History of Botswana

table of contents


in the region of the Kalahari can be already proven before well 100,000 years a stone-temporal settlement. The first settlers were probably shrub men (San) and also this relatives people of the Khoikhoi, also under the name “Hottentotten “well-known. About 3000 v. Chr. began a large migration movement of Bantuvölkern made of west Africa, which was probably released by the gradual conversion of the seeing era area into a desert. About over the Bantus the Sambesi exceeded and arrived the year 250 so also into the area to today's Botswana; they introduced for the first time the treatment of iron to this area.

Vorkoloniale history

around the year 650 developed for today's Botswana the state of Toutswe, which reached around 1050 its bloom time and approximately up to the year 1300 existed in the area. Economically this commonwealth was based on substantial cattle wealth. The realm received its (today's) names regarding archaeological finds at the Toutswemogala Hill with Palapye.

Possibly under the pressure the state of Toutswe disintegrated to the ascending power of the neighbouring realm of large Simbabwe into 14. Century. At this time the migration movement of the peoples of the Bakgalagadi, Basotho and the Batswana began. The latters used the vacuum, that by the fall of the Toutswereiches had developed and settled also within the range today's Botswana.

Different small kingdoms formed and around 1800 were settled the whole East part for today's Botswana von Batswanas.

In the course of the Zulukriege in 19. Trunks of the Bakololo and the Ndebele - under general Mzilikazi - drew century to the south, whereby it came also to military conflicts with the Batswana. These recovered itself of it only 20 years later.

Around 1840 appeared then the first white mission acres and dealer in the area today's Botswana. 1845 create Sir David Livingstone in Kolobeng the first constant mission station of Botswana. Karl Mauch large Goldvorkommen at the Tati discovers 1867.

colonial history

in 19. Century pulled from South Africa large parts of the Buri population on the escape before the Britisher northward, whereby they attacked also different Tswana trunks; they raised taxes and took slaves. The Botswana trunks asked for the first time in August 1876 the British for assistance, that was also granted later of this in the framework by “protection contracts”.

To 30. September 1885 was then explained the area to today's Botswana as the British protectorate - the Betschuanaland. The area a protectorate remained technical and as the colony was never explained; made practical this however no relevant difference. After the Burenkriegen at the beginning 20. Century began the British with the introduction of a control system (“hat Tax”), which was drawn in by the local chieftains. The internal guide roller of these chieftains remained first unaffected.

British the South Africa company , a monopoly company equipped created by Cecil Rhodes with sovereignty rights, offered itself later to open and administer Betschuanaland further - against assignment of appropriate concessions for the exploitation of the country.

This became of the Tswana - kings Khama III., Bathoen I. and Sebele I. prevented, which traveled 1895 to London, insisted on which adherence to the protection contracts and with it could intersperse itself. Certain integration into the South African administration is to be determined however constantly. The area was administered by Mafikeng, a place in South Africa. 1910 formed Botswana with South Africa a customs union for protectorate.

A development of the country is not to be after-assured the British however. Botswana ranked among the poorest countries of Africa and ordered with the acquisition of independence straight once roads asphalted over 8 km.

First steps in the direction of autonomy and independence began Joint in the year 1950 with the establishment of the Advisory Council, one mix-race-triumph consulting committee. One in the year 1961 constituted condition created a parliament, which had likewise advisory functions.

independence and after-colonial history

in June 1964 decided the British to grant to the country independence. The capital was shifted 1965 by Mafikeng in South Africa after Gaborone, so that the area had for the first time a local administrative seat. In this year elections took place also for the first time, in which more than 80% of the voices could obtain the 1962 created Botswana Democratic party under the guidance of Seretse Khama. Botswana becomes finally to 30. September 1966 independently and becomes member in British the Commonwealth.

The financial situation of the country improved briefly after independence drastically, when 1967 with Orapa first large diamond camps were discovered. In Botswana one, this tells were discovered however concealed already before, in order not to endanger the dismissal into independence; For this there are not vouchers however.

First president became Seretse Khama, the king of the Bangwato. Botswana united 1974 together with Angola, Mozambique and Tanzania for the group of the “front states”, which supported the liberations movement in Namibia and the Südrhodesien at that time. Later - in the year 1979 - these front states created together with Lesotho, Malawi, Zambia, Simbabwe and Swaziland the South African conference of development (SADCC = Southern African development Coordination Conference), first than counterweight to South Africa. This joined however after the end of the apartheid regime in the year 1992 of the organization likewise, now under South African development community (Southern Arfrican development Community = SADC) firmiert. This has its seat in Gaborone.

After the death of Seretse Khama in the year 1980 became first Ketumile Masire president, who since 1998 Festus Mogae followed. Festus Mogea became to 30. November 2004 again selected.

Since 1980 Botswana is member of the UNESCO.


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