History of Chile
the history of Chile began with the settlement of the region before at least 13,000 years. In 16. Spanish Conquistadores began century to subject and settle the region to today's Chile, to Chile in early 19. Century independenceof the colonial power attained. The further development of Chile up to the Second World War was coined/shaped by the promotion of Salpeter and late copper. The raw material wealth led to an economic upswing, in addition, to dependence and even wars with thatNeighbour states. After one decade under Christian-democratic presidency 1970 the socialist president Salvador all end was selected to the president. The Putsch general of the Augusto Pinochet at the 11. September 1973 introduced a 17jährige dictatorship and radical market-focused restaurant reforms. Since 1988 is Chile in the Transition to a democracy.
history until 1520
approximately around 30.000 v.Chr. first humans came over the Bering Strait to America. From there the settlement expanded to the south,to 10,000 v.Chr. fire country at the south point of South America was finally reached. The first settlers in the area today's Chile were moving Mapuche - Indians, around 13.000 v.Chr. in the fruitful and valleys and in the oases in the high country of the Atacama- Settled desert. Climatic conditions, particularly the extreme drynesses of the expanded Atacama desert prevented a closer settlement. For instance from 8000 to 2000 v.Chr. existed to culture, which as first world-wide its dead ones mummified in the Valle de Arica the Chinchorro -. About 2000 v.Chr.agriculture and cattle breeding arose in the large north. Around 600 after Chr. the Rapa Nui (Osterinsel) was settled by Polynesian peoples, who experienced their bloom time after 400 years and which famous Moai establishes.
Numerous further Ethnien lived forwardsthe arrival of the Spaniards in the today's area of Chile:Changos, Atacameños and Aymaras populated the north of Chile in the area between the rivers Río Lauca and Río Copiapó. Far south up to the river Río Aconcagua the Diaguitas lived. These four Ethnien were Fischer, Bauern, Jäger and Handwerker, who carried on among themselves trade. They lived in master and family federations. In southeast direction of the Reloncaví fjord the Kordillere was inhabited by the Chiquillanes and Poyas, which hunter and collecting tank were. Inthe Chonos and the Alakaluf, on fire country the Alakaluf, lived the extreme south of the country up to the Magellan route Yámana, Selk'nam and Haush.
As Túpac Yupanqui 1471 as 10. Inka the rule took over, penetrated it far in Chile.In its reign to 1493 the Inka conquered the areas up to the Río grumbles south of Curicó. Here they met on substantial resistance of the Mapuche, so that penetrating was further into the south impossible. The northern natives becamenearly everything of the Inka controls, then for instance the trunk of the Picunche was consulted already early from the Inka to Frondiensten. The Inka develops the fortress Pukará de Quitor in close proximity to San Pedro de Atacama,an earlier attachment plant of the Atacameños constructed. Here it came 1540 to fights with the penetrating Spaniards.
the first European, who entered Chilean soil, was Ferdinand Magellan in the year 1520 inthe area of the today's Punta Arenas, after it the Magellan route was designated. This region was called a name for snow with the Indians Tchili. Thus the name Chile developed. Others bear the name on the Quechua - designation chili (where the world to end is) for the region of today's Chile back.
1533 conquered Spanish troops under Francisco Pizarro in the hand caper the Inka - realm, did not come however into today's Chile isolated by Atacama desert and Anden.The first Europeans, who reached the Nueva Toledo area mentioned on the Landweg, were to be become however fündig Diego de Almagro and its Gefolgschaft , who looked for 1535 of Cuzco coming into Peru for gold, without. To 4. June 1536 reachedDiego de Almagro the Copiapó - valley. It sent its Gefolgsmann Gómez de Alvarado direction the south. Up to the Río grumble hardly met it on resistance. At the Río Itata it into heavy fights with the Mapuche were entangled and had to withdraw itself.Between Pizarro and Almagro it comes to the controversy, which escalates into a war-similar conflict and Almagros and 1541 the Pizarros its high point find 1538 with the murder.
in the year 1540 preserved itself Pedro de Valdivia,Officer under Pizarro, on the way from Peru to Chile, accompanies from approximately hundred soldiers and adventurers. There it established Indian the first European settlements despite resistance of the Mapuche -. In the course of this colonization Santiago became (to 12. February 1541under the name Santiago de la Nueva Extremadura - Nueva Toledo was created in the meantime Nueva Extremadura mentioned) , La Serena and Valparaíso as small fastened settlements. The Indians resisted fast: Already in September 1541 they attacked Santiago. The Spaniardsapproximately 20,000 Mapuche faced; briefly before a defeat could Ines de Suárez, who loving of Pedro de Valdivia, with an idea the sheet to still turn. Thereupon the Indians in panic fled into the forests back.
Their rule area to
1552 Valdivia extended, based war of the Mapuche the establishment of Santiago the Spaniards. The Mapuche under its leader sound aero offered violent resistance. In the autumn 1553 they struck the Spanish troops with awayTucapel and killed Pedro de Valdivia; allegedly they capture it and forced it to drink liquid gold. The Indians destroyed most of the cities created by the Spaniards.
The new governor of Chile García Hurtado de Mendoza pursued thoseMapuche still more merciless. On its instruction Francisco de Villagra started a campaign against the Mapuche. To 26. It failed to February 1554 pitifully in the battle of Marigueñu. The Mapuche could destroy thereafter a number of Spanish settlements again. After thatCase of Concepción 1555 they marched on Santiago de Chile too. The Mapuche withdrew itself however surprisingly after the destruction of the fortress Peteroa , since they expected a stronger Spanish attack. Pedro de Villagrán, the commander of the fortress imperial,it succeeded in a nocturnal surprise attack sound aero at the 1. To kill April 1557.
Alonso de Ercilla y Zúñiga a Spanish writer should describe the campaigns of its superior García Hurtado de Mendoza in Chile in the years 1557 - 1559. ItsNovel La Araucana described however the opposite, what the governor wished itself. It prangerte the atrocities of the Konquistadoren and their greed for gold and power on. It puts out in particular the hero courage of the native Araukaner . Basis of its novel was that Mapuche - war chieftain Caupolicán, which was killed 1558 on the campaign cruelly by the Spaniards.
To 16. December 1575 was destroyed Valdivia by a very heavy earthquake, its strength in the proximity of the strongest well-known quake of 22. May 1960becomes estimated. Quake led to strong landslides and buried the discharge of the Riñihue lake. This flooded the city four months later, after the dam broke, which had formed by the landslides. The manager of the city and chronicler of Chile Pedro Mariño de Lobera worried about the reconstruction and the assistance for the victims.
1597 were selected Pelantaro to the new war chieftain (Toqui) the Mapuche. With it substantial attacks on the cities Valdivia and Osorno as well as many beganother cities around and in the Araukanien. 1599 fell Valdivia into the hands of the Mapuche, on which the Spaniards gave the city up for some decades. Governor Alfonso de Ribera had to withdraw the Spanish troops behind the Río Bío Bío. 1641the Spaniards closed the peace treaty of Quillín with the Mapuche, which planned the Río Bío Bío as border. The peace treaty held however only few years. The Spaniards tried to back-conquer again and again the lost areas, however with little success. 1770the Spanish army was destroying struck by Pehuenchen and different Mapuchegruppen. Only over one hundred years later 1881 succeeded it to Chilean and Argentine troops to finally recover the Mapuche and Pehuenchengebiete. These 300 years long persisting conflict becomes as war of Araucodesignated. Until today this conflict continues to smolder. In the year 2000 a group of Mapuche from protest occupied the office of the European union in Santiago de Chile against the land distribution in Chile.
economical ones and social development
there inChile the gold and silver occurrence, remained to a large extent unconsidered the country was very early exploited and developed comparatively slowly.Agriculture formed the most important industry. The fruitful valleys of central Chile supplied the population in northern Peru with food. Set also hereitself the Hacienda and/or. late Encomienda system mentioned through, with which indígenas by a system from Patronage and repression in fact as slaves were held. The slave attitude was forbidden again and again officially (of European rulers) and introduced again, withoutto change in the actual suppression something. By decree it was to be lived together the Spaniards forbidden with Indians. This segregation led to the separation from settlements of the Indians and the settlers. Spaniards, who did not adhere to it, knew proven and their possessionare seized. This racial segregation concerned also Mestizen and African slaves, which were not allowed likewise to live in Indian settlements.
