Georgien

საქართველო
Sakartwelo
Georgien

Flagge Georgiens

Wappen Georgiens

(detail) (detail)
Wahlspruch: ძალაერთობაშია (geo. “Kraft by unit”)
office language Georgian
capital low-read (Georgian Tbilissi)
system of government Republic of
president me-hurry Saakaschwili
prime minister Surab Noghaideli
surface 69,700 km ² (118.)
Number of inhabitants 4.693.892(Conditions July 2004) (113.)
Population density of 67.3 inhabitants per km ² (101.)
Gros domestic product/inhabitant 3,400 US-$ (gesch. 2005)
Independence 9. April 1991
currency 1 Lari (GEL) = 100 Tetri
time belt MEZ + 3
national anthem Tawisupleba
national holiday 26. May (day of independence)
Kfz characteristic GE
Internet TLD .ge
preselection +995
Lage Georgiens auf der Erde
Karte Georgiens

Georgien (in former times also Grusinien or Grusien; Georgian საქართველო, Sakartwelo) is a country in Transkaukasien, east of the black sea and southern the Caucasus. It borders in the north on Russia, inThe south to Turkey, Armenia and in the east at Azerbaijan.


Table of contents

Pressefreiheit 9 literature

10

Web on the left of [work on ] geography because of the border between Europe and Asia. The inhabitants call their country balcony of Europe. The surface amounts to 69,700 square kilometers.87% of the country cover mountains and Vorgebirge. In the north the Südabdachung of the large Caucasus lies. In the south are the western backs of the small Caucasus and the edge of the volcanic Armenian high country. Between them the Kolchi lowlandses stretch in the west,in the east Transkaukasi lowers itself, into the inside map left, which partitions Unterkarteli and the Alsasaniebene.

The highest mountain is the Schchara generally speaking Caucasus with 5.068, 8 meters. The longest river is those altogether 1,364 km long Kura (Georgian: Mtkwari),those the country in their upper run of the south eastward on 351 kilometers of length pulls through. Further rivers are the Alasani (351 km), the Rioni (333 km) and the Enguri (213 km). Largest lake is which was on 2,073 meters the height Parawani with an expansion of 37.5 square kilometers. The Voronya cave is with 2,164 meters the deepest well-known cave of the world.

Largest cities are low-read (Georgian: Tbilisi; 1.258.085 inhabitants), Kutaissi (178,350 inhabitants), Batumi (118,297 inhabitants), Rustawi (112,624 inhabitants), Sochumi (81,546 inhabitants), Sugdidi (73,014 inhabitants), Gori (46,680 inhabitants) and potentiometer (46,112 inhabitants). (Conditions: 1. January 2005)

See also: List of the cities in Georgien

in the northwest Georgiens lies the autonomous Republic of Abchasien, in the southwest the autonomous Republic of Adscharien, in the north the area Südossetien. Abchasien and Südossetien stress national independence, Adscharien autonomy opposite Georgien.

climate

the Caucasus protects Georgien against cool air waves from the north and permits the black sea to warm up the country. The climate zones are enough from one subtropically- moisten climate in the west up to a dry and moderate continental climate in the east. The average air temperature varies between 15° C in the west and 11 to 13° C in the East part. The average precipitation in the west amounts to 3,000 mm, in the east400 mm. Spring in Georgien is briefly with abrupt climatic fluctuations, the summer often sengend hot. The autumn is sunny, the winter snow-poor.

Flora and fauna

of forest areas in the Caucasus

Georgien have a high diversity of species owing to different climate zones. Final valleys favoured the development more endemically, only in this region resident, plants and animal species. The WWF ranks Georgien among the 238 most important Ökoregionen of the earth. The IUCN designated it as global center that plant variety and BirdLife internationalas world-wide endemic bird area proven.

44% of the country are covered with forest, 5% of it are jungle. 40% of the forests remained in their original structure. In the low mountain areas above all hardwood forest (oaks grows, Beeches), in higher situations of resinous woods (spruces and firs). Above the timber line subalpine and alpine meadows spread. The mountains in the south, the lowlandses and Transkaukasi lower were in former times steppes. Today they are predominantcultivated.

