History of Argentina
prehistory and Inc.-acre-calibrate
those today to Argentina of belonging areas were relatively thinly populated before the Kolonialisierung by Spain. One assumes that „the discovery “of the area by humans approximately in 10. Millenium before Christi birth took place, some disputed research supplieshowever reference points that the area already in 20. Millenium before Christi birth was settled.
Particularly the trunks, those in the Pampa - area lived (Querandíes, Tehuelches) were not established up to the arrival of the Spaniards and possessed also no considerably developed technology. Differently the trunksin the northwest of the country, which practiced for instance starting from the early Middle Ages land and Viehwirtschaft and had far progressed particularly in the area of architecture. The attachment plants of Quilmes in the province Tucumán are a certification for it. In 13. and 14. Century expanded the Inka- Realm strongly to the south and covered the maximum expansion of the realm around 1450 far parts of the northwest of Argentina, amounted to into the north of the today's province Mendoza. Many of the trunks of this region, like the Kollas of the Puna - Hochebene, took over the language ( the Quechua)and the technology of the Inkas. The Diaguita living in the northwest of Argentina had the expanding Inc.-acre-calibrate for a long time resisted. The Guaraní and their relatives (Chiriguano, Mbya and Chané) lived far east in the Gran Chaco and in the today's Misiones and of Inc.-acre-calibrate not seized.
The area of today's Argentina became in 16. Century from the Spaniardstwo directions colonizes: From Peru they took the northwest parts of the country in possession, while on the other hand from the Atlantic Spanish addresses at the current system of the Río de la Plata were created, among them to Buenos Aires, where the Spaniards are established in the long term in the year 1580could, after a first attempt had failed there for the establishment of a Spanish settlement in the year 1536 because of the resistance of the indigenen inhabitants of the Pampa. Those far south lain areas today's Argentina were stressed theoretically also by Spain, remained however in the colonial age actually outsidethe Spanish rule sphere.
In the course 18. Century the Spanish South America was politically again arranged. After already 1717 the viceroy realm Neugranada in the northern South America of the viceroy realmPeru separated was, became in the year 1776 also the viceroy realm of the Río de la Plata in the southern South America of this abgespalten. This covered beside Argentina still today's Bolivia, Paraguay and Uruguay.
Capital of the new viceroy realm Río de la Plata became Buenos Aires. In addition the city received the right to carry on independently trade. This led 18 to a rapid growth of the city in the last decades. Century and to first flashing an Argentine national consciousness.
1806 and 1807 tried the Englishmen within a conflictwith Spain twice to occupy Buenos Aires. These occupations failed, however not to the Gegenwehr of the Spanish troops, but at the embittered resistance on the part of the population. By this success the nationalists in their ambitions were careful strengthened and prepared the independence of the country, by themever larger concessions of the viceroy to local citizen combinations, whom Cabildos so mentioned Abiertos attained.
liberals ideas seized
Military successes by José de San Martín and Simón de Bolívar in the years 1814 to 1817 it changed however the situation in such a manner that itself the remaining viceroy realm of the Río de la Plata to 9. July 1816 for independently explained.
Followed year turbulent arguments relating to domestic affairs, while those Bolivia 1825 and Uruguay 1828 split themselves off. At the same time the conflict flamedon between the so-called Unitariern, which favored one on Buenos Aires concentrated central state, and which Föderalisten, which wanted to receive the independence of the individual provinces. Between 1827 and 1852 the provinces were from each other independent, the province Buenos Aires had however because of their strong trading nation a supremacy. Against the 1836 effected Konföderation neighbour states Peru and Bolivia proceeded Argentina starting from 1837 together with Chile in the Peruvian-Bolivian Konföderationskrieg militarily.
Rosas dictatorship ended by a revolution under general Justo José de Urquiza, who was supported by Uruguay and Brazil. 1853 were discharged by the provinces a republican condition, which did not recognize Buenos Aires.
1859 ended the argumentsmilitarily, with the following unit of Argentina. The liberal politician Bartolomé Mitre was selected 1862 from the national assembly to the president. It 1868 Domingo Faustino Sarmiento followed.
1869 were accomplished under Sarmiento the first national census. Argentina had therefore at this time 1.836.490 inhabitants, of it lived 31% in the province Buenos Aires. 8% of the entire population were Europeans (in the sense of „not Argentine citizens “). Only 5% were Indios. 71% of the population were illiterates and less than 17% of the 300,000 voters could write.
