of these articles treats the city Gernika/Guernica. For the picture of the same name of Pablo Picasso see Guernica (picture).

Gernika (officially Gernika Lumo (baskisch), Spanish/kastilisch Guernica) is a city in the Spanish autonomous region Basque country. It lies northeast from Bilbao, belonged to the province Bizkaia and has 15,571 inhabitants (conditions: 2004).

The municipality Gernika Lumo (in in former times official Spanish name form Guernica y Luno) consists 1.5 km distant suburb San Pedro de Lumo of the city Gernika and that.ItOka is because of the river.

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oak of Guernika

Gernika is a holy city of the Basques, since the early Middle Ages took place here meetings of the council. Thosekastilischen, later the Spanish kings swore under the oak of Gernika to respect and protect the special autonomy laws of the Bizkaia. In Gernika the holy national symbol of the Basques, is an oak, under to 1876 those above the city centerOld advice from the whole Basque country met annually, in order to exercise a form of direct democracy. The tree is replaced in each case, if it dies, by a new planting from the fruits of the old tree.

bomb attack

the city became with oneAir raid during the Spanish civil war to 26. April 1937 by a surface bombardment of German bombers of the Legion CONDOR destroys. An allegedly original goal of the attack was outside by Gernika, those by the republican troops for the supply to Bilbao used a road bridgebecame. With the attack more than 600 civilians were killed, the bridge remained however intact. This employment of general tungsten baron von Richthofen was kommandiert directly. The attack had been requested by the Spanish army command, that the German LegionCONDOR was subordinated. To what extent consciously Gernika was selected of the Spanish army command as holy city of the Basques as a goal, in order to break the strength of the Basques, is today unsettled until, it can however be accepted that the Spanish army guidance overthe meaning of the city knew.

The painter Pablo Picasso received 1937 the order to provide a painting for the Spanish pavilion that to Paris world exhibition. This picture Guernica applies until today as unsurpassed accusation against the war.


Gernika is twin city of the city of Baden-Wuerttemberg Pforzheim. With the partnership between cities the fact plays a role that Pforzheim to 23. February 1945 by a surface bombardment was likewise destroyed.


  • „Guernika did not become famous, because it was bombarded.Guernika was bombarded, because it was famous. “(Eduardo Vallejo)
  • in Guernica luckiest humans live. Their affairs regulate it by a body of farmers under an oak, and they always behave intelligently. (Jean Jacques Rousseau)


  • Olaf Groehler, enterprise fire charm, in flier calendars of the GDR, Berlin 1985

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