Barley

barley
barley (Hordeum vulgare)
systematics
Subclass: Commelinaähnliche (Commelinidae)
order: Sweet-grass-well-behaved (Poales)
family: Sweet grasses (Poaceae)
Unterfamilie: Pooideae
kind: Barley (Hordeum)
kind: Barley
scientific name
Hordeum vulgare
L.

The barley (Hordeum vulgare, English. Barley, old-German Bere) is a grain and belonged to the family of the grasses (Poaceae).

Table of contents

characteristics

thosePlant becomes 0.7 to 1.2 m highly. The Fruchtstand is an ear with long Grannen. The ears are in mature condition bent to hanging. Morphologic distinguishing feature are the long, unbewimperten Blattöhrchen, which encloses the stem completely. The Blatthäutchen is narrowand easily toothed. Botanisch regarded are the grains einsamige closing fruits (Karyopse). Gersten are divided on the basis their different ears into two and forms of several lines. The two-line forms develop one grain, which is full and strongly pronounced per beginning place only.With the forms of several lines three grains per beginning place arise, which do not develop as however strongly as those of the two-line forms.

  • 2-zeilige barley sorts = usually summer barley = brewing barley
  • 4 - and 6-zeilige barley sorts = winter barley sorts = Futtergerste

Origin

of origin areas of the barley are the front Orient and the eastern Balkans region. The oldest proofs of the barley leave themselves to 10500 v. Chr. antedate. Starting from 7000 v. Chr. the systematic breed selection began and since the Jungsteinzeit (5000 v. Chr.), findsalso in Central Europe cultivation of barley instead of.

During the Middle Ages the barley was estimated as productive Viehfutter. Owing to breeding the yields, particularly on requirement-looser locations, can compete with the wheat yields. Barley is one the classical grain of the antique ones. Itmore than 8000 years ago in the two-current country and at the Nile one cultivated. It is closely related to the game barley occurring in the Near East (Hordeum vulgare subsp. spontaneum).

cultivation

barley prospers best on deep,well soils soaked. In addition, with unfavorable conditions it gets along well and replaces thereby for example in areas other kinds concerned by salting like wheat. Their winter hardness is less pronounced than of wheat or rye. With the cultivationbetween winter and summer barley one differentiates. Wintergerste is more productive and in September is sown. The training of Nebentrieben (Bestockungstriebe) is final the winter ago. From them the ears of basic stems develop in the spring. After the phases of the Bestockung, of theSchossens and the ear pushing follows the bloom. Barley ranks among the Selbstbefruchtern. Usually the Wintergerste opens the Getreideernte. The sowing of the summer barley takes place in the spring. It matures in less than 100 days near and needs clearly less warmthas the Wintergerste. The harvest takes place with yellow to fullripe. Wintergerste supplies, depending upon location, between 50-90 dt/ha, summer barley between 40-60 dt/ha grain yield. Under the designation Bere runs a type from barley, to which on Orkney one cultivates.

The grains with the Spelzen grew together to use there, possess the barley a high cellulose portion (8 15%). Without Spelzen barley grains 60 contain 70% coal hydrates, predominantly in the form of strengths, 11% proteins, 10% ballast materials,ever 2% fat and minerals as well as the Vitamin B. Barley contains glows, which can lead with persons with glow incompatibility to health problems. There beer among other things from barley one brews, these persons often one recommends, also its beer consumptionto reduce.

The economic meaning of barley is smaller than those of the varieties of grain wheat, corn and rice. The grain yields of the barley predominantly used as Futtergetreide, there in particular the Wintergerste relatively much protein (12 15%) contains. For thosehuman nutrition Grütze know and/or from barley. Barley to be manufactured; occasionally also flour is produced. A special use form is the Malzkaffee. For this the barley must begin to germinate only, before it as Malz gedarrt und dann gemahlen wird. Ein erheblicher Anteil der zweizeiligen Sommergerste dient der Biererzeugung, da deren Körner relativ wenig Eiweiß (< 9 %) und viele Kohlenhydrate (> 65%) to contain. Also welfare effects are awarded to the barley.Schösslinge work draining and fever-lowering.

the largest barley producers

2004 became according to Food and Agriculture Organization world-wide 155 millions t barley harvested. The following table gives an overview of the 15 largest producers of barley world-wide:

The largest barley producersworld-wide (2004)
source: Trade paper the world in figures (2005)
rank country quantity
(in Tsd. t)
Country struggled quantity
(in Tsd. t)
1 Russian Föd. 18.000 The 9 USA 6.099
2 Canada 13.040 10 Great Britain 5.860
3 Germany 12.967 11 Denmark 3.727
4 Ukraine 11.076 12 Poland 3.477
5 France 10.999 13 China 3.200
6 Spain 10.583 14 Morocco 2.760
7 Turkey 9.000 15 Iran 2.700
8 Australia 7.792 16 world approx. 155.000

see also: The largest grain producers, the largestWheat producers, the largest rye producers, the largest oats producers


of peeled barley grains Gerstengrütze

  • for this are cut briefly the peeled barley grains to Grütze. Grütze is brought in different granulation into the trade.
  • Barley (also: ) One receives Rollgerste or cook barley by loops of the barley grains, whereby also the points are rounded. The “Perl barley” are most well-known. In addition Grütze on grinding machines is worked on, until they receive their roundish form.
  • Barley flakes become out hydraulicthermally treated barley grainsrolled.
  • Barley flour is manufactured by the grinding by barley flakes.

literature

  • Elizabeth ski man; Wheat, rye, barley. Systematics, history and use. 1948
  • i.m.a registered association: Plants in the agriculture, 2004

Web on the left of

Commons: Barley -Pictures, videos and/or audio files
Wiktionary: Barley - word origin, synonyms and translations

over barley grain, the annoying to extremely painful inflammation toEdge of eye see under Hordeolum.

 

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