1578 plünderte Francis Drake on behalf the English crown the port of Valparaíso and tried in vain to attack La Serena. Into the followingDecades came it again and again to attacks of English Piraten. Apart from the indianischen attacks obstructed heavy earthquakes, Tsunamis and volcanic eruptions the development of the country. Many cities were completely destroyed, like for example Valdivia 1575 as well as Concepción 1570 and 1751. To 13. May 1647 destroyed a heavy earthquake Santiago de Chile, whereby 12,000 humans died, 1730 and 1783 followed further devastating quake. Beside the English Freibeutern also Dutch dealers and Piraten obstructed the Spanish between 1598 and 1723Colonial rule.
The Scottish sailor Alexander Selkirk survived 1704 after a shipwreck four years long alone on an island of the Juan Fernández archipelago. Its history is considered as model to Daniel Defoes novel Robinson Crusoe of 1719.
colonial administrative arrangement
During the Spanish colonial age Chile a component 1542 of the created Spanish viceroy realm Peru was. 1609 were introduced those material Audiencia de Chile, which made a to a large extent autonomous iurisdiction possible within the country, e.g. if it concerned water laws. 1778 changed thoseSpaniard the status of the Chilean provinces: Chile became the independent Generalkapitanat within the Spanish kingdom. Already at 1749 one began to coin/shape own gold and silver coins.
see also: List governors Chiles
O'Higgins the colonial power Spain in Europe 1808 to the attack of Napoléon Bonaparte, that its brother Joseph on the Spanish throne main header. On the other hand rose in Chile to 18. September (the today's national holiday of Chile) a royalist Spanish Junta de Gobierno as group of resistances, which set up also its own army. A civil war between royalist immediately began realistas and liberals patriotas under its leader José Miguel Carrera. 1812 compiled a group of Chilenen under the guidance of the diktatorisch dominantBrothers Carrera a condition, which planned the large Selbstständigkeit of Chile under the formal rule of the Spanish king. 1813 replaced Bernardo O'Higgins Carrera as an army boss of the Patrioten.
Spanish troops under general Mariano Osorio from Peru went thereupon with Valdivia onCountry and pulled against patriotas to field. As in all South American independence fights above all Kreolen fought each other among themselves. The Chilean release army under José Miguel Carrera and Bernardo O'Higgins became at the 1. October 1814 in the battle of Rancagua ofthe Spanish troops reamed, fled the army leaders of the Chilenen to Argentina. Between 1814 and 1817 one calls the time the time of the Reconquista. With support of the Argentiniers José de San Martín they placed a common army against thoseSpaniard up. They crossed the Anden and defeated the far larger Spanish army to 12. February 1817 in the battle of Chacabuco.
Chile proclaimed to 12. February 1818 its independence and short time later, to 5. April 1818, the Patrioten in the battle of Maipú achieved a further important victory. 1820 conquered the Chilean fleet under Thomas Cochrane the city Valdivia back, but only 1826 was the last Spaniards, who had withdrawn themselves to the island Chiloé,finally defeats. As civil war the conflict continues unbroken: In the Guerra A fight each other Patrioten and monarchists up to the presidency Portales muerte 1833.
O'Higgins became the first president of Chile, actually prevails it as Director Supremo diktatorisch. He tried onTo social reforms, failed however because of the resistance of the great land owners and to 1823 had to withdraw. It died in the exile in Peru. In the following fight between liberals and conservative ones became generally accepted the reform-hostile large-landed property: 1833 were discharged an authoritarianly coined/shaped Präsidialverfassung, those the leaderthe conservative one, Diego Portales Palazuelos on the body was tailored.
authoritarian one and parliamentary Republic of
the authoritarian republic
with the vice-presidency Portales began the so-called era of the authoritarian Republic of, those up to the civil war 1891 lasted. The condition from 1833 remained existing to 1925. The phase from 1890 to 1925 is called “parliamentary republic”. Portales was murdered 1837. 1851 were selected Manuel Montt Torres in the office for president that he held with interruptions until 1861.In this year also the Partido Radical ( radicals a party) developed.
The educational system was introduced and the culture life experienced a bloom: 1843 are created the Universidad de Chile, 1888 the Pontificia Universidad Católica. The Venezolaner Andrés Bello compiled the civilLaw book of Chile, the Código civil de Chile. It stepped at the 1. January 1857 into force. 1853 introduced the Chilean post office the first stamps .
In the course of the upswing of the economy the liberals won again more strongly at influence. By those 1836 effected combination of Bolivia and Peru saw themselves threatened to Chile and Argentina; their intervention led to the Peruvian-Bolivian Konföderationskrieg, which persisted until 1839.
1859 came it into Copiapó and Chañarcillo to the Revolución Constituyente. The mine owner Emiterio Goyenechea ledin the Atacama - region its own silver standard. The government of Manuel Montt Torres sent to strike down thereupon troops around the revolution. To 29. April 1859 struck an army unit under second lieutenant Salvador Urrutia the revolutionary of general Pedro León La Serena.
civil war and parliamentary Republic of
the parliamentary republic existed from the civil war 1891 up to the constitutional reform 1925. After a short however bloody civil war 1891 a new condition were set into force, which existed until 1925 had.
1891 revolted the Chilean navy against thatPresident José Manuel Balmaceda on which it to the civil war came. In this conflict approximately 6000 humans died. Balmaceda lost two larger battles and committed to 18. September 1891 suicide.
In the reign of Germán Riesco Errázuriz (1901 - 1906) the precious metal portion of the Münzwährung one reduced and thus the peso was devalued clearly, which to a rise that Inflation in Chile led. A speculation wave pulled Chile through and shook the Chilean economy. Drastic price increases were the result, it came to worker rebellions and large demonstrations into Santiago. The government used the military; about 200 humans died with thatArguments.
With the industriellen exploitation of the Bodenschätze a cross-section of workers developed also in Chile. They began themselves to organize and fight for better conditions of work. 1898 became with the Sociedad de resistencia (resistance combination) the first forerunner of the ChileanTrade unions of one-railway workers in Santiago based.1907 struck down the military a strike in Iquique with large hardness against the strikers and their families. At school Santa María were killed thereby according to today's estimations about 2000 to 3600 humans.In the year 1912 the socialist labour party (Partido Obrero Socialista POS) was created, which is renamed ten years later in Partido Comunista de Chile ( a communist party of Chile). (See also party system of Chile)
the kingdom ofAraukarien and Patagonien
the kingdom of Araukarien and Patagonien belong to the skurrilsten episodes of Chilean history. In the year 1858 an unknown quantity French attorney traveled named Orélie Antoine de Tounens to Chile. It was possessed by the idea with that To establish Mapuche and the Indians Patagoniens an own kingdom. After negotiations with the Kaziken Mañil it traveled to the region bio bio. Mañil had in the meantime deceased, but its successor Quilapán accepted him cordially. Tounens put the Mapuche oneown condition forwards and could convince the Indians it to 17. To select November 1860 to the king from Araukarien and Patagonien to. The Chilean government and other governments ignored it provisionally simply. Finally its servant Juan Rosales Baptist betrayed it onthe Chilean authorities, which let it arrest.1863 were pushed away Tounens to France. Nevertheless it tried to back-course-long several times to South America, in order to develop its kingdom again.
1845 permitted the Ley dela Colonización the immigration and settlement north of Copiapó and south the Río Bío Bío. Already to 2. The first 20 German immigrants the port of Puerto Hambre reached May 1843. Later a large began scarcely ten yearsImmigration wave of Germans, which in particular settled in the areas around the Llanquihue lake , Osorno and Puerto Montt.
1881 were struck down in the south of Chile the last large rebellion of the Mapuche. The Indian country was assigned at settlers. In the region southfrom Temuco immigrants - many of them from Germany , Austria and Switzerland - created numerous new cities on former Indian area.