Into this time that fallsbloody Tripel alliance war (1865 - 1870) between victorious Argentina, Brazil and Uruguay against Paraguay. In the following decade was completely subjected the Pampas by general Julio Argentino Roca, which was selected after its victory 1880 to the president. In the same year Buenos Aires becameofficially as the capital of Argentina explains.
the conservative illusory democracy
the years from 1880 to 1929 brought economic upswing and intensified immigration to Argentina, mainly from Europe. This was stimulated by a law of Rocas predecessor Nicolás Avellaneda,that the acquisition of a residence permit highly simplified. The economy was strongly adjusted to the export of raw materials and the import by manufactured products. This period ended with the world economic crisis.
The government Roca and the following governments were oligarchisch aligned, with large influence of the great land owners.By a thought out electoral fraud system the political rights one withheld from the bulk of the population. The system, into which practically all institutions which are connected with the elections were complicated, was based on several columns: Falsification of the Wählerlisten (e.g. Multiple denomination of individual voters, denomination of dead voters, Nichtnennung of sympathizers more politicallyOpponent), multiple choice of individual citizens in different districts, nonadmission not of the wished voters as well as nonacknowledgement and Anullierung of unpleasant election results. Simplified said: Only who belonged to the upper class or kollaborierte with the government, was allowed to select - all different became with the saying ya votaste (you have alreadyselected) again home skillfully. Also the immigrants, who already constituted a considerable part of the population at this time, did not have right to vote as foreigners. From displeasure over these conditions in the middle of the 1880er was created years a reaction, the Unión Cívica (citizen union). She settled 1890 by rebellions by force on itself attentively and attained some concessions despite the embittered resistance of the oily arks.
The immigrants organized themselves meanwhile in solidary communities, those the foundation-stonefor the later trade unions formed.1901 became an anarchist oriented unionized roof federation, which FORUMS, based, which formed the opposition together with the Unión Cívica and the socialist party created by German immigrants. The FORUMS and the socialists were pursued by the government, only the UniónCívica could attain respect successes.1912 were forced on urge of the opposition the president Roque Sáenz Peña to introduce the obligation to vote which made the previous electoral fraud mechanism impossible.
introduction of the democracy
1916 solved the Unión Cívica Radical (radicals citizen union) under Hipólito Yrigoyen, oneSplitting off of the Unión Cívica, the existing government off. This change of power possible made by the reform of the electoral law in the year 1912.
Yrigoyen and its successor Marcelo T. de Alvear (1924 - 1928) tried to lead a policy national consent. Withthe trade unions negotiations were taken up, likewise with the student movement, which demanded 1918 in Córdoba the reform of the verkrusteten university hierarchies. It came nevertheless further to bloody labor disputes into Buenos Aires (1919) and into Patagonien (1921 - 1922).
1928 became Yrigoyen againPresident selected. With the world economic crisis the conservative opposition movement received however again, plans for a coup d'etat to inlet was forged.
world economic crisis
1930 was fallen Yrigoyen by a Militärputsch. The conservative general José Félix Uriburu made himself to re-establish the old order. Nevertheless that should democratic system to be maintained.1932 came it to elections, from which Agustín Pedro Justo came out as a winner. Particularly in the province Buenos Aires had come it however for the first time to the so-called patriotic electoral fraud, which secured the continuity of the conservative governments in the following years.
The collapse of the international trade led to the beginning of the “import substitution industrialization in such a way specified” with structure of industry and stronger economic independence. At the same time a climate of the political argument between right, fascist and left, radical parties existed. The policy of Argentina was in this time by oriented towards the right andmilitary governments coined/shaped. Democracy existed only on the paper, electoral fraud was at the agenda, so that the 1930er years in Argentina under the name década infamous (German: notorious decade) admits is. The 1938 to the president selected Roberto María Ortiz strove for the stabilization, thereby however and 1942 failed to the democracy after its resignation from the ore-conservative Ramón Castillo were replaced, which repaired the old electoral fraud politics, so that however ever more encountered the displeasure of the population and also the military, particularly because of its politics of the support thatAllied in 2. World war, which was questioned by a new group of per-fascist generals.
the Second World War
Ramón Castillo was entmachtet 1943 by a Putsch, it followed a transitional phase until 1946,in that the military power seized. Argentina was officially neutral in the Second World War, sympathized with the Axis powers, and supported against end of war the allied ones. In the time it succeeded to the young officer Juan Perón to maneuver itself sophistiated to power:It occupied under military the Ministry of Labour and became fast because of its extensive concessions to the trade unions a people hero in the working class. When 1945 a democratic opposition movement formed against military, these tried, to repair the social peace by dismissing Perón andarrested. But when the opposition movement further for a democratic reversal demonstrated and the situation became untenable, decided military for the smaller evil and installed a propaganda campaign for Perón, in order to strangle the opposition. The working class jumped up on this campaign and demonstrated in oneMass meeting for its release. After Perón had become released, he used his popularity and provided for the adjustment of free elections.