The country counts nearly 5,000 plant types. Of it 380 is endemic in Georgien and 1,000 in the Caucasus. After a counting of the WWF alone approximately 400 tree and kinds of bush are at home in Georgien. 61 of it is endemic, 60 kinds appliesas world-wide threatened and to the red list were taken up. Among the endemic kinds ranks the Ponti beech, which grows in the Kolchi lowlandses.

Georgien accommodates approximately 1,000 different animal species. Among them about 330 kinds of bird, 160 fish types, are 48 kinds of reptileand 11 kinds of amphibian. In the forests live the rarely Caucasian leopard, brown bear, wolves and Luchse. Humid areas accommodate rare the Fischotter become, the endemic Caucasian Birkhuhn threatened by becoming extinct and different endemic kinds of lizard.

There is environmental

and nature protection black sea

before Batumi in environmental protection many unresolved problems. In addition the strong contamination of the Kura and the black sea with potentiometers and Batumi count the air pollution , particularly in the industriellen surrounding field of Rustawi . Those Potable water supply is insufficient. Many soils are contaminated by poisonous chemicals.

In the southern Caucasus is missing a spreading land use planning, which separates protected nature from agricultural and industriellen surfaces. Forest areas are cleared spaciously for illegal exports into Turkey.

Georgien has elevennational protected areas. The largest is the Bordschomi Charagauli national park in the small Caucasus (76,000 hectares). It was established opened to 2001 with the help of Germany as well as the World Wide find for Nature and. It is one of the largest connected protected areas in Europe. The national parkTuscheti covers 83,007 hectares, the national park Waschlowani 25,112 hectares and the protected area Tuscheti 27,903 hectares.

population

inhabitant

acceptance of the Georgian population 1992-2003

Georgien has 4.7 million inhabitant. Since 1991 humans that have one millionCountry leave. However between 2000 and 2005 the Georgian population shrank annually around 0,9%. A cause of the continuous emigration wave is the economic fall of the country. Went above all inhabitants with high education degree, the jobs first into other states to thatGUS, also in Western Europe and the USA to find later could. The largest Georgian community abroad lives in Moscow. According to Russian data there was 2002 approximately 300,000 humans.

Up to the Second World War Georgien was a agriculturally coined/shapedCountry. The German politician Karl Kautsky called Georgien 1921 a social-democratic farmer republic. With the industrialization ordered by Stalin pulled ever more humans into the large cities. Today 52.3% the inhabitant in cities, 47.7% in villages live andrural areas.

The civil wars in Abchasien and Südossetien led to the escape or driving out of approximately 250,000 humans from their homeland. Georgien accommodated 2004 about 230,000 refugees from Abchasien and 12,200 from Südossetien. In addition approximately 2,600 refugees came from Chechnya.

groups of peoples

Busfahrer in Tiflis
of bus drivers in low-read

Georgien is traditionally an multi-ethnical country. There accommodated over 26 Volksgruppen.83, 8% the inhabitant is Georgier, 5.7% Armenian, 6.5% Aserbaidschaner, 1.5% Russian, 0.9% Osseten, 0.1% ABC hares and 1.51% belong to further groups of peoples such as z. B. Greek, Kurd and other one on (census 2002).

Up to phases of the nationalism from 1918 to 1921 and at the beginning of the 1990er years are groups of peoples in Georgiennot discriminated against.1944 drove Stalin out the Mescheten from Georgien. The Ausgrenzung after 1990 arranges itself particularly against the groups of peoples of the ABC hares and Osseten striving for independence as well as the Russian group of peoples, those of some as a helper of the Soviet leadershipone regarded. Georgien ratified in the meantime an outline agreement for the protection of the national minorities. Excluded from it are however the articles 10 and 11, in which the right of national minorities to the use of the native language is recognized.

Form Georgiens in individual regionsGroups of peoples the majority. In Kwemo Kartli live more Aserbaidschaner than Georgier. The same applies to the Armenians in the region Samtsche Jawacheti (also as Samzche Dschawachetien translates). There it came in October 2005 to protests. The demonstrators demanded economic equal rights and political autonomy. The protest course was dissolved by the police with Gummiknüppeln and warning shots.

Since 1989 left many Russians Georgien. Their portion of the Georgian population sank within 13 years around 4,8%. A cause for it were however fewer discriminations thanthe social mobility of the Russian Diaspora, their high education degree and the possibility of reaching with a Russian passport easily economically Russia better placed. Also many Kurds left Georgien since 1992.