1890 released the government the Dawson island for settlement. With the increasing use of the grass countries of fire country as pasture placesfor sheep end 19. Century came it to the systematic Genozid at the martial people of the Ona. By the establishment of fences in the hunting grounds of the Ona the large sheep breed enterprises extracted the hunting grounds from the natives and as these began,Sheep (they as white Guanacos designated) to hunt, it came to bloody conflicts and to the systematic Genozid of these natives of fire country. Like that it is proven that the owners of the large Estancias head funds suspended on killed Indians. Notorious was in particular inEnglish manager of the Estancia José Menéndez, named Alexander MacLennan, which regarded the hunt for Indians around 1890 as a kind sport. Around 1925 the there living remaining Alacalufes ( Kawesqar) and Ona (Selk'nam) were exterminated, whereby the latter at epidemicsdied.
The settlement west Patagoniens and the Región de Aisén took place only relatively late. Around 1892 the German Kartograph Hans Steffen began with the systematic study of the region south of Puerto Montt. At the settlement of the area was relevantalso the German adventurer Hermann Eberhard takes part, who settled in the province Última Esperanza (near the Torres del Paine - national park). It used enormous areas to the sheep breed.
An inglorious chapter of Chilean history is the Annexion of the Osterinsel (Rapa Nui) 1888. The original population got only a small area at the west coast was assigned, during the remainder the island of a French-British consortium as pasture for sheep and cattle used intensively and under menace of punishmentnot to be entered was allowed. This remained essentially in such a way up to the year 1955, when the Chilean navy took over the management the work arm. The inhabitants of the island been subordinate a restrictive military administration, at the point a military governor assigned from Chile. Toto the year 1967 the Chilean martial law prevailed on the island. Independent, democratic structures in the local administration became only end of the sixties certified.
economical upswing and Salpeter
in the consequence kept the conservative basic owners their dominatingRole in the state. By the stability of the country the economy flourished. The agriculture was developed.
1851 were built the first railway from Caldera to Copiapó and one began with the exploitation of of Chile Bodenschätzen. 1852 began in Lota and Coronel the dismantling of coal. 1832 were already discovered in Chañarcillo (50 km south of Copiapó) large silver stores. Thus Chile became for decades one of the largest silver producers of the world.
But a raw materialall different placed by far into the shade in its meaning: Salpeter. 1820 had already found the natural scientist Mariano de Rivero in the north of Chile saltpeter camp (Chilesalpeter , Natriumnitrat). 1873 began the dismantling by the saltpeter and railway company of Antofagasta. 1913 made unbelievable 71% of the Chilean exports for nitrate, which was used for production by fertilizer and explosive, out (copper as the secondarymost important property only 7%). The Oberschicht and mine owner attained fast an unbelievable wealth, while the workerserbärmliches life led.1884 attained Chile with Antofagasta and the province Atacama of Bolivia the possession of further areas with saltpeter occurrences.
At the beginning 20. Century was added the copper mining industry in large yardstick. At 1904 began in Sewell and in Chuquicamata (1914) the copper dismantling. New electrolytic procedures permitted to produce and export Chile on a large scale copper. But only during the world economic crisis displaced copper Salpeter as the most important export property, which it remained until today.
see also Economics of Chile
the saltpeter war
major items: Saltpeter war
the saltpeter war (Spanish: Guerra del Pacifico), whom Chile from 1879 to 1883 led against Bolivia and Peru, was an argument around the areaaround Antofagasta and the today's Chilean province Atacama. Reason were the immense nitrate occurrences lying there.
Chilean enterprises began to diminish the nitrate, which gave Peru and Bolivia 1873 the cause for a secret alliance, with the objective the Chilean societiesto take over.Bolivia was assured 1874 of Chile control of that up to then disputed area, on the condition that the Chilean companies must pay 25 years long no taxes.
1878 required the bolivanische president Hilarión Daza nevertheless taxes ofthe Chilean enterprises, which it antedated even to the year 1874 and thereby a Chilean intervention which for your part the Grenzvertrag of 1874 thereby explained for zero and futile, provoked. The saltpeter war ended for Chile with substantial land gains in the north. That Contract of Ancón regulated the conflict between Chile and Peru. The cities Arica and Tacna remained provisional under Chilean control. Only 1929 were returned Tacna at Peru, Arica remained in Chile. Bolivia lost its Pacific entrances and large areas inthe Atacamawüste, which Bolivia in a contract recognized in 1904. Until today there is again and again the demand of Boliven after a free Pacific entrance.
conflicts with Argentina
in the south of Chile increased the tensions with Argentinaaround contentious territorial claims in Patagonien. In Santiago by the dozen students announced themselves de Chile as Freiwillige, while the Argentine fleet had already opened itself toward Magellan route. Last the controversy could be settled nevertheless still on diplomatic way; in the Fierro Sarratea contract from 1878 Chile did to the Wasserscheide of the Anden without territorial claims east and left thereby the majority of the patagonischen level the Argentiniern. To 23. July 1881 was closed an additional agreement, that the Chilean requirement on the Magellan route and the eastern partfrom fire country documented and assured.
Starting from 1893 the border problems with Argentina were intensified, after Bolivia had surrendered a part of the Puna de Atacama to Argentina. This was occupied since the saltpeter war of Chile. Between Chile and Argentina it cameto an arms race. Only the British king Edward VII. could 1902 the border controversy smooth. Patagonien and fire country were divided, of it fell again 54,000 km ² at Chile and 40,000 km ² at Argentina. The border disputes with Bolivia were only provisionally settled 1905.
Into the nineties it came again and again to Reibereien and military threatening bearing between the countries, approximately with the controversy over the Fitz Roy and the uninhabited islands Lennox, spades clay/tone and Nueva in the Beagle channel.
beginning thateconomic uncoupling
the First World War and above all the world economic crisis gave in completely Latin America the starting signal for an isolationist economic policy. This first wave of the import-substituting industrialization lasted to for instance to the Second World War.
Despite the wealth which is based on copper export were the living conditions of most humans miserably. In 19. Few families about 90% of the country for itself, which worked most (landless, stressed century) farmers as agricultural workers (inquilinos) for this patrones. So Chile had 1913 an average Pro-Kopf-Einkommenfrom 2653 to US Dollar and thus more than Italy, but the life expectancy was only about 30 years (compared with 47 years in Italy and nevertheless 46 years in Argentina).
When in the course of the First World War the sales markets for Salpeter broke down,it came to a deep restaurant wing over. On the other hand worker protests 1918 in Santiago with hunger marches (Marchas de hambre).
The world economic crisis starting from 1929 met Chile like no other country. The prices for the most important export goods copper and Salpeter fell inSoil lots.1932 layer the receipts from exports around 82% lower than four years before and the restaurant achievement around 40% had decreased. 1931 was 60% the mountain worker unemployed and it came to violent protests. Starting from 1932 a slow recovery of the country took place, butonly 1937 reached restaurant economics and export again the values of 1928.
see also economics of Chile
between the world wars
Chile remained neutral in the First World War, the situation relating to domestic affairs was however further unstable. President Arturo Alessandri Palma, which had inserted a system of the social security into Chile, was entmachtet 1924 by a Militärputsch. In the yearwhereupon it was again fetched back by the governing junta. A modern condition was prepared, which existed until 1980 had. Still in the same year war Minister of Carlo Ibáñez del Campo actually tore power and governed that the country seven yearslong with diktatorischen means.1932 were restored the constitutional order, to radicals proved in the following twenty years as a prominent party. They strengthened the national influence on the economic life.
1934 came it to a large farmer rebellion into Ranquil.The Mapuche tried to back-conquer parts of their traditional areas. Only the employment of the army could terminate this last large Mapucheaufstand.
In the 30's fascist movements received ever more inlet. As reaction 1936 became the anti-fascist people front (Frente popular)based, which also the radicals joined a party under president Pedro Aguirre Cerda. In the following year was created the fascist Falange Nacional. 1938 joined the socialist party of the Frente popular. The political arguments became ever more gewaltätiger. National Socialist young people became inBuilding of the social security of the police murders, when they planned a notice on the Moneda (Masacre del Seguro Obrero). 1938 try the National Socialist movement of Chile to putschen, whereby it comes to a massacre. 1941 separate the Frenteafter the Hitler Stalin pact rejected by the socialists and death Aguirres up.