Juan Perón won the elections 1946 with only small projection/lead, however Eva Perón dominated with his Mrs. (called Evita, † 1952) the political life until 1955. Part the peronistischen policy was the nationalization of important branches of industry and the expansion of the import substitution model on the consumer goods industry. Perón interspersed 1949 a constitutional amendment, which permitted him a second presidency. One knows its reign as mixture from democracy andDictatorship designate: Other parties were certified and it gave free elections, but the media as well as the trade union movement were subject to control by Perón and its movement. Person cult and nationalistic propaganda were important columns of Peróns rule. Particularly in its first reign Argentina experienced thoseIndustrialization of far parts before of the agriculturally coined/shaped country and an economic bloom time with a prosperity level, following on it, which was later never again reached. From this time the utterance Peróns originates, from which, which throws an Argentine family into the garbage, five European families could survive.Into the 1950er years was actually by far wealthier Argentina than the European countries suffering from the war sequences.
Perón is in Germany today particularly because of its alleged sympathy for the ideology of the national socialism disputed, which itself essentially on isolated statements of the admiration for Mussolini supports. LV criminals such as Adolf calibration man, Josef Mengele or walter Rauff found after 1945 in Argentina Unterschlupf, often with the help of the Vatikan. This very day probably less well-known and therefore remained undiscovered Nazis in Argentina live. On the Argentine society and policy this hadbut an extremely marginal influence.
The conservative ones observed Perón with distrust and forged Peróns of plans for the revolution by force in the second presidency. A broad conservative liberal, as well as nationalistic, opposition movement, those developed particularly of the old great land owner oily archie, but later also from the catholic churchone supported. Using ones economic problems led to the fact that this movement also by a part of the central layer and the Industriellen were supported, but the working class remained Perón faithfully.
Putsch and instability
In the following years the conflict between three communities of interests coined/shaped the policy: The Nationalpopulisten wanted to reform the economic policy of the Peronisten only little and further on an industrializationset on basis of Argentine capital. The development politicians wanted to expand the process of industrialization on intermediate products and long-lived consumer goods such as cars, thus on sectors, which were certain of foreign capital. The liberals, who were supported particularly by the classes well placed, wanted against it inefficient industriesabolish and set instead on the free trade.
Lonardi was replaced still in the year 1955 from Pedro Aramburu, which used the condition of 1853 in the core again. Elections in February 1958 brought that to the development policy he parliamentary group Arturo belonging Frondizi of the UCRI, Unión Cívica Radical Intransigente(Uncompromising radicals citizen union), a populist parliamentary group of the old UCR, Unión Cívica Radical (radicals citizen union), with support by a part of the Peronisten, politicians of different province parties up to the communists to the government.
Frondizis government ended 1962 by the military, which accused peronistische sympathies to him.It intended José María Guido, the chairman of the senate, for its successor. Frondizi one interned on the island Martín García. The avowed not Peronist Arturo H won the following elections from July 1963 , in which Peronisten and communists were not allowed to participate . Illia of thatUCRP, Unión Cívica Radical del Pueblo (radicals citizen union of the people). The UCRP reached the majority of the voices, which however nevertheless only one portion of approx. 25% of the altogether delivered voices corresponded. The UCRI of the fallen president Frondizi reached third with 16%Place. About 40% of the delivered voices distributed themselves on 47 further parties. Although Illias style and Rhetorik showed up more soberly, less nationalistic and populist, its economics and social politics were closer to a classical economicnationalistic model as the Frondizis. Thus it made for example from Frondiziclosed contracts with foreign oil companies retrogressive.Illias politics was characterised beyond that by its strict respect for democratic procedures and standards, which did not help him however to the support of the peronistischen trade unions.
