George Germain, 1. Viscount Sackville

George Sackville, 1. Viscount Sackville (* 26. January 1716; † 26. August 1785) was a British soldier and politician, who were during the American war of independence undersecretary of state for America in lord Frederick Norths cabinet. The main part of the debt for the loss of the British colonies was pushed over to its Ministry. Its distribution of detailed instructions in military questions to understand connected with its inability on the one hand the Geografie of the colonies and on the other hand the determination of the Kolonisten justify this conclusion.

Lord George Germain 1780.

Lord George Germain became as George Sackville, third son of Lionel Cranfield Sackville, 1. Duke OF Dorset and lord lieutenant OF Irish country born. It locked 1737 the Trinity college, Dublin , before it went to the army. Sackville had two careers. Its military career had a few characteristics, ended however before the court-martial. Its political career ended together with the cabinet from Frederick North after the loss of the American colonies.

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after the revolution

[work on

] began as a captain in the 7. Mounted one (later the 6. Dragoon guard). it changed 1740 as a lieutenant colonel into the Gloucestershire infantry regiment. The regiment was sent to Germany, in order to participate in the Austrian succession war. 1743 were promoted Sackville Brevis, i.e. without wage increase, to Colonel.

Sackville saw finally its first battle to 1745 as a leader of the infantry troop of the duke of Cumberland in the battle with Fontenoy. It imprisoned taken, because it was wounded however with the fight, treated it the Frenchmen and released it. When it returned home, it served in Scotland as a Colonel in 20. Infantry regiment (Lancashire Fusiliers).

he served 1747 and 1748 again together with the duke of Cumberland. He became Colonel in 7. And served Irish mounted one in the Netherlands. Between the wars it interrupted its military career and served as a first secretary of its father and as Member OF Parliament in the Irish House of Commons. In this time it became for its homosexual Eskapaden admits.

During the seven-year-old of war it returned to the active service. 1775 it was promoted to major general and divided for the overseas employment. it received a fourth regiment to 1758 and served under Charles Spencer, 3. Duke OF Marlborough as a lieutenant general. It followed allied armed forces of Karl William Ferdinand of Braunschweig in Germany. When Marlborough died, Sackville became commander of the British armed forces.

battle of Minden

at the 1. August 1759 implemented the British-hessian infantry a successful attack on the French lines in the battle with Minden . Their working line formation struck back also the French Kavallerie, by keeping quiet up to the last moment and delivering only then a substantial fire burst, as the troop than 10 yards ( 9.144 meters ) was closer. When the French troops began to back-soft after Minden Ferdinand called after a British Kavalleriekommando, but Sackville refused its agreement for their advance. Ferdinand sent its instructions several marks, but Sackville could not with John Manners, Marquess OF Granby, the troop commander. It continued the refusal to obey orders opposite Granby, in order to achieve by an attack fame, and the allied ones lost the possibility of a crucial victory or the destruction of the enemy. For this action Sackville was fired and sent home.


Sackville rejected it to take the responsibility for the refusal to obey orders. Back in England it demanded a court-martial and its case for so important was found that it already stepped 1760 together. The court found it guilty and imposed to one of the most amazing and hardest punishments, which was imposed upon per to an officer in general rank. The court did not only support its dismissal, but decided that it „… it is unable to serve his majesty in possibly a military function which gives and instructed it “, that the judgement should be registered to that in each regiment British Army of read out and in the command book each regiment. The king let Sackvilles name from the secret advice lists (roll OF the Privy Council) paint.

political career

Sackville was since 1741 in intervals Member OF Parliament. It had denied parliamentary sessions in the houses of Dublin and Westminster, had however never referred sometimes also at the same time, a point of view in political disputes. As George III. Sackville mounted, began the throne on its political rehablitation to work.

It did not seem to give negative effects because of the European Patts after the seven-year-old to war. The victories over the Frenchmen in the colonial Empire offered a chance for it, the events of the war were guessed which in oblivion. The difficulties the debt assignment for things, which had arisen during the war, led to one period of unstable cabinets and changing political alliances. 1763 accepted it king George in all silence again to the secret advice lists.

Sackville arose ever to more than supporters of lord Frederick North and 1769 the alliance formally admits given. 1769 died lady Elizabeth Germain to leave without direct inheriting and left to it its Landgüter. , But it the chance did not only give to accept improved its finances officially the names. After 1770 it was called lord George Germain.

To 10. November 1775 was appointed Germain the undersecretary of state for America. At this time Norths cabinet had three undersecretaries of state; in each case one for Europe, America and the remainder of the world. Apart from international relations these secretaries responsible for the large task of the colonial administration and the military operations were in their areas.

That made Germain the responsible Minister for the suppression of the revolt in the colonies. It carried or relieved generals, worried about food supply and supply and into the strategic planning of the war with was included. Its main understanding was based on the view that „… the Pöbel… about politics and government to worry should not, because he about it understand nothing. “ and that „… these village nincompoops us not to strike can do “

1776 co-operated it with general John Burgoyne , in order to plan the Saratoga campaign to support and publish instructions for it. Which also otherwise still all happened, the fact that its instruction for general William Howe was understandably not expressed, contributed to failing the campaign. 1781 contributed the confusion around its instructions for Charles Cornwallis and Henry Clinton to the defeat in the battle of Yorktown .

after the revolution

as a lord North 1782 withdrew, gave up to Germain its cabinet post and its seat in the parliament. King George ennobled it as Viscount Sackville, but the controversy over its management of the war was continued. Some members were against his seat in the upper house, but its worsening health makes the discussion soon redundant. He withdrew himself into his homeland to the Stone Lodge into Sussex and died there 1785.


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