See also: Kaukasiendeut

languages

due tothe multi-ethnical composition also many different languages are used. In the country many groups of peoples in separate villages live and speak only their own language. Children, who grow up there, do not speak Georgian and have difficulties to follow the school teaching.

Office language is the Georgian language, this is spoken of approximately 4 million humans (conditions 1993). It belongs to the southCaucasian language branch and possesses its own alphabet. The Georgian alphabet is since that 5. Century by writing certifications occupies.

See also: Wikipedia: Name conventions/Georgian

religions

Metechi-Kirche in Tiflis
Metechi church in low-read

Georgien is a like a Christian coined/shaped country. Since the Middle Ages the Orthodoxie is a symbol of the nation. 84% of the population belong the autokephalen Georgian orthodox Apostelkirche . It is national church, D. h.there is no separation between state and religion, and must no taxes pay. Patriarch of the church is Ilia II. At the independence day it stands with the government on the podium and segnet the parliament at the beginning of the legislative period. ThatGeorgian parliament rejects it to lock with other denominations a national church contract. They are subject to private law and must pay even on auxiliary achievements taxes.

Approximately 376,000 Georgier in Adscharien, which are converted to the Muslim faith under osmanischer rule, live at the same time. 9.9 %the inhabitant Georgiens are Muslims.

3,9% distribute themselves on the religious communities of the Armenians (200,000 humans Armenian Apostoli church), the catholics (altogether 0.8% of the population, of it 60,000 humans Armenian-catholic church, 50,050 Roman rite, 3.000 Chaldäisch catholic church), the Protestanten (Baptisten, Lutheraner and Pfingstler), the Jesiden, Jew and the witnesses Jehovas.

Into the 1990er years buildings of churches of religious minorities, among other things the catholics, were expropriated and the Georgian orthodox Apostelkirchehanded over. It comes again and again too religiously motivated excesses against minorities, among them against the witnesses Jehovas and against the Baptisten. Georgien stood until 2004 on a list of the US commission to the freedom of religion in the world (USCIRF), the those countriescalls, in which the freedom of religion is ensured to few to. Only after Georgiens prosecution authorities acted, the number of the assaults diminished and Georgien was removed from the list.

history

major item: History Georgiens

declaration of independence Georgiens, May 1918

Georgien becamealready in the middle Paläolithikum of humans settles. In 6. Century v. Chr. the western Georgian State of, originated in Kolcheti, in 4. Century the eastern, Iberien. Later the Assyrer subjected, then Alexander the large one the country. Georgien raised inYear 327 the Christianity to the state religion.

At the end 10. Century Georgien in the golden age was united. Dependence of many years on the Byzantine realm was shaken off. Under David the designer and queen Tamara Georgien between that became 11. and 13. Centurystrongest power in Transkaukasien. A Mongolian invasion under Timur followed steers. In 16. Century disintegrated to Georgien into the Kingdoms of Imeretien, Kachetien and Kartli as well as five principalities, which stood under osmanischem and Iranian influence.

1783 closed Ostgeorgien(Kartlien Kachetien) a protection contract with Russia. 1801 were annektiert Kartlien Kachetien on decree of the Zaren and its king house was dethroned. The regions in the west of the country remained still another one decade long nationally independently. Only 1810 conquered Russia the Georgian Kingdom of Imeretien. Russiafurther 54 years needed to win complete control of Westgeorgien. The region Gurien was abolished 1828, Mingrelien 1857. The region Swanetien was annektiert between 1857 and 1859, the Principality of Abchasien 1864.

After the October Revolution Georgien explained itselfto 26. May 1918 independently. To 16. February 1921 was integrated the democratic Republic of Georgien by the Red Army into the Soviet Union.

During the late 1980er strong Georgian movement of independence developed years. To 9. April 1991 explained itself Georgienagain independently. Into Abchasien and Südossetien it came to wars of secession. The Georgian government has this very day no control of far parts of its territory, it a war against Südossetien at the beginning of the 1990er years lost and in Abchasien prevailsjerky armistice.

Georgiens first president Swiad Gamsachurdia was replaced by a Putsch. Its successor became a former Georgian kp boss and Soviet ministers of foreign affairs Eduard Shevardnadze. It introduced democratic reforms. The economy stagnated however on low level. In addition came onewidely distributed corruption and regular election frauds.

