Gerhard Schröder

of these articles describes the former German Federal Chancellor Gerhard Schröder. For further persons of the same name, see Gerhard Schröder (term clarifying).

Gerhard Fritz briefly Schröder (* 7. April 1944 in Mossenberg, today quarter by Blomberg, circle lip), also mentioned Gerd Schröder, is a German politician (SPD) and was from 1998 to 2005 Federal Chancellors of the Federal Republic of Germany. To its political career Schröder changed again into the economy, where he dressed different positions.

To Gerhard Schröder

table of contents

its life

youth and training

Gerhard Schröder buildup as a son of a Kriegerwitwe. His father Fritz Schröder (* 12. September 1912 in Leipzig), a traveler Kirmesarbeiter, fell as 32-jähriger upper private first class only few months after the birth of its son to 4. October 1944 in Romania.

Schröder visited the elementary school from 1951 to 1958 and made afterwards until 1961 teachings the retail trade buyer in an iron goods business in Lemgo.

Vocational development

from 1961 to 1963 was Schröder assistant building laborer and commercial employees in Goettingen. Released from the military service as an only son in the war of a pleasure, he retrieved 1962 and 1964 in the evening institute (Siegerlandkolleg in victories ) between the middle ripe one . The Abitur made it between 1964 and 1966 in a Kolleg of the second Bildungswegs in Bielefeld.

From 1966 to 1971 Gerhard Schröder law in Goettingen studied and locked the study with the state exams in the years 1971 and 1976. Still in the year 1976 it became certified as an attorney and exercised this occupation from 1978 to 1990. In this characteristic it represented and others also the ex RAF member refuge of meals.

From 1980 to 1986 Schröder was member of the German Bundestag. After the elections of the federal parliament in the year 1986 he became opposition leader in the federal state parliament of Lower Saxony, to which he belonged until 1998.

1990 selected new Red-Green a majority in parliament Schröder to the Prime Minister Niedersachsens. In the years 1994 and 1998 he was confirmed in each case in his office. Until 1994 Schröder led Red-Green a coalition, afterwards the SPD with absolute majority governed. In its activity as an Prime Minister it was from the 1. November 1997 to 27. October 1998 president of the Upper House of Parliament.

After the election to the Bundestag to 27. September 1998 drew Schröder again into the German Bundestag and became 7. Federal Chancellor of the Federal Republic of Germany selected. In the year 2002 it was confirmed in this office. After the choice from Angela Merkel to the Bundeskanzlerin to 22. November 2005 laid down Schröder to be with the elections to the Bundestag 2005 attained Bundestag mandate.

Since then Gerhard Schröder is again in its occupation as an attorney and active as freelance advisors in its own Kanzlei in Berlin.
Gerhard Schröder in München 2002
Gerhard Schröder in Munich 2002

since January 2006 is Schröder for Swiss Ringier - publishing house and its board of directors president Michael Ringier as an advisor actively. Likewise since 2006 Schröder is with the New Yorker one (the USA) speaker agency Harry Walker as a lecture speaker under contract.

To 30. March 2006 Schröder of chairmen of the advice of the shareholders (supervisory board) of the pipeline consortium NEGP company, a society after Swiss right, in an educated manner of the Russian gas company Gazprom, and/or. Russian Andrew Marino pipelines (51% portion) and the German companies BASF (24.5%) and E.ON (24.5%), which project the Baltic Sea pipeline from Russia to Germany and will operate. Both it and Federal Chancellors and Russia president Vladimir Putin had supported this project. Since Schröder in its position had smoothed the ways for the Baltic Sea pipeline as a chancellor, criticism moved to it that it received a profitable position at expiration of its term of office as a supervisory board boss of the consortium, besides became the seat of the again created enterprise in for taxation more favorable Switzerland criticized. In addition, there were itself voices from the SPD, the policy, the German economy and the citizenry, for the acceptance of this position discussions.

Further Schröder member in the European adviser of the Rothschild becomes - Investmentbank with seat in Switzerland.

The European delegates Gerhard Schröder suggested Daniel Cohn Bendit in March 2006 as a special envoy of the European Union for white Russia.

Career in the SPD

already 1963 occurred Schröder the SPD , 1971 became it a chairman of the young socialists (Jusos) in the district Hanover and 1973 member of the public workers' union. From 1978 to 1980 he was Federal leader of the Jusos. In the year 1983 Schröder of chairmen of the SPD district became Hanover and was from 1986 to 1998 leading candidate of its party for the election of the federal parliament in Lower Saxony. After the resignation Oskar Lafontaines in March 1999 he became party chairman of the SPD. Into this office it was red-elect in the autumn of the years 1999, 2001 and 2003. In the year 2004 it withdrew from the party presidency, Franz Müntefering became its successor.

