of these articles concerns itself with history in the sense of the science of history, for other meanings sees history (term clarifying).

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] term

history [to work on


history generally sense means the constant development and adjustment of socially organized organisms to its environment. In the closer sense refersit itself on the development of humans and mankind. Also with the earth, with nature and universe we speak of history, geologic history, natural history. But only a small subsection of this total history is the subject of the science of history. With more exact View gives to differentiate between it the following four ranges:

  1. The emergence of the universe: She is regarded by astronomers, astrophysicists, mathematicians and philosophers. (Big Bang, cosmology)
  2. thereby the history of humans is meant, because here development does not only use, thosegenetically and by something similar, but also culturally conditioned is: Act and. Traditions change. Humans intervene consciously in the change of his environment , in order to adapt these to his needs. This history is subject to archaeology, Ethnologie and Geografie.
  3. ThoseHistory since invention of writing, of indications with meaning, because manifested itself and needs consciousness here to be no longer only guessed and opened. In addition here the tradition becomes over personal, because here secondary communication begins - speak up Character created excessive quantity. - It can be communicated also over picture language, which is not picture writing. Early forms are among other things the cave painting, the Tätowierungen of the natives in the South Seas, the cuneiform script and the hieroglyphics. Hieroglyphics howeveralready possess a syllabarische meaning, i.e., it is already a Silbenschrift. These character fonts are not-alphabetical writing systems. The alphabetical writing systems with letters as meaning meanings are the younger.
  4. The history, which understands itself as history, which humans anverwandelt themselves, tellable history has.

Strictly speaking is only history in this fourth narrowest range the subject of the science of history, but historical writers and historians always also in history in the broader sense were interested. Also usually also this becomes in historical manualswider range with treats, although historians cannot contribute anything with the scientific development of these questions with their method.

history as term of the science of history

history in the sense of the science of history means in human cultures the event. History in thisSense is something humans own; the term is however extended used frequently also, over the time before the occurrence of humans and/or. to represent before the development of the historical conciousness, in particular thus natural history, thereby particularly geologic history, those Prehistory and other Forschungsgebiete. (see. in addition historicity)

to separate from this term from history is history as excessive quantity, research and representation in its temporal or material sequence (see. Historiography). The historical realization is based on remnants and tradition. (see. Science of history).

Such realization is however never objective, but dependent on the historical situation, the perspective of the regarding. A certain perspective against other perspectives to intersperse (in addition, the attempt to make Multiperspektivität possible) is thing of the historical politics.

On the other handhistorical didactics placed itself the task to facilitate the entrance to the most important ranges from history and to make a multidimensional historical conciousness possible.

Historical instruction is the attempt of the practical conversion of historical didactics.

Access to history of the different historical areas and out the portal makes national stories possible: History. The different disciplines of the science of history make access to specific special ranges for history possible.


are definition attempts over history both from philosophy and the science of history a set ofgeneral definition attempts. Exemplarily only these:

George William Friedrich Hegel: History is „progress in the consciousness of the liberty “- „the development of the nature of God in a special, certain element “

William of Humboldt: „The goal of history knows only the implementationthe idea which can be represented by mankind its. “

Johann Gustav Droysen: „Which happens in it daily, from no informing as history done or wanted. Only a certain kind of regarding the event after times makes history from business ".

Karl Jaspers: „We speak of history of nature and of history of humans. A unreversible process of the time is common to both. But both are different in sense and nature. The history of nature is not conscious of their. It is a bare happening, which does not know itself, but of that only humans knows. Consciousness and intention is not a factor of this happening. It is still therefore a seduction of our thinking used in categories of nature, history afterTo regard analogy from nature happenings to. “

Golo man: „Always history has two components: what happened, and which, which sees and to understand looks for the event of its places in the time. New material realizations do not only correct thoseold; the recognizing changes itself. The past lives; it varies in the light of new experiences and questions. “

To the task of the historiography: Leopold of climbs: „One has history the office to arrange the past the Mitwelt to the use more in the futureTo instruct years, attached; so high offices does not under-wind itself present attempt: he wants to say only, like it actually been. “