In November 2003 Shevardnadze in one of young reform politicians initiated samtenen revolution of power displaced. In January 2004 Mikhail Saakaschwili was selected to the new president. Prime minister became Surab Schwania. For important reform fieldssuccessful Auslandsgeorgier was gotten as Ministers in the country. The corruption was energetically pursued. The privatisation of the national sector was advanced. The national debt decreased/went back 2004 for the first time. It succeeded to drive Saakaschwili out the adscharischen ruling power Aslan Abaschidse and Adscharien with Georgiento again-unite. At the 3. February 2005 deceased to prime minister Schwania under still unsettled circumstances. The office took over Ministers of Finance Surab Nogaideli.

Existed in the summer 2004 still large tensions in Südossetien, which is internationally not recognized.

See also: List of the heads of state Georgiens

politics

Georgiens Präsident Micheil Saakaschwili, Mai 2005
Georgiens president me-hurry Saakaschwili, May of 2005

major items: Politics Georgiens

Georgien are a democratic republic with a strong Präsidialsystem and a centralized administration. It is at the same time a defective democracy. Is the entranceto the policy by free and secret elections secured, but political and civil rights as well as force control are often limited.

government

head of state is me-hurries Saakaschwili. It became to 4. January 2004 with 96 per cent of the voices toPresident selected.Prime minister is Surab Nogaideli. It became to 17. February 2005 on suggestion of the president appointed from the parliament to the prime minister and manages a 14-köpfigen reform cabinet. Avowed goals of the government to 2009 are the fight against the corruption,economic growth and, apart from striving for NATO and European Union entry, eased relations with Russia.

parliament

to 28. March 2004 elections took place to the Georgian parliament . A strongest political party became the national movement - democrat (NMD), thosethe carriers of the samtenen revolution summarizes. It received the majority in the legislation with 66,24% of the voices. Opposition parliamentary groups in the parliament are the rights opposition, the Industrialisten (with the elections together 7.96%) and of the NMD abgespaltene Democratic front. The Georgian labour party (3.89%) and the liberty movement (4.39%) did not jump over the five-per cent hurdle.

foreign policy

since that 29. October 2004 is connected to Georgien with NATO by one individually Partnership Action plan (IPAP). InGeorgien commits itself to the plan to the reform of its political, safety and defense system according to the standards usual at NATO.

Georgien is since 1992 member of the UN. In addition it belongs to the following international organizations: GUAM, GUS, ORGANIZATION FOR SECURITY AND COOPERATION IN EURO, IWF, World Bank, EBRD, World Trade Organization, Council of Europe, European Union - program European neighbourhood politics (ENP), NATO - program partnership for the peace (PfP), black sea restaurant economics.

The Federal Republic of Germany counted from independence at to the most important promoters Georgiens, which above allto the role Eduard Schewadnadses during the reunification of Germany to attribute is. Germany was the first state, which recognized Georgien. Today Germany is one of the most important bilateral givers in Georgien. From 1993 to 2005 Germany has more than 250 millions EURat development assistance funds made available.

military

the Georgian military budget amounted to 2005 220 million US Dollar. The Georgian army consists the number of the reservists of approximately 33,000 soldiers, becomes estimated on 250.000. Career soldiers, those form the core of the army by people liable for military serviceare supplemented. In Georgien a compulsory military service applies to men starting from 18 years, which amount to 24 months. The military equipment originates to a large extent from Soviet existence. In the autonomous republic Abchasien stand for 5,000 soldiers under the command of the secessionistic government. InSüdossetien are it about 2,000 soldiers.

economics

Hafen von Batumi
port of Batumi

major item: Economics Georgiens

already in the 3. Century v. Chr. Georgien was the weapon waffenschmiede of the antique ones. In the Caucasus mountains gold, silver, copper and iron were diminished.Georgian craftsmen manufactured the swords , with which Greeks and Trojaner fought.

In 20. Century concentrated the economy Georgiens on the tourism in the Caucasus and at the black sea, the cultivation of Zitrusfrüchten, Weintrauben and dte as well as the dismantlingof hard coal, manganese and copper. In the west cattle were bred, in the east of sheep. There was a small industriellen sector, which produced wine , metals , machines , chemicals and textiles.

