Germanistik is to be documented the academic discipline of the Geisteswissenschaften, which it has as task to investigate the German language and literature in their historical and present manifestations and obtained.
The modern Germanistik today mostly becomes as combinationfrom three partial subjects outstandingly, the German linguistics, the older German literature science (Mediävistik) and the newer German literature science.
Table of contents
- Oldhigh-German (8. - 11. Century)
- medium high German (11. - 14. Century)
- early new high German (14. - 17. Century)
- new high German (starting from 17. Century)
besides it analyzes the German language under different aspects (reading/postings, inflection forms, words, sentences, texts etc.), in its differentFeature forms like languagesociological layering (colloquial language, writing language etc.), languagegeographical arrangement (dialects etc.).
the German literature science
the literature science is concerned as the older one German literature science (Mediävistik) with the literature of the beginnings in the early Middle Ages up to the transition to the modern times (about 16. Century).
As the newer one German literature science is occupied it with the literature for instance since that 16. Century up to the present.
It examines the literature systematically after kinds, forms, materials and motives as well as historically after authors and epochs. Central one of spheres of activitythe German literature science are the edition philology, the literature historiography and the text interpretation. The relations of the German literature with the literatures of other countries (rezeptions and history of the impact) and to historical conditions, e.g. in the European context forms further important spheres of activity.
thoseGerman “medium science”
history of the Germanistik
|The neutrality of this article or paragraph is disputed. ThoseReasons stand on the discussion side or on the side for neutrality problems. Attempts to formulate the article neutral and remove this component only if it is no longer necessary.|
As unsystematically operated interest area individual scholar leaves itself the Germanistik openthe area of the Germanic antiquity customer to Tacitus retrace, he interpreted to that the Teutons (without indication of the trunk) the Arminius in check the events of the yearly 9 n.Chr., in their songs besungen have. In the sense of a German speaking and literature customer setsit however only with the study and publication of old on the right of and historical sources as well as medieval Bible translations at present the human . As independent science apart from the old philology and as university discipline became the Germanistik at the beginning 19. Century by George Friedrich Benecke, the brothers Grimm and Karl laughter man justifies. Their scientific interest on the literary past was clearly coined/shaped of the romantic aesthetics with their Wiederentdeckung of the medieval seal.
The first chair had since 1810 in Berlin Friedrich Heinrich of thatHagen . The discussions turned far away around the Nibelungenlied and the Minnesang. Just as these should serve the works Martin Luther the proof that there was one specifically “German” Kulturtadition, which did not shrink from the comparison to other nationshad. The nationalnational perspective - which gave it equally also in France, England and other countries - in the beginning had certainly already operated, because it reflected the own chauvinistism, which it had not given at all in the past. Afterthe processing of the Middle Ages and reformation time by source editions and lively research debates in 19. Century took place the “Wiederentdeckung” of the baroque at the beginning 20. Century.
The German literature science could be instrumentalisieren in many regards of objectives of the reactionary wilhelminischen policy. ThoseDominance of the German culture work over that other nations should be proven and illustrated. In this sense expenditures for selection developed and much-restrain literature-historical encyclopedias. The processing of the baroque seal pointed out however still another further problem: One oriented oneself at the picture of“large”, ingenious creator of literature, a conception, those the originality aesthetics 19. Came of to century. This concept of seal had not given, on the contrary wanted and should it however in the baroque time one by the imitation of classical models its art to prove.That 19. Century came of also the conception of “” the literary kinds Epos, drama and lyric poetry, with which the Germanistik did not get the various manifestations of the earlymodern seal (above all the opportunity seal) into the grasp. Thus it cameto Werturteilen and misunderstandings over literary epochs, which are not eliminated until today.
The time of the national socialism represents the darkest epoch of the Germanistik. As one before already let in willingly with the ruling powers and for it hofiert itself. Manyalso in the post-war period still prominent scientist (z. B.Benno of meadow) raised the bad interpretation of the past under rassischen signs to the standard, many went into the “internal emigration “.
Into the 1950er years became the text-immanentInterpretation method likes, to D. h. one remained at the wording of the seal, interpreted motives and metaphors industrious and excluded each interpretation regarding outside factors of influence and Zeitumstände. Sometimes also the psychoanalysis came to word, with which one behind thatSeal standing “personality” of the author to explain tried.
For years a differentiation used the 1960er regarding the methods. It came to almost indeterminable methodologischen variety. There it came then (after the model of America sneezing TIC and Rome anise TIC) to Strukturalismus, Prescription ion aesthetics and Narrativistik. Into the 1970er years associated then still Intertextualitätstheorie and discourse analysis, poststrukturalistische, semiotic and dekonstruktivistische, toolistic and post office-toolistic perspectives in addition.
- Jürgen Wertheimer: For what Germanistik? In: Florian Keisinger and. A. (Hrsg.): For what Geisteswissenschaften? Controversy of arguments for an overdue debate, Frankfurt A. M. New York 2003 ISBN 359337336X
Web on the left of
- Germanistik - E-Learning-offers (Web offer of the Germanistikthe University of Duisburg meal with numerous E-Learning-courses. Here is among other things also the Web offer settled by lens (linguistics server meal).)
- germanistik.net (up-to-date and rather strictly on purposefully channeling the user directly to the respectively best source of help for Germanists)
- Germanistik in the net -Erlanger list (the “Erlanger list” is at present most extensive link collection to all single disciplines of the subject as well as all ranges of the literary life such as archives, literary societies, feuilleton editorships, publishing houses etc.)
- literature science on-line (“literature science on-line” is an offer of the Germanisti institute of the universityKiel with possibilities for E-learning. A special offer are the live-transmissions of Germanistic lectures on-line and/or their archiving for later free use.)
- bibliography of the German speaking and literature science (“BDSL on-line one”, in which printed expenditure well-known as Eppelsheimer Köttelwesch, those is most important Germanistic bibliography. The year under report courses are freely accessible 1985-1995. Most German university libraries possess a license to the execution reef from the respective university net.)
- http://www.doaj.org/ljbs?cpid=8 -- DOAJ directory OF open ACCESS journal, Literature and LANGUAGEs
- H-Germanistik (moderated would E-Mail-list for specialized communication of graduated Germanistsand literature scientists with the columns calls for PAPER, conferences, employment market, scholarships, tables of contents of current technical periodicals, proceedings and reviews; A component of the renowned H-Net)