Germanium

characteristics
gallium - germanium - arsenic
SI
Ge
SN

[acre] 3d 10 4s 2 4p 2
74
32
Ge

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generally
name, symbol, ordinal number germanium, Ge,Block
14 (
IVA) , 4 , p appearance gräulich proportion at the Earth's shell 6
knows 32 series
of metalloids group, period , · 10 -4 %
atomically
atomic mass 72.64
atomic radius (computed) 125 (125) pm
Kovalenter radius 122 pm
van thatWaals radius -
Elektronenkonfiguration [acre] 3d 10 4s 2 4p 2
electrons per energy level 2, 8, 18, 4
1. Ionization energy 762 kJ/mol
2. Ionization energy 1537.5 kJ/mol
3. Ionization energy 3302.1 kJ/mol
4. Ionization energy 4411 kJ/mol
5. Ionization energy 9020 kJ/mol
physically
state of aggregation firmly
crystal structure cubically face-centered
density (Mohshärte) 5323 kg/m 3 (6)
magnetism -
melting point 1211.4 K (938.3 ° C)
boiling point 3093 K (2820 °C)
molecular volume 13,63 · 10 -6 m 3 /mol
heat of vaporization 330.9 kJ/mol
heat of fusion 36,94 kJ/mol
steam pressure 0.0000746 Pa at 1210 K
speed of sound 5400 m/s with 293,15 K
specific thermal capacity 320 j (kg · K)
Electrical conductivity 1.45 S /m
heat conductivity 59.9 w (m · K)
Chemically
oxidation conditions of 4
oxides (basicity) geo 2 (more amphoter)
normal potential 0.24 V (Ge 2+ + 2e - → Ge)
Elektronegativität of 2.01 (Pauling scale)
isotopes
isotope NH t 1/2 ZM CPU M eV ZP
68 Ge {syn.} 270.8 D ε 0.106 68 Ga
69 Ge {syn.} 39.05 h ε 2.227 69 Ga
70 Ge 21.23% Ge 71 Ge are stable {
syn. with 38 neutrons} 11.43 D ε 0.229 71 Ga
72 Ge 27.66% Ge 73 Ge 7.73% Ge are
stable with 40 neutrons74 Ge 35.94% Ge are
stable are stably with 42 neutrons 75 Ge {
syn. with 41 neutrons} 82.78 min β - 1.177 75 As
76 Ge 7.44% Ge 77 Ge are stable {
syn. with 44 neutrons} 11.30 h β - 2.702 77 As
78 Ge {syn.} 88.0 min β - 0.954 78 As
as far as possible and common, are used SI-UNITs.
If not differently notes,
the indicated data apply with standard conditions.

Germanium (of lat. GermaniaGermany “,the homeland of the discoverer Clemens Winkler (1838 - 1904)) is a chemical element. It became to 6. February 1886 for the first time proven.

Table of contents

history

thoseWe owe Clemens Winkler, a chemist at the mountain academy free mountain ( in free mountain ) to discovery of the germanium, which with cobalt - glass worked. It examined the mineral Argyrodit and found thereby the new element germanium. It placed itself later thanthe Eka - silicon out, which had been forecast 1871 by Dmitri Iwanowitsch Mendeleyev.

occurrence

germanium is far common, occurs however only in very small concentrations; Clarke number (= average content in the earth's crust): 1.5 g/t.It is found as a companion in copper and Zinkerzen (Hettstedter Kupferschiefer). The most important minerals are Argyrodit, Canfieldit, Germanit and Reniérit.

characteristics

germanium is a metalloid, with which the metal character outweighs.

Germanium points to that as onefew materials the characteristic of the anomaly of density up, i.e. its density is lower in solid state than in liquid.

use

as semiconductors was it the prominent material in electronics, to it by the silicon one displaced andtoday only in high-frequency engineering a role plays. Possibly changes again with the new germanium carbon silicon technology.

Its second main application finds it in the infrared optics in the form of windows and lens systems out poly or to monocrystalline germanium as well as optical Gläsernwith infrared permeability, Chalkogenidgläsern so mentioned. Operational areas for this are military and civilian night-vision devices as well as Thermografiekameras. With these for example houses on leakages in the isolation can be examined.

Further substantial uses are appropriate for fiber-optic cables and polyester fibers in the production of optical waveguide cable -: In modernOptical fibers of telecommunications by germanium tetrachloride a germanium coating of the internal fiber core is caused for the reaching of the total reflexion by light waves. In polyester chemistry germanium dioxide comes as catalyst with the production of certain polyester fibers and - granulates to the employment, particularly for recyclingablePET bottles (PET = polyethylene terephthalate).

With germanium, contrary to steel, not by neutron radiation the crystal structure can be broken. It catches the impact of the neutron flexibly . So far this discovery finds however no use in reactors.

Illustrations

germanium
Commons: Germanium - pictures, videos and/or audio files
Wiktionary: Germanium - word origin, synonyms and translations
 

  > German to English > de.wikipedia.org (Machine translated into English)