With the earthquake of Chillán at the night of 24. on the 25. January 1939 more than 25,000 of the 41,000 inhabitants died. The city exists today practically only outmodern buildings, since the earthquake destroyed nearly all historical buildings.
After Chile in the Second World War long time also out of consideration for the numerous ethnic Germans Chilenen - had remained neutral, 1944 decided president Juan Antonio Ríos Morales (member of the radicalTo occur a party) as allying the USA the war. The influence of Chile on the war exit remained granting however. 1945 belonged the country to the initial members of the United Nations.
the time of the Christian democrats
In the meantime
enterprises from the USA the role of the British had taken over first post-war period; they possessed the majority of the Chilean Kupferminen. The woman right to vote was inserted 1949 into Chile, changed however few in the political balance of power. 1948 supported the USA one right-swivels of thePresident Gabriel González Videla, which had been selected two years before by an alliance of left parties. The law for the defense of the democracy forbade the communist party, whose members from the lists of candidates are painted. Many party members became into the concentration camp Pisagua deportiert.
Large opponent of the conservative ones, which won the presidency election with its candidate Jorge Alessandri 1958 for the last time, the Christian democrats , who were adjusted strictly anticommunist, after European yardsticks however in questions of the social politics moderately left, became. Underthe communist party was forbidden to the conservative presidency of the fifties, and some the poet Pablo Neruda, had to go their leaders and supporter, under it into the exile.
With the seizure of power of Fidel Castro in Cuba in the year 1959 Latin America turned out more stronglyin the field of vision of the USA. In the cold war the United States tried to prevent further communist regimes in America and began over political influencing control and its secret services appreciably to become active also in Chile.
the presidency of Eduardo free
with the elections 1964 saw itlong time after a scarce decision between three candidates out.Eduardo freely Montalva as a candidate of the Christian-democratic party could win the choice only with 56% of the voices, when the candidate of the right parties gave and called for support Freis up. That Socialist Salvador all end received 39% of the voices. Freely also choice assistance from the USA got. It tried the Spagat between the radical demands under the slogan “revolution in liberty” to connect social reforms with the retention of the democratic order andto create that linking and the radical defense reforms by rights. A Landreform distributed over three million hectare large-landed property at farmer cooperatives. 1966 are partly put under state control the copper mining industry (to 51%) (“chilenisiert”). Freely failed in the long run with its project, his most importantReforms, under it the partial nationalization of the copper industry, went linking not far enough, while the conservative ones saw already the first step carried out to communism. The political life was increasingly radicalized, then 1965 in Chile were created ME.
The presidency Allendes
of Salvador all end was born 1908 in Valparaíso. Already as a medical student it engaged against the dictatorship of Ibáñez and to the deputy president of the federation of Chilean students (FECH) selected itself. All end was joint founder thatA socialist party of Chile in Valparaíso 1933. He came 1937 into the congress and was from 1939 to 1942 during a liberal government minister of health. 1945 were selected all end into the senate, to who he belonged 25 years long. he stood as a candidate to 1952for the first time for the office for president.
The forces that linking had created 1969 the Unidad popular (UP ), a Wahlbündnis, to which beside the communist one and the socialist party still several small Marxist and Christian parties belonged. This alliance placed 1970 as a presidency candidate Salvador all end up, which had already stood as a candidate to 1964 for the socialist party.
All end received with the elections from 4. September 1970 36.6% of the voices. Its conservative opponent, Jorge Alessandri, came on 35,3%, and the Christian democrat Radomiro Tomic obtained 28.1%.Absolutely Allendes projection/lead amounted to only 36,000 voices. The parliament appointed it finally with the voices of the Christian democrats, who it promised in response the preservation of the constitutional order, the president. Even if the UP at no time in the congressits own majority, with all end for world-wide first the time a Marxist head of the government had was legitimized democratically.
reaction of the USA
the success of the UP and Allendes was in the understanding of the material politicians Henry Kissinger and Richard Nixon oneStabilization of the Soviet Union at expense of the USA. Thus Kissinger had already given planning for a preemptiven Putsch in order, which however the CIA rejected particularly for time reasons before the elections. Kissinger stressed: “Latin America is unimportant. Nothing important comesfrom the south ", nevertheless the USA appointed themselves ideologically to the 1954 the domino theory postulated by president Eisenhower, after which to Cuba and Chile a socialist revolution wave in Latin America was to be expected. The peace treaty was in March in the Viet Nam war1973 signed, but flew American bombers further heaviest attacks on the country and also to Africa some countries of the Soviet Union had approximated.
The choice victory Allendes met in the USA then on violent resistance. A reason was surely also,that by a threatening Verstaalichung of the Kupferminen above all US-American enterprises were affected. Immediately after the choice Richard Nixon of the CIA gave the instruction to prevent the assumption of office Allendes. But the government-faithful commanders in chief of the Chilean army, general René cutter should are kidnapped, in order to discredit left groupings and destabilize the country. He was actually kidnapped of by the CIA financed right group of terror of Patria y Libertad and murdered thereby. Cutter had placed itself against efforts within the military,to accomplish 1970 a Putsch toward all end.
The USA painted in addition all aids for Chile and imposed after the Verstaalichung with 14 other states a purchase boycott over copper. At the same time foreign exchange for the import of raw materials, machines and spare parts was missing andbecause of unsatisfactory investments that private business were the Kupferbergwerke in a maroden condition. All these factors ensured for the fact that Chile exhibited 1971 a balance of payments of minus 26 billion US Dollar. One covered the debts, by printing money. Thus that verfünffachte itselfMoney circulation, and the inflation rate exceeded the 300%-Marke, in order to rise 1973 to nearly 700%.
1972 intensified itself the situation. To the house-made problems due to the desolate budgetary policy it was added that the government all end from western view no more, an attitude, which by the government of US president Richard Nixon vehement was supported, was credit worthy. Nixon wanted the communists in Chile “out crimpings”, how he called it. From fear of expropriation a flight of capital began abroad. The private investments became outFear of the nationalization back-screwed. On the Soviet Union Chile could count only ideologically, foreign exchange assistance could all end from Moscow not expect. Also relating to domestic affairs Nixon and Kissinger continued their politics of the destabilization.
as all end its Christian-democraticPredecessor free replaced, was Chile already in a precarious situation: from 10 million inhabitants applied 1.5 million children as underfed, for 500,000 families were shelterless, and unemployment was with 8,8 per cent. The Landbesitz concentrated with a small Oberschicht:80 per cent of the utilizable country were in the hand of 4,2% the property owner.
the policy of the Unidad popular brought first strong improvements for the workers and the lower layer. The wages became around 35 to 60Per cent increases. The prices for the rent and for important basic need means were frozen. Education and health care were offered free of charge. All end released political prisoners “revolutionary linking”. Each child got daily a litre of free milk and shoes. The child number of deaths rate sank in such a wayin order 20%, but the country were missing the economic means, in order to finance all the social Wohltaten.
The emphasis of Allendes economic policy was the remunerationless nationalization of the Bodenschätze, the expropriation of foreign large-scale enterprises, the banks and an agrarian reform, with the 20.000 km ² surface by large basic owners at farmers to be handed over should. The socialist government wanted to make Chile less dependent on the remainder of the world, in particular on the USA. 1970 are put under state control coal mines and the textile industry. Still become one year later in(above all US-American) private property of portions present of the copper mining industry with agreement of all parliament parties socializes. In the same year also the banks are put under state control. In the year 1971 the economy grows by 11% and unemployment sinks on 3%. However the inflation rate begins clearlyto rise.
All end began the structure of a cybernetic data multiplexer, which represented a kind to early socialist forerunner of the Internets, the so-called. Cybersyn - project (in the meantime in oblivion far away is guessed/advised). Should, differently than e.g. in the centralistic Soviet Union, interlaces expirationsbecome.
radicalization of the policy
1971 is murdered the Chrisdemokrat and ex Minister Pérez Zújovic by the left-wing extremistic group of VOP. In the following the Christian democrats their support for all end terminate and follow year the right opposition.
