George Armstrong Custer

George Armstrong Custer (* 5. December 1839 in new Rumley, Ohio; † 25. June 1876 in Montana) was an officer of the US army and Brevet - major general< ref> in the US army gave it to three possibilities to a rank to be carried:

  1. Transport to a rank in the regular army;
  2. Transport to a rank independently of it in the freiwilligen army organization;
  3. Award of a Brevet rank by congress of US for the duration of a use.

Details see also in chapter 6. </ref> the union during the American civil war. After the civil warit was used in the Indian wars. Custer became particularly by its defeat and its death in the battle at the Little bending horn admits. This defeat is article of numerous books and films.

George A. Custer
George A. Custer

table of contents

before the civil war

George Armstrong Custer became to 5.December 1839 in new Rumley, Ohio born. Its ancestors are in 17. Century from Westphalia into the British colonies come its and still the name Küster carried. <ref> for this the article of the English Wikipedia:[1]. A detailed family tree of the family Küster/Custer is to find on garryowen.com. </ref> Custer was that oldest of five children of the Farmers and Schmiedes Henry Emanuel Custer. Sein Vater engagierte sich in der Miliz von Ohio, wodurch Custer bereits als kleiner Junge in Berührung mit dem Militär kam.<ref> Custer's Early Years. </ref> A largePart its childhood spent the young George Armstrong with its half sister in Monroe, Michigan, where it went also to the school.

Custer as a cadet to the USMA, approx. 1859

Custer 1857 were appointed New York to the military academy in west POINT, where heby numerous Eskapaden was noticeable and because of lack of discipline to 24. June 1861 as last (of 34) its class graduated. Custer stood thereby several marks briefly before the exclusion of the academy. It received in each of its four years at the academy around the ninetyReferences (100 would have the exclusion meant), particularly due to disciplinary failure (for example throw unpunctuality, Schneebälle among other things). <ref>Custer's Academy Years. </ref> In addition its Extravaganz began itself to draw on the academy; it carried its hair longer than most other cadets and maintained itvery carefully.

during the civil war

after its conclusion Custer came as a second lieutenant to 2. US Kavallerieregiment.

At the end of of 1861 it had to leave the army because of illness, returned however in February 1862 and became 5. US-Kavallerie beordert. To 15. June of theYearly it was promoted to captain and aide in the staff of George Brinton McClellan. Also as a member of the staff it remained unorthodox, as probably in the occurence, since the staff stood grübelnd at a river bank and placed themselves the question, like deeply the wateris and as one over there-comes should. Custer galloped directly into the river, stopped in the center and called: „It, general is so deep! “Custer was noticeable also several marks by an unusual daring. Also Custer several marks was noticeable by its daring. Thus burnedit itself once with the attempt to delete a bridge the hands. <ref> Official record:Volume of XI, part 1, S.526 </ref>

Custer participated in nearly all important battles of the war and took on in it little consideration and other one. An attitude, those in the Unionskavallerie very muchwas gradual rarely, which was however urgently used, around the dominance of the konföderierten Kavallerie back urge.

As a member of the staff of major general Pleasonton was Custer participant in the largest rider battle of the civil war with Brandy station. For earnings/services in that battle Custer became to 23.June 1863 to the Brigadier General of the Freiwilligen carries. After its transport it could a schillernde new uniform, to which among other things olivfarbene trousers, shining high boots, a Hussar jacket and a red Halstuch belonged be made. <ref> en.wikipedia.org: Custer: Controversial Legacy </ref>

To the commander of a Kavalleriebrigadefrom Michigan appointed, Custer led these in the battle of Gettysburg. Here it was considerably involved in success, the Südstaatenkavallerie under J. E. B. To hold Stuart in chess.

