefutation exposes itself. Therefore Hegel necessarily disappoints on the search for the argument. Already the question about the why, which the ungewaffnete reader feels bemüssigt frequently to Hegel transitions and consequences to address, where other possibilities than ofit ventilated openly fancy, is ungemäss. The direction constants are marked of the total intention [...]. “(Th. W. Adorno)

the subject seems itself in the sentence - where it should itself actually with a descriptor behaften - to become more aware of „itselfto be “: Such the unproven reference to the higher logic of the total intention formulates itself. Sidelong the subject, around which the events bewenden themselves, is led only in pro nominal form, to dissolve so that the difference slowly and the readers of the unexpressedSuggestion to be subject threatens, everything is finally spirit and unit. Even Adorno admits in three studies to Hegel plainly: „With the total intention oppose Hegel did not trust at all. “The dark and ambiguous one in Hegels sentences draw understanding difficulties andin the special one the possibility for radical reinterpretations. Adorno continues to determine:

„None can pick more out from Hegel, than he inserts. The process of the understanding is the progressive automatic correction of such projection by the comparison with what stands written.The thing contains, as form law, expectation of productive fantasy with the reading. Which may be registered at experience, he must invent from the own. Straight one in the breaks between experience and term must hook understanding. “(Th. W. Adorno)

after Adornogenuine understanding of Hegel original texts exists not in the understanding of the word content, but in the far thinking, painting and complementing its that does not say Hegel however darkly antizipiert. Only the association understands the Hegel anticipation:

„Hegel can be read only associatively. “ (Th. W. Adorno)

In it the danger saves the danger of the various reinterpretations of prescription ion history in handling Hegel.


in the following the elaboration of some central conceptualnesses of Hegel dialectic. Hegel uses nowhere in connection with itsTerms thesis, anti-thesis, synthesis often used dialectic. It eingedeutscht these.

On itself its represents the dialectically sudden, the Thesis, i.e., it is not stepped yet into exchange with a negation of it. It is the simple its, presence, which did not find yet to itself.

The for other its or also outer he itself its is the first negation of to-itself-Seins, its Antithesis. Steps itself except itself, it is for its others. ThatI is not original I for itself, but it forms in accordance with Hegel substantially by means of the others and in reverse. The surrounding field becomes article of the nature and this as it were the subject of the surrounding field. Simple on itself its becomes in this Outer he itself its another.

The for itself its is the negation for other its, the Synthesis of on itself its and for other its. On itself its retained itself in for other its: In this moment the entäusserte nature returns again to itself. In overcome for other itsit matured at the others. The knowledge in on itself its became in the outer he itself stepping for other its a knowledge of itself, the subject could take itself to the article, is called, it in the other one recognized themselves than whatit is: a knowing subject. After Hegel:The simple certainty of its became it.

On and for I ITs is again set on itself its, which is received a recent dialectic movement. Hegels dialectic describes so a circle which can be repeated eternally.

The negationHegel in the three-way sense understands. The denial of a term knows the destruction (simple negation), which abolition as keeping ( to-itself-Seins in for other its) or the abolition means as collection ( to the synthesis) the same. The negation is like that with Hegel thoseDriving force of all dialectic movement.

The original term substance summarizes the underlying, the nature of the things, that always already Dagewesene. Hegel understands the term in double way: The substance is with it subject, at the basis a lying, but ratheritself developing nature. The underlying is Hegel furthermore the movement of the total subject, the world spirit.


the recapitulatory work of the entire system Hegels is:

from this work results the following pictureits systematic complete work:

I. Science of the logic (1812-16, over work. 1831)

II. Nature philosophy

III. Philosophy of the spirit

further one, not into its system due, works and smaller writings are:

  • The Positivität of the Christian religion (1795/96)
  • the spirit of the Christianity and its fate (1799/1800)
  • the condition of Germany (1800-02)
  • Various forms with the current Philosophieren seem (1801)
  • the difference to fencing ashes and Schelling system of philosophy (1801)
  • over the nature of the philosophical criticism (1802)
  • like the common human understanding philosophy take (1802)
  • relationship of the Skeptizismus to philosophy (1802)
  • faithand knowledge or reflection philosophy of the subjectivity in the completeness of their forms as Kanti, Jacobi and fencing ash philosophy (1803)
  • about the scientific types of treatment of the nature right (1803)
  • who thinks abstractly? (1807 - Fragment)
  • Friedrich Heinrich Jacobis of works (1817)
  • negotiations in the meetingthe land conditions of the Kingdom of Württemberg in the year 1815 and 1816 (1817)
  • Solgers left writings and exchange of letters (1828)
  • Hamanns writings (1828)
  • over basis, arrangement and time sequence of world history. Of J. Görres (1830)
  • over the English Reformbill (1831)