The protestsin the country swelled on: Farmers protested against the execution of the land distribution, which preferred collectives opposite Vertragsfarmern, it occupied farmer country and came in such a way it to food bottlenecks.1972 had to be rationed food and the government was forced, foreign exchange for the import ofTo spend food. In the autumn 1972 struck some occupational groups, among them truck driver, bank employee, worker and student, in order to force a turn in the economic policy. It came to road battles. All end proclaimed the state of emergency. Radical right groups answered even with terror and sabotage. There were six hundred terrorist attacks on railways, bridges, high voltage transmission lines and pipelines in Allendes term of office altogether.
With the parliamentary election 1973 the UP increase their voice portion again on 44%, however them miss thereby the absolute majority. Also right parties keep simultaneousmore voices, however they are not sufficient also with the Christian democrats, in order to relieve all end of the office (2/3 are necessary). However the congress spoke to 22. August 1973 in a symbolic gesture all end the distrust out. To 10. September 1973explains itself all end ready to decide by a Plebiszit the muddled situation democratically. One day later the military, all end putscht dies and Chile sinks into 17 years of repressive dictatorship.
US president Nixon gave already 1970the CIA the order to induce the Chilean military to a Putsch by force. All end tried to include military into the government: He appointed the general of Carlo Prats the Minister of the Interior and appointed further high-ranking officers into his cabinet. The meansfor the armed forces flowed also under the government Allendes further generously.
In June 1973 a first Putschversuch of a tank regiment was struck down of government-faithful military. In July again the truck drivers and the students with support of far circles of the conservative opposition struck.General Prats withdrew, since he had lost the support of the army. In place of the withdrawn Prats all end appointed to 25. August 1973 general Augusto Pinochet to the Commander-in-Chief of the army.
the Putsch of the 11. September 1973
three weeks later, at the 11. September 1973 putschte the army again and blocked the traffic routes and communication from Santiago de Chile after Viña del Mar and Valparaíso. This time had military success. With combat aircraftbombarded they since the early morning hours the president palace “Moneda “and stormed it in the same evening. All end was dead found later. Until today it is unsettled whether all end was murdered or Suizid exercised. There are no proofs, for oragainst a Suizid speak. Allendes body physician speaks of a suicide, implemented with a golden submachine gun given by Fidel Castro.
the era Pinochet 1973-1990
the time of the dictatorship can be divided roughly in five phases. Of state terroraccompanied consolidation after the Putsch (1973 - 1976) followed an economic upswing and the high point of power (1977 - 1981), until it came to a heavy restaurant break-down and substantial protests (1982 - 1983). But the regime showed only slowly indicationsthe liberalisation (1984 - 1987) to it then to one of the regime controlled democratization (1988 - 1990 came).
Augusto Pinochet became to 25. November 1915 in Valparaíso born. It buildup in modest conditions andits training began immediately after graduation at the military academy of Chile. In the age of 21 years he was already a second lieutenant and continued to ascend soon. it served 1956 as Militärattaché at the Chilean message in Washington. It visited several timesin the following years of training courses of the US army. Under Eduardo free he became Brigadier General. During the Putschversuchs from June 1973 Pinochet stood still faithfully for government, but those increasingly desolate situation of Chile probably changed its attitude. Obviously the conspirators could do itin the army only in last minute of the necessity for the revolution convince. The more radically the change of mind Pinochets failed: “I or the chaos” read the simple slogan of the general, who president all end to last familiar.
all national institutions in completely Chile were occupied within hours of the military. Pinochet set the condition immediately repealed, dissolved the congress, arranged a strict censorship and forbade all political parties. The Judikative remained however untouched.The army and the kasernierten Carabineros went to artists and intellectual ones against all alleged opponents, link, forwards. It came to substantial violations of human rights. Burned with symbolic book burns for example books concerning Cubismo (Kubismus), because one thought, it are booksover Cuba. The military junta recognizes the USA after two weeks on.
In the explanation of the Putschisten of the 11. September 1973 is called it:
" ... explain the armed forces…
1. The president (all end) of the republic has its high authority immediatelyChilean armed forces… to hand over.
2. The Chilean armed forces are to be transferred united in her determination, the responsible person historical mission and the fight for the release of the native country from the Marxist yoke… to lead.
3. The workers of Chileit does not need to doubt that the economic and social prosperity, which they reached up to the today's day will not experience large changes.
4. The press, the broadcasting stations and the television channels of the Unidad popular wear from this timethe spreading of information to adjust, otherwise they are attacked to country and from air.
5. The population of Santiago de Chile has to remain in her houses, so that the death of innocent humans is avoided.
- General Augusto Pinochet… “
state terror and force
terror and force after the Putsch
in the national stadium of Santiago the victims were interned, many of them tortured and killed. Altogether probably about 3197 (secured number of victims) to 4000 humans becamewhile the dictatorship murders, the majority of it in the weeks after the Putsch. Some humans disappeared without trace and in to today unsettled way. About 20,000 humans fled still 1973 abroad. Altogether emigrated during the military dictatorship a million Chilenen.
As Todeskaravane a Exekutionskommando under commander Arellano strong attains sad celebrity. As personally Pinochet subordinated and officer appointed the general later murdered he and its soldiers generally speaking country of 72 regime opponents already arrested.
In the thinly settled desert areas in the northChile and in Patagonien the military established concentration camps, where oppositionals and their sympathizer were tortured pretty often to death or flown among other things with airplanes outside on the sea and ejected there. It came among some officers to makabren contestsaround largest cruelties.
For the time immediately after the Putsch the reports are often incomplete over the committed crimes or are missing completely. For instance starting from 1976 the crimes documented against it relatively well. The estimations over the victim numbers vary thereforevery strongly.
After the weeks like civil war after the Putsch with thousands of dead ones, coined/shaped by unbelievable and massive force on the part of that of military, the regime ignored the political opposition in the next years in addition, to switch off. Hundreds of humans were kidnapped, tortured or“shot on the escape”. Thousands were referred obligatorily the country or banished into remote regions in the north or the south. After 1977 practically each resistance was switched off, all opponents murdered, abroad or intimidated. Also under the restaurant boom that tookExtent of the repression somewhat off.
the second wave of the repression
with the economic crisis 1982/83 it came to substantial protests, into their consequence again substantial against oppositionalsone proceeded. Thus during the protest days 1983 and 1984 55 humans, demonstrators and indifferent ones were shot, partially from driving cars. In the following years 100,000 humans for political reasons were arrested, of it 40,000 demonstrators. 1982 become also thatLeader of the trade union movement, Tucapel Jiménez, murders.
The arbitrary force, house searches and military employments into that poblaciones (arm quarters) Santiagos accepted ever larger extents. Here the left-wing oriented Stadtguerilla Movimiento de Izquierda Revolucionaria (ME) fought against the dictatorship. In the course of the 80'sYears were shot at least 84 oppositionals “with armed arguments”. The number of disappearing decreased, but the torture from dissidents did not become less. The 1986 shot brothers Vergara Toledo and the young people Rodrigo Rojas attained sad celebrity and Carmen Quintana, which were ignited of military with alive body, whereby Rojas died.
during in the first year above all the four regular armed services (army, navy, Air Force, Carabineros) for the murders, the kidnappings and tortures are responsible,in June 1974 with the secret police a specialized institution for it is created. The Dirección Nacional de Inteligencia (DINA) is responsible for arrests, pursuits as well as for the many hundred Desaparecidos (disappeared one) of the next years. The leader Colonel Manuel Contreras becomesappointed, which is kept however secret. The DINA is to have maintained up to 9300 agents and 20,000 to 30,000 informants. Numerous agents, Folterer and murderer had been trained at the US-American School OF the of America and cooperated again and againthe CIA together. It develops in the next years ever more more near to the army (the Air Force pulls gradually its personnel off) and on the other hand to a personal power instrument Pinochets also against internal rivals. In August 1977 those becomesDINA after international and internal pressure dissolved and by the center Nacional de Información (CNI) replaces. Pinochet confesses that the DINA exceeded its borders occasionally. The CNI becomes short before the transition democracy into the army secret service DirecciónNacional del Ejercito (SERVE) transfers. During the second repression wave starting from 1983 the force was often exercised of parastaatliche organizations, which consisted however frequently of military members. Examples are the Acción Chilena Antikomunista (following the Argentine Acción Argentina Antikomunista), the Frente Nacionalista de Combate and the Comando 11 de Septiembre.
under the code name operation CONDOR reworked the secret services of six South American countries in and the 80's 70's together, link andto pursue oppositional of forces world-wide. Also the Chilean secret service pursued the opponents of the regime abroad. 1974 died Pinochets predecessor as an army boss, general of Carlo Prats, by an autobomb in Buenos Aires, 1975 escaped the Christian-democratic ex Ministers Bernarndo Leightononly scarcely an assassination attempt in Rome, and 1976 a further autobomb killed the minister of foreign affairs of the government all end, Orlando Letelier, in Washington. These notices are generally attributed the DINA in interaction with the American secret service CIA.