Schröder

was private with EH thrust oh (1968-1971), Anne Taschenmacher (1972-1984) and Hiltrud “Hillu” Hensen (1984-1997) marries. In the year 1997 Schröder in fourth marriage married the 19 years younger lady journalist Doris cuts back, which brought a daughter, to Klara, also into the relationship. Schröder does not have physical children. In the year 2004 Gerhard Schröder and its wife adopted a then three-year girl out sank Petersburg named Viktoria.

Family surrounding field

Gerhard Schröder has a half brother, Lothar Vosseler, and two further half brothers and sisters.

Work as Federal Chancellors

as particularly characteristic applied the kind of Gerhard Schröders politics style. Thus it was called frequently instinct politician.

The Red-Green coalition

after the choice success of the SPD with the election to the Bundestag 1998 became Gerhard Schröder to 27. October 1998 to 7. Federal Chancellor of the Federal Republic of Germany selected. The government is placed by a coalition from SPD and alliance 90/Die the Green. Schröder is thereby the third social-democratic chancellor of the Federal Republic. Its government style becomes, depending upon political attitude, as pragmatic or populist, as if specialorients or visionless classified. For it its darstellerischen abilities are characteristic with appearances in the media.

With the assumption of office Gerhard Schröders came the first time for 16 years social-democratic chancellor to power. To the first and so far only times a German Federal Chancellor got more voices, than its coalition had. Among other things due to the fact that for the first time representatives of the new social movements arrived at the government, it was patriated it fast in to speak of the special project red-green which embodies a change in the political culture of Germany.

At the beginning of the legislative period it proved as problem of the government work that Schröder and his Federal Minister of Finance Oskar Lafontaine had different opinions to substanziellen economics and relating to financial policy questions. The opposite views culminated in a struggle for power, in whose consequence Lafontaine already left 1999 the government and gave its mandate up as a SPD chairman. Thereupon Schröder of Federal leaders of its party and Hans Eichel became a Minister of Finance.

The Red-Green coalition decided the atomic door as well as the eco-tax. There were differences with the topics to asylum-seekers, weapon exports and Kosovo war. Relating to domestic affairs the government Schröder converted its electioneering program in such a way specified of „innovation and justice “: Modernization of the nationality right, Green Card initiative, household consolidation, tax revision, pension reform, different initiatives for education and training (Jump, schools to the net, public service employment law reform for university teachers), steering round in the agriculture politics.

After the first government year for the Red-Green coalition had ended with several defeats with federal state parliament and/or European elections 1999, the cabinet Schröder in the course of the CDU donation affair could consolidate. The reform projects embodied by chancellor Schröder were questioned not only repeated by the CDU, but also by party-internal critics made of SPD and the Green, to which the reforms went too far. Schröder could receive the co-operation of the coalition several times by hidden resignation threats.

Gerhard Schröder explained it as its personal request to lower unemployment. This continued to rise however. To 22. February 2002 reacted the Federal Government, by using the commission „modern trend services at the job market “under the presidency of Peter Hartz. Their task was the development of a conclusive total concept for the reform of the German job market.

To 22. Septembers 2002 achieved SPD and the Green with the election to the Bundestag 2002 knappe a majority for a continuation of the coalition under Gerhard Schröder. Some months before the choice were appropriate for CDU/CSU as well as the FDP in public opinion polls still forwards red-green. As finally choice-crucially of observers above all two factors were put out: On the one hand the tide disaster, which had afflicted East Germany briefly before, with which Gerhard Schröder and other government politicians their authority in the accomplishment of crises show could. On the other hand the Iraq war rejected by the Federal Government, which was planned by the USA.

After the re-election to the Federal Chancellor to 22. October 2002 followed a time, in which Schröder activated again conflict-rich proposed reforms, approximately to the health reform. To 6. February 2004 communicated Schröder that it on separate Party Congress of the SPD at the end of March from the party presidency would withdraw. The past chairman of the SPD parliamentary group, Franz Müntefering, was selected to the new chairman of the SPD. Schröder justified its decision on a press conference thereby, made at short notice, „now still more intensively around affairs of government worries “to be able. Many observers saw in the attempt stopping the decrease in public opinion polls, accompanying with the proposed reforms.

The organization liberty of the government Schröder was reduced by the fact that CDU and FDP have a majority in the Upper House of Parliament, but important laws its agreement require. Repeated could Schröder it by concessions to reach that countries, in whose government the CDU was involved supported its government politics in the Upper House of Parliament.