Afterwards it became the commander the 1. Brigade of the 1. Kavalleriedivision, later to the commander that3. Kavalleriedivison appointed. With its division it participated among other things in the battle of Yellow Tavern and the battle of Trevilian station , where the Konföderierten captured its personal luggage. In the autumn 1864 it fought in the Shenandoahfeldzug against general Early, before it with itsDivision in April 1865 to Petersburg to the main forces of the Potomac army returned. Custer was characterised there during the Appomattoxfeldzuges again. It was carried to the major general of the Freiwilligen and received the Brevet rank of a major general, with 25 years the youngest in the history of the US army.In the regular army it had reached in the meantime the rank of a major.

Indian wars

process and massacre at the Washita

Custer examined with end of war off and received from Benito Juarez from Mexico the offer, as a Commander-in-Chief of the Mexican Kavallerie the reorganisationto transfer the rider regiments and to lead it in the revolution against emperors Maximilian. The US Government forbade the acceptance to it and placed it instead in the rank of a lieutenant colonel .

The army guidance beorderte it after away Riley, Kansas, around the reorganisation 7.To support Kavallerieregiments as deputies of Colonel Andrew Jackson Smith. To 26. March 1867 became Custer with four companies - by far yet not satisfying operational - 7. Kavallerieregiments the instruction major general Winfield Scott Hancocks for an expedition in the country of the Sioux and Cheyenne subordinated.

In the process of this action completely unsatisfactory for the army guidance it came to an incident: Custer instructed to shoot at deserters and malfunctioned to the survivors the medical treatment, for which he should be pulled in away Leavenworth, Kansas for responsibility. It did not go howeverequal there, but only his Mrs. Elisabeth (Libby) in away Riley visited, since he had experienced there from the outbreak of the Cholera. When it arrived finite at away Leavenworth, it was placed immediately because of continued lack of discipline under detention. After conclusion of the determinations became to 16.September 1867 a military justice procedure against it opens. Custer was suspended without pay for 12 months.

Convinced scapegoat of a campaign failed to have been it was finally fetched back on operation of his old friend, major general Sheridans, into the service. 1868 rehabilitated itself Custer into thatEyes of the public, when it attacked and destroyed a village of the southern Cheyenne under Black Kettle on the banks of the Washita river in the morning-grey during the winter campaign.

This should remain the only „victory “Custers in the fight against the Indians. In the retrospective must rather of one Massacre to be spoken; first of all most of the killed Indians women and children were and secondly blew over the village one for the indication of the friendship gehisste US flag. Its procedure with „the victory at the Washita “would fall today under the category war crime.

fight against those1873

it was sent to Sioux into the northern Plains, where it led some skirmishes against Sioux in the area of the Yellowstone. 1874 it led 1,200 men a strong expedition into the Black Hills, the holy mountains of the Indians, their possession them six years before stillguaranteed by the government of the United States was.

1876 were set a large expedition in march, in order to drive the hostile Indians back into their reservations or, if they refused itself destroying. Custer was with its regiment part of the expedition, also the Colonel John Gibbon belonged and by major general the George Crook was led. However Custer was relieved briefly before due to differences with president Grant by its command and replaced by general Alfred Terry. Grant was however forced to revise its decision and left Custer its in such a wayBase, in order to meet according to plan, with the troops Gibbons and Crooks. In an enclosure attack of three sides the Indians should be defeated and destroyed then.

Schlacht am Little Bighorn
Battle at the Little bending horn

it began a military action, which should end in a defeat of the US army. Perhaps ofits experiences with „the victory at the Washita “dazzled, Custer accomplished no clearing-up, ignored the reports of its scouts and ignored the instruction of his superior major general Terry to wait for supporting infantry federations. To 25. June 1876 it seized the camp of the Indians, those from the chieftains To Sitting bulletin, Gall, Two Moon, Crazy Horse and bend Foot were stated, on the bank of the Little bending horn on. There some thousand Krieger had met, so that the Americans had in terms of figures strongly been subject. Custer had divided its regiment in addition into three parts,in order to attack the camp from several sides. The superior armed force of the Indians drove Custers troop unit fast back and could it with his retreat on a hill place, on which it and its men up to the last man were killed. To the pleasures belonged thereby alsoCusters brother Tom (* 1845).