After the collapse of the Soviet Union Georgien sufferedof all Soviet republics the heaviest restaurant collapse. In December 1990 Russia imposed an economic blockade over Georgien. Civil wars and independence fights in Abchasien, Adscharien, Südossetien and Westgeorgien intensified the crisis. Production in industry and agriculture decreased/went back. The production volume slippeduntil 1994 on a quarter of the level of 1989. Unemployment in the capital low-read rose to 40%.

Assistance of the west came only 1995 as World Bank and International Monetary Fund (IWF) Georgien of credits at a value of 206 million US Dollar and Germany at a value of 50 million D-mark granted. Between 1995 and 1997 the production volume rose to approximately 30% of the level at Soviet times; until 2001 it reached about 35%. 51% of the population live below the poverty border,13 to 15% of the households lives in extreme poverty (statistics 2001). The salaries do not keep up with the inflation, old-age pensions lie with approximately 15 euro monthly, civil war refugees received to maximally 6 euro monthly support.

After the samtenen revolution [2003] are positive developments of the Georgian economy recognizably. Thus the national budget from 350 million to 1,6 billion US Dollar and the foreign trade volume around 34.6% rose. The height of the direct investments in Georgien rose 2005 to 447.8 million US Dollar, the Kreditportfolio thatGeorgian banks amounted 2006 to more than a billion US Dollar. IWF appreciated the government measures for fight, the economic growth and structural reforms of the country positively of the poverty in its last report.

Cultivation of dte in Georgien 1915

Georgiens of largest foreign trade partners is the Turkey, followed of Russia, Azerbaijan and Germany (conditions 2002). To the USA Germany Georgiens of secondarymost important partners is with development assistance.

Georgiens foreign debts amounted to at the beginning of 2006 1.63 billion US Dollar. A majority of the money came from the World Bank [over 600Millions], the international currency rear (IWF) and the European bank for reconstruction and development. Further accounts payable are the states of the GUS, above all Turkmenistan and Russia.

In October 1995 the Lari (GEL) with support of the IWF and that becameWorld Bank as new currency Georgiens imported. Up to the devaluation 1998 the currency was stable to the US Dollar (1: 1). The Lari is freely convertable.

Georgien sets its hopes for an economic recovery for the development of an international transportation passage by the black sea ports potentiometers and Batumi, a large oil pipeline of the Azerbaijani Baku over low-read after Ceyhan in Turkey, the Baku Tiflis Ceyhan pipeline (BTC) as well as parallel to it a running Gaspipeline, the south Caucasus pipeline.

holidays

legal holidays are the 1. January (New Year), the 7. January (orthodox Christmas), the 19. January (orthodox three-king celebration), the 3. March (nut/mother day), the 8. March (international woman day), the 9. April (day of the re-establishment of independence Georgiens), the 9. May (victory day), that12. May (pc. - Andreas - day), the 26. May (independence day), the 28. August (Mariamoba, orthodox Maria Ascension Day), the 14. October (Mzchetoba, Georgian-orthodox celebration) and the 23. November (Giorgoba, pc. - George - day). Orthodox Easter is mobile and likewise inlegal holiday (2006: 23 April).

culture

antique one, the Middle Ages

in the antique one in the area of the today's Georgien golden cups and artful swords were already manufactured. The country was rich at metallic Bodenschätzen, processed itsince that 6. Century v. Chr. and thereby trade floated. Greek and Roman travelers described developed roads, with bricks covered houses, large cities and fortresses.

The Georgian culture of the Middle Ages was Byzantine coined/shaped. The early in and dreischiffigen Basiliken (Nekresi,Dsweli Schuamta) from that 4. For century stand on the foundations of antique temples, are small and have a nearly square sketch. In 10. and 11. Large cross dome churches (Swetizochweli, Alawerdi and Bagrati cathedral) developed for century.

literature

Schota Rustaweli, writer of theThe Middle Ages

the Georgian literature originated in in 5. Century. Jakob Zurtaweli wrote the Martyrium of the holy Schuschanik. A bloom reached the literature in the 11. and 12. Century at present king of David of the designer and queen Tamara. Schota Rustaweli wrote the Recke in the tiger skin (Georgian Vep'his tqaosani), a Epos on knightly and noble courage, which rise over religion and nation. At the beginning 18. Century began a new epoch with Sulchan Saba Orbeliani, as this the renewal of the GeorgianLiterature from the spirit of telling and by the new lexikologischen studies into the ways led. His pupil king awake seaweed VI. if first printering established Georgiens, the first Georgian dictionary and La Fontaines fables let shift. Between 1915 and 1921if the avant-garde erblühte around the group blue horns, however after the communist seizure of power one suppressed.