To Pinochets economic policy
see also economics of Chile
with the Putsch of Augusto Pinochet 1973 first under extreme social costs such as poverty, repression and suppression the inflation successfully one lowered. This was supported by the sympathetic consideration of thewestern foreign country: already few days after the coup d'etat was to be read in the Frankfurt general newspaper: “Chile: now invest! “. Already briefly after the seizure of power Pinochets began also the USA again to support Chile intensively with economic aid. On American pressure were at one time also international organizations again ready to grant Chile credits.
After an attendance of the American economist Milton Friedman in Chile in the year 1975 the market liberal current won the upper hand within the regime over rather nationalistisch populist tendencies. The numerous Chilenenand foreigners, who got Pinochet as an economic adviser from the USA, represented market liberal line of the monetarism, which is called today of economists neoliberal; many of them came from the surrounding field of Milton Friedman of the University OF Chicago,therefore its designation Chicago Boys. The government implemented a comprehensive liberalisation and privatisation program: To 1979 20% of the officials of state were trimmed to dismiss and the national budget around half. From the investors profited because the tariffs and taxes sank strongly.The economic policy set on private initiatives and extracted far parts of the health service and the education of the national responsibility. The nationalization of the copper industry kept Pinochet however upright. From the incomes of the copper companies to today the Chilean military budget one finances.
The introduction more neoliberalerRestaurant economics led to the decrease of the inflation and 1977 to 1980 to an economic recovery, however 1982/83 a serious recession followed, to attribute to on the global economic crisis. As consequence of the radical economic policy the differences between arm and realm in Chile gapedagain more clearly apart and broad social classes became impoverished. Starting from center of the 80's the national economy profited altogether from high growth rates.
Since the neoliberale dogma of the minimalistic state affected also the education politics, is today Chile (like also nearly all differentStates of the continent) within the High carouse range asiatic developing countries far support. Thus the expenditures for education fell between 1982 and 1989 material around 27%. Today 78% of the national expenditures consist for education of subsidies for Privatschulen and pupils of the lower layer.
the high point of the power from
1977 to 1981 grew the economy of Chile around 46%, the inflation sank from the three-figure range on 20% and the unemployment ratio work on stabilized with 15%. The radical reforms seemed to have success.
Causedby the economic relaxation, above all however by the substantial repression of the last years, the resistance against the regime became weaker. Numerous oppositionals had been murdered or in the exile fled, and who still in the country were, were forwardseverything employs to hide itself before Pinochets suppression apparatus.
At the high point of his power the dictator wanted to adopt a new condition. 1978 held Pinochet a referendum, which should confirm it in the office. It received about 75% agreement, the tuning foundhowever under large pressure instead of, so that one cannot speak of a free choice. Pinochet loosened the dictatorship in the future: Civilians received admission in the cabinet and 1980 became - under the leadership of the conservative former president Jorge Alessandri - a new condition written and by popular vote abgesegnet, which was held however again under large pressure of the Staatsmacht. 67% the Chilenen accepted allegedly the condition. The new condition legitimized Pinochets comprehensive powers and stood for it onefurther term of office than president too, which should apply to 1989.
the economic crisis 1982
1981 revalued the government the national currency by 35 per cent, in order to reduce imported goods in price and attract foreign capital investors. The superelevated rate of exchange raised the price of suddenlythe products of export. Production sank substantially and the national economy turned out into a crisis.
With the world-wide recession of 1982 and the purge of the copper prices of Chile came politico-economic course into the roll. The country was abroad highly indebted. With a hardScheme of reconstruction, wage cuts in the public service and shortening food subsidies steered the government against it. A third of the population was underfed, Chile had approximately 25% unemployed persons and over 50% lived under the poverty border.
The hard economic policy excited protests. 1982 cameit in many Chilean cities to “hunger marches” and protest days (slides del protesto). Their demand reads: “Bread, work, justice and liberty”. Many observers counted on a fall Pinochets. But by proclaiming the state of emergency 1983 the protests could under control to be brought.
See also: Careful liberalisation
stabilization starting from
1983 and the following upswing also first steps of the liberalisation began economics of Chile [work on]. The economic policy became more pragmatically and the repression less strong. This processhowever frequently one interrupted or one cancelled even.
From the self-help organizations into that poblaciones developed itself a set of political groupings, which fought against the dictatorship. It came to a wave at bomb attacks in the large cities, above all approximatelyhigh-ranking officers. After 1986 were committed an attempted assassination, organized by a Swiss, at Pinochet, the government intensified Repressionen relating to domestic affairs again.
Also the situation abroad changed since the early 80's. The military dictatorships in Brazil and Argentina becameby democracies replaced, the cold war began itself to dissolve in Glasnost and Perestroika and US - foreign policy respected since the Iran versus affair increasingly on the human right situation in Regimen supported by them.
conflicts with Argentina
Beagle conflict: In December 1978it came to martial threats between Argentina and Chile. The uninhabited islands Lennox, spades clay/tone and Nueva in the Beagle channel became the point at issue, above all because in the area larger oil reserves were assumed. The controversy became only by switching of the Vatikan alsoa Grenzvertrag to 2. May 1985 peacefully settled, at which all three islands Chile were awarded.
Falkland War: During the Falkland War Chile Great Britain supported 1982 passively against Argentina, due to in 1978 threats of Argentina preceded to break in in Chile. Chile lefta damaged British airplane on its territory land and supplied it. The moreover one Chile Great Britain with radar and espionage activities helped. The Chilean Exluftwaffenchef Fernando Matthei confirmed later secret co-operation.
Fixing of the boundaries:For the 80's smoldered between the two statesa conflict around the fixing of the boundaries in Patagonien at the Fitz Roy - massif. 1985 created the Argentine government specially the village El Chaltén, in order to support their requirement. A common commission specified the borders only ten years later, to 16. December 1998. Today only a small undefined section within the range of the Campos de Hielo Sur (southern Eisfelder) remains until. This range accommodates one of the largest fresh water reservoir of South America.
transition to the democracy
major item: Transitionin Chile
with the economic upswing of the eighties Chile calmed down nevertheless also politically again. Starting from 1987 political parties could work again. Pinochets constitutional term of office approached its end. To 5. October 1988 came it to of the conditionintended popular vote whether Pinochet could be with the lining up presidency elections the only candidate. For the large surprise of international observers decided 54 per cent of the voters with “no”.
Pinochet bent itself the vote: To 14. Decembers 1989 took place presidency elections in Chile.The candidates that rights, Ministers of Finance Hernán Büchi and Francisco Javier Errázuriz received only 29.4% and/or 15.4% of the voices. During an extraordinarily high election turnout of 90% the Christian democrat received Patricio Aylwin from the party alliance Concertación, to a broad center leftist coalition from Christian democrat, liberal,Social Democrat and socialist, 55.2% of the voices. Only after more than one year, at the 11. March 1990 began Aylwin the office.
This time uses Pinochet, in order to accomplish its retreat arranged to secure the neoliberale restaurant model friends and supporters into influentialTo hiefen positions and provide not last also for its personal well-being in the democracy. To assistance it came it with the fact that the condition was cut from already 1980 to it and by a reform to 30. July 1989 only slightlyone changed.
Pinochets neoliberale economic policy and stability relating to domestic affairs after the conditions like civil war of the all end years impressed to many conservative politicians (under it Franz Josef bunch and Margaret Thatcher), in addition, a large part of the Chilean people. The historical processing of the eraPinochet began only a few years ago. The opinion of the Chilenen is split, the one sees deep in it a dictator, who fought liberty and justice, the others praises it than rescuer of the native country before the communist chaos.