After the defeat of the SPD with the elections of the federal parliament in North Rhine-Westphalia to 22. May 2005 explained Gerhard Schröder, it wanted to reach as soon as possible new elections on federal level, since it see the basis for its politics in question posed. At the 1. It asked the question of confidence to July 2005 in the Bundestag: No, 148 abstentions, thus the necessary majority for the chancellor was not reached 151 yes-voices, 296. In the public it was problematic discussed as in legal regard that the chancellor - similar as Helmut Kohl with the turn of 1982 - wanted to be subject intentionally in the tuning. Gerhard Schröder requested after the tuning with Federal President Horst charcoal burner the dissolution 15. German federal daily. Charcoal burner corresponded to 21. July after detailed legal examination the request and set new elections for the 18. September 2005 on.

To 25. August 2005 knows the Federal Constitutional Court in Karlsruhe the complaints of two Members of the Bundestag against the premature dissolution of the Bundestag and fixing of new elections to 18. September back.

To 9. July 2005 selected a national delegate conference of the SPD of Lower Saxony Gerhard Schröder with 99,5% of the voices (191 of 192) to the leading candidate of the SPD national list for the preferred election to the Bundestag.

In this choice the SPD reached 34.2% of the voices and thus 222 of 614 seats. It came out thereby from the elections as a the strongest party, is however due to the parliamentary group community of CDU and CSU only second-strongest parliamentary group in 16. German Bundestag. The Greens achieved 51 seats.

For the case of a possible large coalition between CDU/CSU and SPD the office of the Federal Chancellor further for itself, however later indirectly its readiness for the renouncement of a guide roller in a new government explained stressed Schröder first against the tradition, after which always the stronger parliamentary group of a coalition places the head of the government.

Gerhard Schröders office as Federal Chancellors ended to 18 with that. October 2005, the day of the constituent meeting 16. German federal daily, however he continued to lead this office on request of the Federal President , to the Bundestag to 22. November 2005 Angela Merkel to the new Bundeskanzlerin had selected. To 23. November 2005 laid down Schröder its Bundestag mandate; its Nachrücker is Clemens Bollen.

In their governmental declaration of 29. November 2005 explained Schröders successor Angela Merkel, it chancellor Schröder wanted to thank completely personally for the fact that he with the agenda 2010 courageously and decided a door up-pushed, in order to adapt the social systems of Germany to the recent time.

Advisor and commissions

the government style Schröders were characterised by the fact that he, in particular for his reform projects, fell back on a multiplicity of advisory committees and commissions institutions intended apart from in the Basic Law for it. These commissions work usually very public-effectively. According to Schröder they are to serve to guarantee a broad consent of the experts with the reforms desired. Critics accuse to him to out-lever thereby fundamental mechanisms of the democracy. Proponents however state that these committees and commissions are active only in the apron of legislative initiatives and no effect on the later legislation process have, which also runs off exactly as with all other laws.

To the commissions belong the alliance for work, training and competitive ability, the national ethics advice, the Weizsäcker - commission for the future of the German Federal Armed Forces, the Süssmuth - to commission to the Zuwanderung to Germany, the commission modern trend services at the job market (Hartz commission) and the Rürup commission to the future of the social systems. To 27. July 2005 was added a further commission under presidency of briefly Biedenkopf . It is to submit suggestions for a reform of enterprise participation. It was remarkable that Schröder prefers members of the CDU as a chairman of these commissions ordered, probably thereby the results on as broad an acceptance in the Bundestag as possible at that time pushes and is rather interspersable should.

To 14. March 2003 presented its reform project agenda to Schröder 2010 , which should serve economic growth and thus a higher level of employment in view of the globalization. Proponents from the trade associations, in addition, many voices independent of the trade associations, praise the steps in the correct direction and the courage to unpopular measures, while critics do not criticize above all a zögerliche conversion of the suggestions - for those the opposition in the mediation committee between Bundestag and Bundesrat jointly responsibly drew - there it „genuine reforms “explained and let the necessary structural measures miss. Criticism at the project did not only come from CDU and FDP, but also by the trade unions and by the left wing of the SPD, which of substantial welfare cutses spoke, with crucial tunings in the minority remained however clear.

Foreign policy

Schröder and US president Bush to 09. October 2001
Schöder with Russian president Vladimir Putin.

To Schröders activities with regard to foreign policy belonged the support of the establishment of the international criminal court, the Verabschiedung of the national plan of action of human rights, the disencumberment initiative, begun on the G7-Gipfel 1999 in Cologne, the world-wide heightening of development assistance (agreement on the G8-Gipfel in London: Increase of development assistance around 50 billion US Dollar annually until 2010).