Prominent Georgian writers 19. Century were Ilia Tschawtschawadse (the a settler - 1895), Akaki Zereteli (Suliko, the Tutor) and Aleksandre Qasbegi. Important authors 20. Century were Grigol Robakidse (the queue shirt - 1928, the gemordete soul - 1933) and Konstantine Gamsachurdia (the right hand of the large master - 1939, David of the designers - 1942-1961). As importantFor present sow gates Tschabua Amirejibi, Aka Mortschiladse ( the journey after Karabach - 1992, dogs of the Paliaschwili road - 1995) and Dawit apply Turaschwili (Merani - 1991, Jeans generation - 2001). The Boris Akunin ( Fandorin native from Georgien - 2001, Pelagia and the white dogs - 2003) are Russia of most successful Kriminalschriftsteller.

See also: List of Georgian writers, Schota Rustaweli Staatspreis

theatre, opera, music

Sachari Paliaschwili, Komponist
special air Paliaschwili, composer

Georgien counts 58 professional stages, 39 of it dedicates itself to the drama. Alreadyin the 3. Century v. Chr. in Georgien theatre was played. The Georgian national theatre 1791 in low-read based, 1851 the national theatre for opera and ballet. The bassist Fjodor Schaljapin debütierte there as an upper priest in Giuseppe this Aida.The dancer Georgi Balantschiwadse became under the name George Balanchine of one the internationally most important Choreografen. Artistic chief of the Georgian Nationalballetts is since 2004 the Primaballerina Muscovites of the Bolschoi theatre, Nino Ananiaschwili.

The traditional Georgian music is polyp-hone.The musical language is variously and regionally extremely different. The being correct guidance and Harmonik of the Georgian singing are world-wide singular. The development of the Georgian Polyphonie precedes the European around at least three hundred years. After new research it is based beside the ownNote system on independent theoretical bases with own clay/tone situation system. In the words delivered in texts of old songs one assumes similarities with altsumerischen languages, which are for the linguistics from eminent interest. The Georgian music became of the UNESCO into the listthe world cultural heritage taken up.

Important Georgian composers 20. Century are special air Paliaschwili, which interconnected European classical period and Georgian people music, Otar Taktakischwili, which followed likewise strongly the people music, Sulchan Zinzadse, Sulchan Nassidse and the Avantgardist Gia Kantscheli. In addition Alexi Matschawariani is to be called, which aimed at a synthesis from elements of newer music and Georgian folklore.

The recent generation of Georgian composers makes attentive with electronic music on itself. In addition Nikakoi ( native Nika Machaidse) count, TBA (nativeTusia Beridse) and GOGI.GE.ORG (native Gogi Dsodsuaschwili). 2004 celebrated the jazz and Blues singer Katie Melua of successes in Western Europe, originating from Georgien.

See also: List of Georgian composers of classical music

film

Georgiens erster Film, 1912
Georgiens first film, 1912

Georgiens film art is internationalregarded. To 16. November 1896 the first cinema in low-read opened. The first Georgian film developed 1912. The film industry concentrated in Grusia film Studios. International prices attained Tengis Abuladse (Magdanas donkey - Cannes 1956, the regret- Cannes 1987), Otar Iosseliani (the wine harvest - Cannes 1966, Briganten - Venice 1997), Nana Dschordschadse (1001 prescriptions of a cook - Karl bath 1997 , 27 MISSINGs Kisses -, fallen in love , Brussels 2001) and Dito Tsintsadze (firing fear - San SebastiánInternationally film festival 2003).

With the fall of the Georgian economy also the film production broke in. Many Georgian directors work in the meantime abroad. Since 2001 a national center for Cinematografie took over the film promotion. It is subordinate to the culture Ministry. An independent expert committeeselects annually two feature projects, which are financed to 75% by the center.