Philosophy bibliography: G.W.F. Hegel - additional reference works


  • G.W.F. Hegel: Phänomenologie of the spirit. Ullstein, Frankfurt/Main 1970.
  • G.W.F. Hegel: World spirit between Jena and Berlin. Letters. Hrsg. by Hartmut Zinser. Ullstein, Frankfurt/Main, 1982. ISBN 3-548-35151-4


  • Dina Emundts/Rolf Peter refuge man: G.W.F. Hegel. An introduction. Reclam, Stuttgart 2002, ISBN 3-15-018167-4
  • Thomas Sören Hoffmann: George William Friedrich Hegel. A Propädeutik. Marix publishing house, Wiesbaden 2004, ISBN 3-937715-01-0
  • Charles Taylor: Hegel.Suhrkamp, Frankfurt/Main 1983, ISBN 3518280163
  • harsh ore Schnädelbach: Hegel for introduction. 2. Edition, Junius, Hamburg 2001, ISBN 3885063522


  • Mechthild Lemcke, Christa Hackenesch (Hrsg.): Hegel in Tübingen. Gehrke, Tübingen 1984, ISBN 3-88769-021-4
  • Kuno Fischer: Hegels lives, works and teachings. Frizzily, Nendeln 1973 (reproduction of the expenditure Berlin 1911)
  • Karl Rosenkranz: George William Friedrich Hegels life. Scientific book company, Darmstadt 1977, ISBN 3-534-13817-1 (reproduction of the expenditure Berlin 1844)
  • Franz Wiedmann: Hegel. Rowohlt, Reinbek1999, ISBN 3-499-50110-4
  • Christoph help-smell: George William Friedrich Hegel. Metzler, Stuttgart 1979, ISBN 3-476-10182-7
  • Arsenji Gulyga: George William Friedrich Hegel. Reclam. Leipzig 1981, ISBN of 3-87682-476-1


  • walter Jaeschke: Hegel manual. Life, work, school. Metzler, Stuttgart2003, ISBN 3-476-01705-2

further literature

  • Theodor W. Adorno: Three studies to Hegel. Suhrkamp, Frankfurt/Main 2003, ISBN 3-518-27710-3
  • Ernst Bloch: Subject object. Explanations concerning Hegel, Suhrkamp, Frankfurt/Main 1971 ISBN 3-518-06512-2
  • George Lukacs: The young Hegel.Suhrkamp, Frankfurt/Main 1973, ISBN 3-518-07633-7
  • William R. Beyer: Between Phänomenologie and logic. Hegel as an editor of the Bamberger newspaper. Pahl Rugenstein, Cologne 1974, ISBN 3-7609-0151-4
  • Johannes Heinrichs: The logic of the “Phänomenologie of the spirit”. Bouvier, Bonn 1983, ISBN 3-416-01753-6
  • Dieter Henrich:Hegel in the context. Suhrkamp, Frankfurt amMain 1988, ISBN 3-518-10510-8
  • Theodor Heuss: German shapes. Studies to 19. Century. Rainer Wunderlich publishing house, Stuttgart 1947
  • Vittorio Hösle: Hegels system. The idealism of the subjectivity and the problem of the intersubjectivity. Mine, Hamburg 1998, ISBN 3-7873-133-62
  • Calixt Hötschl: The absolute in Hegels dialectic. Its nature and its task. Schönigh, Paderborn 1941
  • Julius Klaiber: Hölderlin, Hegel and Schelling in their Swabian youth years. Anniversary publication for the rejoicing celebration of the University of Tübingen, Minerva publishing house, Frankfurt/Main 1981, ISBN 3-8102-0793-4
  • ErnstMueller: Pin heads. Swabian ancestors of the German spirit from the Tübinger pin. Salzer, Heilbronn 1938
  • Karl Popper: The open society and its enemies. Volume II wrong prophets: Hegel, Marx and the consequences. Mohr filter-hit a corner, Tübingen 1945/2003, ISBN 3-161-48069-4
  • Jürgen guessing ore: ThatBark the dead dog. Over Hegel argumentation figures in the sociological context. Campus publishing house, Frankfurt/Main 1988, ISBN 3-593-33873-4
  • Joachim knights: Hegel and the French revolution. Suhrkamp, Frankfurt 1989, ISBN 3-518-10114-5
  • Dieter fair: The “reversal” of Hegel dialectic. Programs more idealistic andmaterialistic dialectic. Long, Berne 1999, ISBN 3-906761-76-2
  • harsh ore Schnädelbach (Hrsg.): Hegels philosophy - comments on the Hauptwerken, three volumes, Suhrkamp, Frankfurt/Main 2000/2001, ISBN 3-518-06587-4
  • Wolfgang Welsch: Hegel and analytic philosophy. Over some congruences in basic questions of philosophy. in: JenaerUniversity Universities of 15 (2005), 139-222.
  • Raphael game: Recognize God - “method” and “term” in G. W. F. Hegels” science of the logic “and” philosophy of the religion “. Turn-shed, to London 2005, ISBN 1-903343-76-3

see also

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