Chile in the democracy
the presidency Aylwins 1990-1994
Patricio Aylwin was born 1918 in Viña del Mar. Already in the 60's he was a chairman of the social liberals Christian democrats and sat in the senate, its presidency he duringthe reign Allendes held. It had accompanied the government Pinochet 1973 with initial sympathy, had then followed however in view of the violations of human rights of the opposition and 1980 against the constitutional reform had expressed themselves. It ensured for the fact that the Partido Democrático Cristiano, althoughforbidden, the largest opposition party of Chile became. 1990 it was supported by the center leftist coalition Concertación and won clearly against its right competitors Hernán Büchi and Francisco Javier Errázuriz.
after its taking office in March 1990 began Patricio Aylwinimmediately with attempts to contain power that of military and uncover violations of human rights. However it had thereby as well as no success. Reason was on the one hand the large autonomy of the military, on the other hand by Pinochet faithful ones occupied the courts and to third thoseright parties, which abblockten immediately each constitutional reform. For the processing of the violations of human rights a truth commission (Comisión de Verdad y Reconciliación nacional or Rettig - commission) was used. She was violently criticized by the military, had however no determination permission, was allowed no namesfrom authors publish and came in such a way it also to not one accusation. In addition only violations of human rights were pursued, “those living together most heavily impair”. Torture fell obviously not into this category, was determined only when murder and “disappearing letting”. It nevertheless publishedthe biographic data of 2279 victims (of it 2147 dead ones), whose fate was finally recognized (of the government, not of the military). In addition Aylwin apologized publicly and offered a payment of compensation of approximately 200$ in the month. 1996 come an updated version of theFinal report out. The number of the victims amounts to now at least 3197, under it 1102 “disappearing”.
struggle for power with military
with the struggle for power with military in the political influence and the subordination that of military under the civilian government could the presidentonly through cheat to success book. The financial autonomy of the military could not change Aylwin, but it approved so much as defense budget only straight, as was legally prescribed as minimum height. Thus the defense budget sank as portion of the GROS DOMESTIC PRODUCT inits term of office approximately on half of the value of 1988, although it still rose in absolute numbers (at height of the inflation). Also the personnel autonomy could undermine the president sophistiated: It could not meet selection with the transports, butit could insert its veto and prevent so the transport of officers, who were complicated in crimes.
In May the highest Court of Justice general Manuel Contreras , boss of the secret service DINA and its deputy condemns 1995 to 7 and/or. 6 yearsDetention. The criminal offence was the arrangement of the murder of US Ambassador Orlando Letelier in Washington in September 1976 (this case the only one, that is on US pressure from the amnesty law from the outset was excluded from 1978).
within the rangethe economic policy strove Aylwin like all following Concertación - to tie to the Perfomanz of the last Pinochet years this succeeded to governments without exception. Also social programs ensured for the fact that the poverty - above all extreme poverty (in the sense of the CEPAL, i.e. Hunger) -strongly decreased/went back. However the social reforms were not sufficient to improve the unbelievably unfair income distribution also only somewhat.
the presidency Freis 1994-2000
after a shortened legislative period won the Concertación again in March 1994 the presidency elections.Leading candidate was free the Christian democrat Eduardo Ruiz Tagle. Freely 1942 in Santiago were born and are a studied engineer. His father Eduardo freely Montalva was a president of Chile from 1964 to 1970. With the presidency elections of the 11. December 1993 received free 57.9%the voices, its conservative rival candidate Arturo Alessandri (its father Jorge Alessandri likewise a former Chilean president was) was subject with 24,3% of the voices. At the 11. March 1994 was sworn in Eduardo free as a successor of Patricio Aylwin to the president.
the Causa Pinochet
in the center of the interest of world stood for Chilein September 1998. Ex dictator Augusto Pinochet was to 10. March 1998 at the age withdrawn from 82 years as commanders in chief of the Chilean military. In September 1998 he was arrested in London, where he could be treated medically. The SpanishExamining magistrate Baltazar Garzón arranged an international warrant of arrest after references of the lawyer Juan Garcés, in order to pull Pinochet for crimes on Spanish citizens in the days after the Putsch from 1973 to the responsibility. Pinochet was placed in London under house arrest, itsPhysicians certified it due to his age negotiation inability. A lengthy rope pulling over the negotiation ability of the ex dictator begins. After 17 months it was allowed to return in March 2000 to Santiago.
At the 3. March 2000 returns Pinochet to Chile and becomes with militaryHonours receive. Groups of human rights and the members of the victims of Pinochets dictatorship answered with protests and reminding guards, however there are also solidarity demonstrations with several hundred participants. Two days later the industrial tribunal in Santiago upon the request of the determination judge extracts from Juan Guzmán Tapiawith 13:9 voices Pinochet its immunity. It concerns „the death caravan in such a way specified “, which murder at 75 regime opponents in the October 1973, from which 18 bodies did not emerge yet and which do not fall therefore under the amnesty law of 1978. OneSpecial-purpose force of the army under the command of the general Arellano strong, which Pinochets delegated, had humans murdered.
At the 1. December 2000 - in the meantime the socialist Lagos had been selected as a president - introduces Guzmán surprisingly the procedure. To 5. January 2001 publishes the military a report, in which they examine the fate of the disappearing for the first time (however only of 200 of more than 1100): Allegedly the 18 bodies 17 over the sea were thrown off, which itself however notto occupy leaves. Military require nevertheless the attitude for the amnesty law.
The lawyers continued to set nevertheless on the Prozessunfähigkeit. To 18. January certifies a physician team „subkortikale, container-conditioned dementia “- in Chile (differently than in Great Britain) to too little for oneProcedure inability. To 29. January raises Guzmán accusation, and releases a solidarity wave under generals and RN - and UDI - politicians. To 12. March becomes released Pinochet against a bail of 2.000.000 pesos (about 3,500 euro). In July explains 2001Court Pinochet for not negotiationable. Thus the final end of legal pursuit Pinochets is decided because of violations of human rights. However that means at the same time the end of the political career as a senator on lifetime. To 15. September 2005 became the abolition of the immunity ofPinochet by the highest court confirms.
the presidency Ricardo Lagos since 2000
Ricardo Lagos Escobar was born 1938 in Santiago and studied law in Chile and the USA. He worked for the United Nations andafter its return to Chile 1978 (it had fled 1973) for the International Monetary Fund. Center of the 80's of Lagos of undisputed leaders of the democratic opposition Concertación, done then however 1990 as a socialist without a point candidacy. it loses 1993with the preselections against free. Since 1990 of Lagos dressed offices for Minister.1999 become of Lagos presidency candidate, after he with the preselections its contractor, whom Andrés Zaldívar struck Christian democrats. With the elections in December it comes to no absolute majority, in oneBallot in January 2000 it strikes its opponent Joaquín Lavín of the voices delivered of the extremely right UDI with scarce 51.3% and becomes after all end a second socialist president of Chile.
to 30. November 2004 published thosenational Chilean Comisión Nacional sobre Prisión Politíca y Tortura (about: National commission over political arrests and torture) their report on the atrocities of the Pinochet regime, which had not been examined by the saving industrial union commission: Torture. In the report it is proven that humansdue to the suspicion „left “to be simple, the secret police were kidnapped, tortured and killed. It is proven likewise that tortures were not used regime far and under any circumstances exceptions were: all armed services of the army and all safety organs - police and secret services- were involved. Likewise the report states that the torture methods in the course of the time were constantly developed further. As reaction to the report has for the first time high military - which commanders in chief of the Air Force - a systematic debt of the military admitted.
in the year 2005 succeeded it finally to eliminate by a comprehensive constitutional reform numerous of the privileges of the military and undemocratic elements. (See also condition of Chile and Transition in Chile).
the presidency election 2006
After the choice in December 2005 no candidate achieved the necessary absolute majority. To 15. January 2006 won Michelle Bachelet of the center leftist coalition Concertación de Partidos por la Democracia the ballot with 53,5% of the voices against Sebastián Piñera. Itbecomes, as soon as the office took over you, the first president of Chile.
|overview||to 1945||Christian democrats and all end||of dictatorship Pinochtes||since 1988|
Web on the left of
- explanation of the parliament for the destruction of the Chilean democracy by president Salvador all end to 22. August 1973 (German/English/Spanish)
- article of the Guardian over the Cybersyn - project (English)
- final report of the saving industrial union commission of 1991 (English), (Spanish)
- final report thatValech commission of 2005 (536 S. + 244 S. Victim list) (Spanish)
- call of the parliament to the Putsch toward all end, August 1973 (German/English/Spanish)
- Chile 1973: An analysis of the events those bury an illusion the Militärputsch of 1973 vorrausgingen (German)
- Chile 1973 - thatother 11. September interview with an eye-witness Militärput of 1973 (German)
- Imbusch, P. more /Messner, D. /Nolte, D. (Hrsg.): Chile today. Politics, economics, culture. Frankfurt 2004. (ISBN 3893545905) nearly 1000 lateral anthology with more than 50Article to most topics.