See also: Georgian film history

education and science

Georgische Akademie der Wissenschaften
Georgian academy of the sciences

education is largely written in Georgien. Per 1.000 inhabitant there are statistically 27,97 Student. Those are more than in Germany or in Switzerland. Georgiens government wants in the last years the declining expenditures for education (2001: 2.3% of the gross domestic product) drastically increase. President Saakaschwili did not call Georgiens wealth gold and oil,separate our gift, our intellect, our abilities, our education and our educated humans.

The most important scientific mechanisms are the national university low-read with approximately 30,000 students at 18 faculties, the Georgian technical University of, the national educational universityas well as, the national medical university and the national university for language and culture in low-read the Akaki Zereteli university Kutaissi. The Georgian Academy of Sciences has ten scientific departments and 63 research institutes.

Georgien possesses scarcely 5,000 libraries, approximately 250different museums and a network of over 70 archives.

kitchen

Chinkali, gefüllte Teigtaschen
Chinkali, filled paste bags

Georgiens kitchen was considered as struck Cuisine of the Soviet Union. It is well-known for its quality and regional variety. On weekend the families meetwith guests at large boards, the so-called Supra together. The more important the cause or the guests is, the more traditionally is the courts. Always in the abundance one serves. It symbolizes generosity. Although it in low-read Hamburg, Kebab and Pizzarestaurants gives,foreign kitchen found hardly to entrance into the Georgian Esskultur.

Typical hors-d'oeuvres are filled Auberginen with whale nut paste (Badridschani) and air-dried beef (Basturma). Main foods are Schaschlik (Georgian Mzwadi), cockerel-pot with tomato bulb sauce (Tschachochbili), and mutton-potwith Auberginen (Tschanachi). In addition there is to whale nut sauce (Ba), Mirabellensosse (Tkemali) and different Peperonipasten (Adschika). Popular Desserts are sweet sausages from Walnüssen in Traubensaftpüree (Tschutschkella) or Nüsse with yogurt and honey(Matsoni). Satisfy small hunger paste bags with chopping meat filling (Chinkali), baked chese sandwich (Chatschapuri) or a red bean soup (Lobio).

Traditional beverages are Georgian wine, sparkling wine, Weinbrand and Tschatscha, a Tresterbrand. ThoseFixed board is led by a Tamada, which yields during the meal artful Trinksprüche. After each saying the glass is completely emptied and after-given. Who does not want to drink no more, it shows, by letting the full glass stand. Against the Katerin the morning Chaschi, a strong Brühe from Pansen with much garlic is drunk.

media, journalism

printed media

in Georgien are shifted 76 printed publications. The newspapers and magazines are independent. Particulars have still onenational participation. The most popular daily papers are Kwiris Palitra, Alija, Achali Taoba, ASP whale Dasawali, Resonansi and the sport newspaper Sarbieli. The editions are in each case with 10.000 to 12,000 copies. Besides there are daily papers of the different groups of peoples: Swobodnaja Gruzija and Vetscherny Tbilisi (both on Russian), Gjurdgistan (on Azeri) and Wrastan (on Armenian).

Fersehturm Tiflis
Fersehturm low-read

electronic media

it gives 52 Fernsehstationen licensed of the national communication commission Georgiens. In addition seven public channels belong, including of the Georgian broadcast (1. and 2. Program) and the adscharischen television as well as two to three Russian programs. They are financed by the state. The most important private stations are Rustawi 2 and Mse TV as well as Imedi, Kawkasia and 202 TV. That Georgian broadcast, Rustawi 2 and Mse TV are politically government near.

Apart from the public broadcast the country has many private radio stations. They are mostly regionally aligned. Among them are not only section transmitters, but also transmitters of the different groups of peoples. However inLow-read exist with stations Ewrika and Zelenaja Volna two russischsprachige radio stations.

The Internet service civil Georgia offers messages on English, Georgian and Russian. However that plays Internet in Georgien still no large role. Only five per cent of the population possess a computer.Less than 14% the inhabitant use that Internet, 27% avowed public opinion analysts in July 2004, it never of the Internet would have heard.