Under Schröder Germany took part in the fight against the terrorism and against violations of human rights. This happened z. B. in form of several NATO - employments of the German Federal Armed Forces, which the first combat missions under German participation represented after the Second World War. Units of the Air Force took part in the Kosovo war against Yugoslavia (today: Serbia and Montenegro) and army units became active in Afghanistan. The coalition justified this with the end of the cold war, which a reorientation of German foreign policy make necessary. The position of Germany in the world must normalize itself „“, also Germany must for security in the world „responsibility carry “. The Kosovo war led to protests in the population and from protesting as contrary to international law and as the appropriate articles of the Basic Law was hurting regarded (prohibition of the war of aggression).

A possible attack on the Iraq in the 3. The Gulf War rejected the government, also in case of a possible resolution of the United Nations (UN), however strictly. The nonparticipation at the war justified with the missing mandate of the United Nations and the missing connection with the terrorist attacks of the 11. September 2001. In view of the election campaign to the election to the Bundestag, falling into this period, 2002 Schröder this measure was reproached however of critics as populist election campaign maneuver, in particular, because red-green at this time in public opinion polls behind blackyellow lagged behind. Schröders anti-war politics, also connected with insufficient information from of Germany allies, led to large tensions with the American government and criticism at Germany in large parts of the American public, although Germany followed its NATO obligations and did not withdraw the German NATO personnel, who constantly accomplishes air safety devices in AWACS airplanes of NATO. Immediately after the terrorist attack of the 11. September 2001, which led for the first time in the history of NATO to proclaiming the “alliance case”, had explained „unrestricted solidarity to Schröder its “with the USA. Critics consider this explanation either too large or regard them as pure Rhetorik, proponent mean that Schröder placed the common international embarrassment into the foreground, around George W. To hold Bush from spontaneous and inconsiderate retaliatory strikes. The position of the Federal Government in the 3. The Gulf War was supported by a clear majority in the German population, which came also into numerous demonstrations to the expression.

In Schröders term of office as Federal Chancellors intensified and improved the relationship between Germany and Russia, which was promoted by the fact that Schröder understood itself also personally well with Russian president Vladimir Putin.

Further measures with regard to foreign policy were the increase of the means in the fight against AIDS of 20 million euro in the year 1998 on 300 million euro in the year 2004 as well as a grant from 500 million euro assistance after the Tsunami - disaster 2005.

Schröder attributed as a “medium chancellor

” Gerhard Schröder (SPD) with an election campaign speech to the election to the Bundestag

2005 it Gerhard Schröder of some media and its political opponents that he expressed the opinion at the beginning of his first term of office in February 1999, to governing need it “PICTURE, BamS and Glotze “. Like no chancellor before it, Schröder would therefore rely on its effect in the media and its high public popularity, which were appropriate for its party in the public opinion polls always far before that.

Gerhard Schröder had already as an Prime Minister Niedersachsens to 1500. Follow a guest appearance in the transmission GZSZ.

While many felt its radiant emittance as particularly charismatisch, its critics reproached to it, it tried by purposeful key word formation like new center, statements such as Basta! to affect or the policy in such a way specified of the calm hand its picture in the public.

Briefly after the choice to the Federal Chancellor 1998 Schröder fell by up to then the exhibition of luxury (expensive Brioni suit and Cohiba cigars) and appearances, rather uncommon for social-democratic politicians, in the popular Second Channel of German Television - maintenance transmission bets that.? (20. February 1999) up. Because of its comparatively good relationship to the economics it was designated particularly in its first office period of the media gladly as „the comrade of the Bosse “, toward end of its 2. Term of office became this designation in the media rather uncommonly.

Schröder received the German medium price 2000 in Baden-Baden.

In March 2004 Schröder occupied the picture newspaper and other products of the Axel Springer publishing house however with an interview boycott, because they reported too on one side in its opinion on the government work. These rated the boycott as restriction of the Pressefreiheit.

After the preferred election to the Bundestag 2005 Schröder expressed offensively criticism at the reporting of the media before the choice. For these expressions he was criticized among other things by the German journalists' federation.

Gerhard Schröder makes itself screen rule available as prominent quite often also as a protector . Up-to-date it has for of 26. August up to 17. September 2006 transferred to Germany taking place soccer world championship 2006 of humans with mental handicap the patronage.

Honours

the Tongji university in Shanghai has to 30. December 2002 Gerhard Schröder the honour doctor title lent, in June 2003 he accepted the honour doctor in law of the Peter citizens university . To 4. April 2005 was lent to it the honour doctor of the legal faculty of the Marmara university Istanbul and to 14. June 2005 was lent to it the honour doctor of the mathematical-scientific faculties of the University of Goettingen.

To 9. December 2005 was appointed Gerhard Schröder, because of its earnings/services around the German football as well as with the application around the WM 2006 in Germany, to the honour member of the German football federation.

Since 24. February 2006 he is honour citizen of its hometown Hanover.

See also

literature

  • {{#if:
| | * Literature of and over Gerhard Schröder in the catalog of the DDB

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