The other two columns untern major Reno and Hauptmann Benteens could bear, until reinforcement arrived, which could save however only the corpses Custers and its troop.

Custers body was first hastily buried, exhumiert later however and to 10. October 1877 honorable buried in the military academy in west POINT.

Custer and its Mrs

the relationship to his Mrs. Elisabeth was of large mutual love and respect coined/shaped. Not least therefore Custer had itself 1867, without considering the consequences, even given vacation,in order to visit its wife gotten sick allegedly with Cholera in away Riley. Besides it maintained always expanded letter contact with it, if it were in the field or on official travel. Elizabeth Custer helped it over the heavy time of his suspending away and saw in its man of time lifea radiating, immaculate hero. Also still, the Little as it years after its death her two well-known publications, “general Custer RK the Battle OF bend horn” from the year 1897 and “boat and Saddles” from 1913, out gave. Therein it describes the hard lifeat the border of the civilization and the debt at its dramatic fall, except their man, which it calls usually reverenceful „the general “, gives all. She saw it as her task to defend it posthum against all suspecting and honouring cutting and not again married.

picture in film and literature

his Mrs. Elizabeth, who had often accompanied the campaigns of its man, wrote several books concerning its man. Custer wrote an autobiography, “My would run on the Plains” (my life on the Plains), those in the year 1872 thatfirst time appeared. In this book it describes its experiences and experiences with its regiment during different campaigns against hostile Indians in the years before. The life of the soldiers and also that is described the Indian, for whose request Custer quite expresses understanding. The truth contentthis autobiography often very much and Captain Frederick Benteen, one of the officers from Custer 7.US-Kavallerieregiment is doubted, called the work verächtlich “My reads on the Plains” (my lies on the Plains). Custer was someone, which understood it well, the public around itself to crowds. In itsCamps had it always reporters with itself. Ella Wheeler Wilcox wrote the poem “Custer” over it, a Lobeshymne, which praises him equal antique hero pos. To in 20. Century inside it enjoyed a good reputation, that its high point reached with the American war propaganda film “They DiedWith Their of boat on” of 1941 (dts.: „Its last command “, 1950) with the popular Australian actor Errol Flynn in the title part.

For years however thinking about the treatment of the Indians used the 1960er, and due to its Custer in later films became ratheras a blood run tiger Kriegshetzer represented, for example in the film Little bend one with smelling pool of broadcasting corporations Mulligan as Custer. Likewise as a cruel the poet he becomes in the TV-series Dr. Quinn - lady doctor from passion represented, here of Jason Leland Adam.

Custers rank

CustersSometimes rank is the subject of many discussion it at the time of its death as a lieutenant colonel is designated, sometimes as a general. This controversy therefore agitates that there were three different kinds of ranks during the American civil war: Rank in the regular army, rank in the armyarmy armyand Brevet ranks. Custer, at the beginning of the war of secession second lieutenant, was promoted during the war among other things to major general of the Freiwilligen and led as such also a Kavalleriedivision. As honor it received in addition the Brevet rank of a major general of the regular US army. Its actual rank in regular armyEnd of the civil war was the one major. As a Brevet major general Custer had however further the right as a general to be addressed even if its powers and its pay only those of a major (and/or. later a lieutenant colonel) corresponded.

literature

  • Evan S. Connell: Son OFthe Morning star. Custer and the Little bending horn. New York 1985
  • Dietmar Kügler: The US-Kavallerie. Putting one and reality of a military elite unit. 1. Edition. Engine book publishing house, 1979, ISBN 3-87943-626-6
  • Elizabeth Bacon Custer: Boat and Saddles: Or would run in Dakota with general Custer, Digitial Scanning, 2002, ISBN 1582181268
  • DTE Brown, Helmut Degner: Bury my heart at the bend of the river., ISBN 342662804X

footnotes and sources

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