Sakinformi

there are press agencies beside the national agency the private agencies Caucasus presses and Prime news. All important international agencies employ coworkers in the country.

foreign media

foreign television stations are usually offered over cables. In addition nearly all important Russian channels (PLACE, NTV , TV-center , TV-6 ) belong andall prominent western programs (CNN, BBC World, German wave, ESPN, euro sport). Radio France international one has transmitting poles in Georgien. The national radio radiates the Georgian service of radio Free Europe/radio Liberty and the Voice OFAmerica out. The private Radiosender Ewrika and Zelenaja Volna transfer the programs of the russischsprachigen service of the BBC. The foreign press is present at the kiosks mainly by Russian titles. The most important Russian daily papers and maintenance sheets are imported after Georgien.The Russian sheets Argumenty i Fakty and Komsomolskaja Prawda have in Georgien own printering.

Pressefreiheit

the Georgian condition of 24. August 1995 guarantees the Pressefreiheit and forbids censorship. It forbids at the same time, the media or its spreadingto monopolize. To 17. June 2004 amended press law makes more difficult it to plaintiffs to sue journalists for their reporting. Before editors had been condemned because of alleged honouring injury to high amounts of payment of damages.

In Shevardnadze - era had given it again and again national efforts,to intimidate the media. The journalist Giorgi Sanaia, editor and Anchorman of the transmission night courier on the private television station Rustawi-2, was murdered in July 2001, after he received drug from a video cassette, which loaded officials ministry of the Interior, channeled through Georgien toohave. The editor-in-chief of the government-critical newspaper Meridiani had been together-struck in February 2001 of unknown quantities, its family had been threatened by telephone. Fired at in May 2002 the editor's offices of Rustawi-2 in low-read.

In the summer 2004 it came again to intimidations of the press.The public prosecutor's office of low-read scanned the offices of the newspaper Georgian Time after it several articles over the origin of the fortune of the chief prosecutor at that time of the capital, Waleri Grigalaschwili, had published. Grigalaschwili was recalled two months later by its post.

ThatEditor-in-chief of the people newspaper in Gori was taken in remand, after its sheet had reported on entangling the local police head in smuggling activities. The intimidations led increasing self censorship of the Georgian media. On the international Media Freedom index stood for Georgienin October 2005 at place 99.

literature

  • Thea Kvastiani, Vadim Spolanski, Andreas's star field: Georgien discover. On the way between Caucasus and black sea. Tre publishing house, Berlin 2000, ISBN 3928409859
  • Ulrich support: Georgien and Armenia. DuMont journey publishing house,Cologne 1988, ISBN 3770114647
  • Tessa Hoffmann, Margarita Woskanjan: Armenia and Georgien. Between era advice and Caucasus. An express travel guide. Mundo publishing house, Cologne 1990, ISBN 3873220016
  • Joachim leaves (Hrsg.): Georgien: History, geography, politics, culture, everyday life, travel routes, kitchen, practical tips. Historical publishing houseSilke bridge, Heusweiler 1989, ISBN 3980232611
  • Károly Gink, Erzsébet Tompos: Georgien. Publishing house Werner Dausien, Hanau/M. 1975, ISBN 3768414582
  • Ilma Reisser: Georgien. Herder, Freiburg in mash gau 1989 the ISBN 3451214547
  • Roin Metreveli: Georgien. An overview. Tbilisis Univ. Gamomcemloba, Tbilisi1996
  • Ilma Reissner: Georgien: Golden fleece and common grape vine cross. Publishing house “the Christian east” GmbH, peppering castle 1998, ISBN 392789429X
  • Nana Ansari: The Georgian board: With 151 prescriptions. Mandelbaum, Vienna 2004, ISBN 3-85476-134-1
  • Heinrich Rohrbacher: Materials to the Georgian bibliography. German bibliography. Dr. Rudolf having ELT GmbH, Bonn 1981, ISBN 3774918511
  • Roger roses, Jeffrey Jay Foxx: Georgia: Sovereign Country OF the Caucasus (Odyssey Georgia). Odyssey Publications, ISBN 9622177484
  • Peter Nasmyth: Georgia. Into the Mountains OF Poetry. Cruzon press, smelling moon 2001(second edition), ISBN 0-7007-0955-X
  • Nathalie Natrochvili, Vakhtang Meliava: Le Guide de la Géorgie. Nouvelles edition de l'Université, Paris 2000, ISBN 2862739502

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Coordinates: 41°-43° N, 40°-47° O

 

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