Successes of the Peronisten in regional elections and by-elections 1965 as well as worker unrests due to the bad28 led economic situation to a renewed Putsch to. June 1966 by general Juan Carlo Onganía, which became an acting president Arturo Umberto Illia for set off avowedly. The conservative Onganía became to 28. June as a new president swears in and furnished a dictatorship, those from „experts “to be led should. The parliament was dissolved and the parties was forbidden. The government Onganía set further on the beginning of development policy and continued to expand the industrialization, now however with increased participation of multinational enterprises in the indication of a restaurant liberal of course. Although the powerful peronistische trade union leader6 Augusto Vandor, el lobo (the wolf) , the government had originally supported, expected themselves the regime had also called Onganías immediately to an opposition from workers and student, who flowed starting from 1969 into an increasing spiral of the force. 1969 about were murdered Vandor by left-wing oriented peronistischen Guerrillas, thosetried the movement of the exilierten leader on their course to swing.
In the same year it came to unrests into Córdoba (Cordobazo) and Rosario (Rosariazo), which cost Onganía the presidency. Successor became Roberto Levingston, that as Vorbereiter of a democratic reversalsaw, but to 1971 after unrests again in Córdoba (Viborazo) the hat to take had. In the entire epoch deeply felt different Guerilla organizations move inlet, which were supported by a part of the student movement. The Montoneros, the largest of them, was peronistisch, during other one howthe Ejército de Liberación Nacional (ELN) and the Ejército Revolucionario del Pueblo (ERP) were communist oriented. Particularly the ERP stung by its social activities (e.g. Meal delivery in Slums) out, which made it very popular in the population and with the students.
The last of the militaryif president appointed, Alejandro Lanusse, since its assumption of office the re-establishment of the democracy prepared 1971. Protests and force as well as a constant TAC animals between the Perón and Lanusse living in the exile coined/shaped the years 1972 and 1973. The Peronisten won the choice from March 1973with Héctor José Cámpora as a presidency candidate, who made attentive already however in the election campaign to the fact that he would make the place free for him in the case of a return Peróns.
After escalating terror of right and from left and Peróns return withdrew Cámpora and made Peróns possible renewedPresidency. Perón drove a hard right course in this time however. It could not solve the economic problems. After Peróns death in July 1974 followed it Isabel Perón, its third wife, in the office. Their reign was coined/shaped of economic fall and renewed terrorism. Those alreadyunder Perón created halfnational terror brigade Alianza Anticomunista Argentina (AAA) provided for the first disappearing so mentioned and murdered numerous Opositionelle and activists that linking.
military dictatorship and state State of
in March 1976 transferred the military under JorgeRafael Videla again the Regierungsgewalt, supports from the parliamentary group of the liberals, who saw their hour come in view of the economic crisis. The so-called „process of the national reorganization “(Proceso de Reorganización Nacional or briefly Proceso) should as „ill “a regarded Argentine society again tooconservative ideals bekehren as well as the left Guerillaorganisationen finally destroy. A democratization was possible for military only to a successful conclusion the this „process “.
Terror and Gegenterror as well as of the minister of economics Martinez de Hoz initiated perfectly unsuccessful departure in the Neoliberalismus, toFight against inflation after the liberal school appeared suitable, but finally and 40% of the Argentine industry equaled a national sellout destroyed, coined/shaped the following years. In the campaign of the military government against their political opponents, in particular against the Montoneros, became according to data of the Argentine commission for human rightsmurdered and 10,000 arrests demonstrably about 2,300 humans. Between 20.000 and 30.000 humans, Desaparecidos mentioned, disappeared in this time without trace. The Madres de Plaza de Mayo requires the clearing-up of these crimes since 1977 unsuccessfully.
Videlas successor Roberto Viola (March 1981) and Leopoldo Galtieri (Decembers1981) were not able the country from the heavy economic crisis to release. The attempt to mobilize Argentina by the occupation of the Islas Malvinas (Falklandinseln) in April 1982 failed due to the British victory in the Falkland War in June 1982. Galtieri thereupon replaced by Reynaldo Bignone,after mass protests against the dictatorship the democratization introduced.
high is to blame for and economically fastened selected Argentina in October 1983 Raúl Alfonsín of the Unión Cívica Radical to the president. Alfonsín introduced military reforms, did not get the economic problems however not under control. 1985 were reformed the currency and the Austral was introduced, accompanied connected by a shock austerity policy, with a general wage and Preisstopp. Starting from 1987 however the inflation was intensified again. In the year 1989 it came despite numerous economical emergency programmes to the hyperinflation, the dollar rate ascendedseveral hundred Australes, and the poverty rate multiplied itself, until it achieved a provisional record with 48 per cent.