- Lützelberger, Therese: Chile: Chronology, in: Imbusch, P. more /Messner, D. /Nolte, D. (Hrsg.): Chile today. Politics, economics, culture. Frankfurt 2004. (ISBN 3893545905), S. 907 - 936. Chronology ash points of pass
- Nohlen, Dieter/Nolte, Detlef: Chile, in: Nohlen, Dieter/Nuscheler,Franz:Manual of the third world, 1995, volume 2. (ISBN 3-8012-0202-x). S. 277 - 338. Very good and scarce complete overview of history and the today's problems.
- Simon collier and William F. Sater, A History OF Chile, 1808-2002,Cambridge Latin American Studies, ISBN 0-521-82749-3, (2004)
- Bodemer, Klaus et al.: Lateinamika yearbook, Vervuert, Frankfurt, various classes. Annually (until 2005) published volumes with chronological overview of the most important Latin American states.
- IDA Stevenson, Weldon Vernon,Pedro De Valdivia, Conquistador OF Chile, ISBN 0-837-11034-3, Greenwood press
- Robert N. Burr: By reason or force, Chile and the balancing OF power in south America 1830-1905, University OF California press, ISBN 0-520-02629-2, (1974)
- Armando de Ramon,Breve Historia de Chile: Desde la invasion Incaica Hasta Nuestros slide (1500-2000) (Coleccion Historias Americanas), (Spanish), ISBN 9-507-86294-3, (2001)
- William F. Sater, Chile and the was OF the Pacific, ISBN 0-803-24155-0, (1986)
- Ricardo E. Latcham: The war art thatAraucanos, ISBN 3-88506-403-0
Christian democrats and all end
- of Wessel, Günter, Allendes, Lübbe, ISBN 3-40461-537-9, (2004).
- Nohle, Dieter (1973): Chile - the socialist experiment, (ISBN 3455090737).
- Nolte, Detlef: “State terrorism inChile ". In: Hans's Werner Tobler /Peter forest man (Hrsg.), national one and parastaatliche force in Latin America, Frankfurt/M. 1991, S.75-104. (ISBN 3893548319) (overview of the Menschenrechtsverletzunge detailed during the dictatorship)
processing of the dictatorship
- Fuentes, Claudio: AfterPinochet: Civilian of policies toward the military into the 1990s Chilean democracy, journal OF Interamerican Studies and World Affairs, case 2000. on-line version (English)
- Imbusch, P. more /Messner, D. /Nolte, D. (Hrsg.): Chile today. Politics, economics, culture. Frankfurt 2004. (ISBN 3893545905)
- Krumwiede, Heinrich: The Chilean regime transformationin the review. Page 253 - 274.
- Wheel-hit a corner, Michael: Military and politics in Chile. Page 309 - 333.
- Huhle, Rainer: Shade on the future. Human rights and coming to terms with the past in postdiktatorialen Chile. Page 275 - 295.
- Hunter, Wendy: Civil Military relation in Argentina, Brazil,and Chile: Present trend, Future Prospects, in: Agüera, Felipve and Slash, Jeffrey (publisher): LINEs OF Democracy in post office Transition Latin America putrefy. 2004 (English)
- Silva, Patricio: Searching for Civilian Supremacy: The Concertación Gouvernments and the Military in Chile, bulletinOF Latin American Research, 2002, volume. 21, No. 3, page 375 - 395. (English)
- final report of the saving industrial union commission of 1991 (English), (Spanish)
- final report of the Valech commission of 2005 (536 S. + 244 S. Victim list) (Spanish)
economics and social
- Introduction and overview
- Nohlen, Dieter /Nolte, Detlef: Chile, in: Nohle, Dieter/Nuscheler, Franz: Manual of the third world, volume 2: South America, ISBN 380120202X.
- Esser, Klaus (2004): Economical specialization and structure of a modern national state in Chile,in: Imbusch/Messner/Nolte (Hrsg.):Chile today, Frankfurt/Main, S. 565-601.
- Politics-scientific analyses
- Duquette, Michel: The Chilean economic miracle revisited, in: The journal OF Socio Economics, 1998, volume. 27, issue 3, p. 299-321 (English). Web left. For full text is (free)Registration necessarily.
- Thiery, Peter (2000): Transformation in Chile - institutional change, development and democracy 1973-1996, Frankfurt/Main.
- Trade unions
- Angell, Alan (1972): Politics and the labour Movement in Chile. Oxford University press, London
- Barrera, Manuel; et al. (1986): Trade union andthe State in Present Day Chile. United nation Research of institutes, gene EH
- Grewe, Hartmut; Mol, Manfred (Hrsg.) (1994): State and trade unions in Latin America. Schöningh, Paderborn
- Nohle, Dieter (1973): Chile - the socialist experiment. Hoffmann and Campe, Hamburg
- Nolte, Detlef (1986): BetweenRebellion and integration - trade unions in the Chilean policy. Width brook, Saarbruecken
- Rojas Hernández, Jorge (1986): The Chilean trade union movement 1973-1984. Campus publishing house, Frankfurt/Main; New York
- Stephen, Lynn (1997): Women and Social Movements in Latin America. University OF Texas press,Austin,
- Imbusch, Peter (1995): Entrepreneur and politics in Chile. Vervuert, Frankfurt/Main
- Imbusch, Peter (2004): Entrepreneur and their federations as a social-political participant, in: Imbusch, Peter; et al.: Chile, today. Vervuert, Frankfurt/Main
-  information to the Grupos económicos
- Poverty and inequality
- Altimir, OSCAR (1998): Income distribution and Poverty Through Crisis and Adjustment, in: Bery, Albert (Hrsg.): Poverty, Economic reform, and Income distribution in Latin America, Boulder, S. 43-80.
- Thorp, Rosemary:Progress, Poverty and Exclusion. At EconomicHistory OF Latin America into the 20th Century, John Hopkins University press, 1998. Restaurant economics to Latin America, also extensive data to Chile.
- current economic situation
- CEPAL (2005): Chile, in: Estudio Económico de América Latina y el Caribe, 2004-2005,S. 165-171 on-line version (.pdf).
- Maggi, Claudio/Messner, Dirk (2004): Chile - a case of model? Challenges at the threshold to 21. Century, in: Imbusch/Messner/Nolte (Hrsg.): Chile today, Frankfurt/Main, S. 501-524.
- Foreign trade
- Ffrench Davis, Ricardo (2002): The impact OF of exporton growth in Chile, in: CEPAL Review 76, S. 135-150.
- Herzer, Dierk (2003): Export expansion, vertical export diversification and economic growth in Chile, Goettingen.
- Social politics
- Raczynski, Dagmar 2000: Overcoming Poverty in Chile, in: Tulchin, Joseph/country, M. Allison (Hrsg.): Social developmentin Latin America. Boulder.
- Taylor, Marcus 2003: The Reformulation OF Social Policy in Chile, 1973-2001. Questioning A Neoliberal Model, in: Global Social Policy 3:1, S. 21-44.
- Thiery, P. 2000: Transformation in Chile: Institutional change, development and democracy 1973-1996. Frankfurt A.M., S. 234- 269.
- Jokes, Lothar 2004: The development of a model: 20 years pension reform in Chile, in: Imbusch, Peter/Messner, Dirk/Nolte, Detlef (Hrsg.): Chile today. Politics, economics and culture. Frankfurt A. M., S. 417-432.
- Article in the Economist to the pension system
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