Of it uncounted further could be stated. Here reveals itself the problem of a generally obligatory definition, which history is. Alldefinitions of history, specified here, point on something substantial. They are however all of a certain subjective view of those filled, which they set up. That is to that extent also hardly differently conceivablly, than these scholars in each case from another historical perspectivejudge. In addition inevitably the question about the tasks of the historiography must follow with the question according to the definition of history. Very fast it reveals itself with the fact that the historiography depends also on the policy and thus on political interests. Very muchsteps clearly at national history to light. Since this was subjected again always to a change, is and will remain, change according to the political basic conditions regarding the historiography. Thus the problem of the historical truth places itself. It givesnot historical truth, but only interpretation of the sources from the respective perspective (place, time, interest, friend/enemy…). (In the year 5000 one - source conditions resemble presupposed - will have another picture of history than we today. We cannot today already say, it is wrongly.)

scientific viewpoints

  • history can on the one hand scientifically be investigated, on the other hand one the representation of the results and connections than an artistic activity is to be regarded: The historian is the reader on a comprehensible, objectiveand convincing way the course of the events as well as their causes and effects state. Historical philosophy tries, the course of the actions into a superordinate connection, a historical picture, to bring. This is predominantly the beginning of the Geisteswissenschaften.
  • The research thatHistory of nature or geologic history is operated naturally also by the natural science. Here it concerns mainly to make natural history and/or the history of the earth comprehensibly on the basis of scientific realization methods.
  • The Historio Metrie which pursues a further beginningtries temporal events in a metric overview to represent.

artistic viewpoints

  • by the representation of history also as an artistic task, coming being able to be regarded in reverse to the artistic and/or. literary processing of historical topics, without vordergründiga scientific interest of realization exists. For example the drama boiling stone of Friedrich of Schiller or the Torquato Tasso of Johann Wolfgang von Goethe is literary works on the basis of the historical material, without being able to be understood at the same time as historical works.
  • Besidethe literary viewpoints of history these manifest themselves also in the forming art like e.g. in the painting and graphics. These viewpoints set themselves as well a high measure an ability pronounced by individual historical conciousness of the artist ahead and, criticallyTo argue history.

historical politics

the representation of history are the subject of the historical politics. Historiography stands always also under the suspicion of the interest-led representation. That applies in particular if you are the basis a historical philosophy. Historical politics serve thus the influencing control on thosegeneral forming of an opinion of the society. The forms of the historical politics can be very different. Related terms are about:Historicity, historical conciousness, historical area, historical perspective, Historisierung, memory culture, Glorifizierung and/or historical falsification. Historical instruction and the historical didactics comes here onesubstantial meaning too. Reflection over historicity is task of historical philosophy and the historical didactics.


  • each time, if humans report on passing, and he is also a historical writer, has we to consider, which he unintentionallyfrom the present or from intermediate times to the past carries back, so that it falsifies the picture the same. - It victory mouth
  • Freud Those who CAN emergency more remember the past acres condemned tons repeat. (Who does not know history, to it, it is condemnedto repeat.) George Santayana
  • the historical reality often is like the Elster, which at a place walk and at the other one its eggs puts. - José Ortega y gas set (structure and decay of Spain)
  • history is lie, on which oneagreed. - Napoleon Bonaparte
  • a breathing space - history is made - it does not precede - the group of music of Fehlfarben 1982
  • a number of fortuitous events, which would better not have taken place. - [
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also world history


  • Mark of Bloch: Apologie of history or by the occupation of the historian. Munich 1987 (1. Aufl. 1949)
  • Jacob Burckhardt: World-historical views.Hrsg. v. Jacob Oeri,Berlin/Stuttgart 1905.
  • Manfred May: World history. 2002. 240 S. ISBN 3-446-20191-2
  • Neil Grant: World history. Young Oxford. 2000. 191 S. ISBN 3-407-75305-5
  • Raphael, Lutz: Science of history in the age of the extremes. Theories, methods, tendencies from 1900 to the present. Munich 2003
  • World history : 1. The beginnings of mankind and early advanced cultures 2. Antique worlds. 3. Around faith and rule. 4. Ways into the modern trend. 5. Departure of the masses. 6. Fright of the wars. (= of Brockhaus the library) 1997 - 1999. Ever 704 S. ISBN 3-7653-7400-8
  • the large Ploetz - the data encyclopedia of world history; Data, facts, connections, ersch. in various extra charges, among other things with two thousand one, ISBN 3-86150-412-X
  • Erich Bavarian and Frank turn (Hrsg.): Dictionary of history. 5. Edition, Stuttgart 1995.
  • Jörg Baberowski: ThatSense of history. Historical theories from Hegel to Foucault. Munich 2005.
  • Pietro Rossi (Hrsg.): Theory of the modern historiography. Frankfurt/M. 1987

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Wikiquote: History - quotations
Wiktionary: History - word origin, synonyms and translations
Wikibooks: History - learning and teaching materials

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