The Peronisten won the choice from May 1989 in this crisisful situation with Carlo Menem, which tried first a return to peronistischen rearrangement ideals, fast however on onestrictly neoliberalen course turned. But only 1991 could be fought with the help of so-called plan de Convertibilidad of the new minister of economics Domingo Cavallo the inflation efficiently. Cavallo introduced a firm dollar rate of 10.000 Australes per US Dollar. 1992 were replaced the Austral by the Argentine peso,the 10,000 Australes and thus exactly was worth one dollar. In the context of the Konvertibilitätsplans each peso a dollar was programmed as support in the reserves, which meant that one knew pesos in dollar under warranty of the state at any time in hold back in 1:1 conversions. - Howeverpartly badly organized - privatisation of state enterprises as well as a restructuring of the national debt led to a brief recovery. Usually foreign investors acquired the Argentine state enterprises and other marode companies and structured them over, which entailed mass redundancies in many cases however also.
After one broadlyMenem won carried constitutional reform 1995 a second presidency mandate. In the same year the 1994 Tequila crisis begun made of Mexico sloshed over and provided for the first time since 1990 again for a recession. The dollar parity led slowly to an overestimation peso. Thus the bend Mac index knows the Economist an overestimation peso over approx. 20% out. Many enterprises had to conclude unemployment reached record heights because of the crushing competition of cheap imported goods from Asia. The dollar parity was maintained nevertheless first and the economy recovered despite the negative effects by the Asia, Russia and Brazil crisis until 1998 again easily.
see to major item Argentina crisis
starting from at the end of of 1998 was Argentina in deep deflation eras an economic crisis. 1999 scooped the population hope by the choice Fernando de la Rúas to the ArgentinePresident. De la Rúa began coalition with one center left and could the peronistische government replace. However the directionless course of the government led Rúa and quarrels under De la within the coalition to a further degradation of the economic situation. The minister of economics changed several marks toDe la Rúa with Domingo Cavallo a former Peronisten and the father of 1:1 - connection to the US Dollar as ministers of economics into the government got. This felt to freeze at the end of of 2001 forced all bank accounts, which released a storm of the indignation in the population that its expression forwardsfound to everything in the Cacerolazos in such a way specified (joint loud striking with a cook spoon on a pot). Beyond that there was end of 2001 massive plundering to and around Buenos Aires by unemployed persons and Piqueteros so mentioned. (Piqueteros are organized unemployed persons, those through Piquetes so mentioned(Road and firm blockades) on their situation to make attentive.) De want la Rúa finally stepped to 21. December 2001 of its office back, after in the days before more than 25 humans died in excesses by force between demonstrators and the police. Thereupon the followingGovernments under Adolfo Rodríguez Saás finally explained the national bankruptcy, but after five days also it withdrew due to the resistance from the own, peronistischen party . His successor Eduardo Duhalde, the rather conservative Menemisti wing of the Peronisten belonging, rated then the currency to a large extent uncontrolledoff, so that this occasional fell on under 25% of its previous value.
A further high point of the economic crisis was the first yearly half 2002, in which unemployment and the poverty rate rose to record heights. The discontent with the situation led particularly with the underprivileged layers(Unemployed persons) and the middle class to frequent demonstrations.
since in the middle of 2002 stabilized the situation however slowly, and since end of the same yearly economic growth could be booked. In May 2003 Néstor Kirchner became after a very chaotically running presidency electionnew head of state selected. It belonged rather to the left wing of the peronistischen party on. Despite its low election result this is however at present in the population much likes, since he turns on due reforms, which could improve the situation of the country in all (also in social) areas.At present the economy is further on recovery course: 2003 booked Argentina a growth of the gross domestic product at a value of 8,7% opposite -10,9% in the year 2002. (Source: Web left)
with the elections to the Argentine senate and to the Argentine chamber of deputies in October 2005 the trailers Néstor Kirchners went alongabout 40% of the voices as winners out. With the choice around senator posts of the important province Buenos Aires his Mrs. Cristina Fernández de Kirchner won against the wife of former president Eduardo Duhalde Hilda González de Duhalde, who likewise belongs to the Peronisti party. The presidentthus one strengthened and can support itself in both chambers by a broad majority also within his own party. It will have to govern therefore in the future presumably less frequently by decree.
- 27 years history of Argentina in pictures
- Nunca mas - English version of the official investigation report over the crimes of the military dictatorship, very worth reading
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