To history of Denmark

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Steinzeit

the oldest human traces originates from an interglacial period before 70,000 years, during the last ice age. They were discovered in a gravel pit with Hollerup, northwest from Langå. The after-ice-age settlement of Denmark, with 100 the mdeeper sea level in the North Sea a by far larger surface than today covered, begins with the still paläolithischen bromine ME culture (10.000-7.400 v. Chr.), their representative in the tundra still moose, Moschus, horse and annuitant hunted. It is to a discovery site with Sorøon sea-country designated. The mirror of the Baltic Sea, which was still another Süsswassrbecken, was appropriate for 50 m more highly than that the North Sea. The probably only seasonal stays of the Brommeleute left traces (tools). They particularly are at the lakes and rivers (upDjursland and with Langå). You follow the Maglemose culture (7,400-6000 v. Chr.), which was designated after the large moorland with Mullerup (sea-country). The culture is except in the later north circle also in England (Broxburne, star Carr) and in completely north Russia (there asKunda culture designation) to beyond the Urals spreads. The southernmost place of discovery is holding (North Rhine-Westphalia) in the Maglemose culture developed already because of the far spreading groups. The Kongemose culture (6.000-5.200 v. Chr.) was designated likewise after moorland on sea-country and stepsalso in groups on (Gudenå and ear castle, which seem to form the origin). The hunt for Rotwild and wild pigs was supplemented substantially by berries, fish, Nüsse, shellfish, birds and roots. The last mesolithische culture the Ertebølle - culture becomes also Ertebølle Ellerbek- Culture mentioned (5.200-4.000 v. Chr.). It was designated to places of discovery on the Kimbri peninsula. The neolithische funnel cup culture, the first field farmer culture follows them.

Bronzezeit

Eisenzeit

113 v. Chr. first mention in and south Jutland settling Kimbern and Teutonen.

Wikingerzeit

around 730 established the Danes to the protection against the Saxonia the Dane work settling south. Around 884 the Danes broke in in England , occupied a part of the country, which Dane-lay, and demanded from the English kings tribute in form of the Dane money. In the year 924 the English king Eduard the older one had the entire Dane-lay back under English control brought.

Denmark was geeint for the first time around 980 by Harald blue tooth,also the Christianity assumed. Until far into the 11. Century the Danes were called Wikinger, which based in completely Europe colonies and carried on trade, in addition, whole countries and regions plünderten and wars led.

Under the rule Knutsthe large one reached Denmark an enormous territorial expansion. Thus belonged beside Denmark also Sweden, Norway and again England to the realm Knuts of the large one.

Nearly all Danish villages originate from the Wikingerzeit and/or. are older than 800 years. Villages with that Suffix -, ing (e), lev, løse and sted belong to home to the oldest. They are already from the time of the people migration well-known. Suffixe also - by, torp and toft (e) are supposed in 8. and 9. Century from England to Denmark arrives. The Suffixe- rød, rud, tved, skov, have and løkke get stand for Rodungen in 13. Century took place.

to arguments with Luebeck and the Hanseatic cities

see article Luebeck (history), history of the Hanseatic city Stralsund, Hanse

Kalmarer union

the Bible Christians III. of Denmark, Copenhagen, 1550 - the first Danish translation - in 3000facher edition
Christian IV. of Denmark, location of the fixed image: Kristiansand, Norway
Dänisches Wappen ca.1600 (Siebmacher 1605)
Danish coat of arms ca.1600 (Siebmacher 1605)

1397 became the Kalmarer unionunder leadership of the Danish queen Margarethe I. based. 1460 developed the personnel union with Schleswig and Holstein. 1523 separated Sweden with the choice of its own king (Gustav I. Wasa) finally from the Kalmarer union out, whereby more long-continuouslyConflict around the political guidance in the Baltic Sea area was released. 1537 were accomplished the reformation. 1620 acquired Denmark the young remote islands as colony (Danish west India). 1626 defeat Christian IV. of Denmark against Tilly. From 1563 to 1720 Denmark different ledWars with Sweden around the supremacy in the Baltic Sea area. In the course of these wars Denmark with the peace of Roskilde lost 1658 care (the southernmost part of today's Sweden). Between 1720 and 1807 the Schollenbindung of the farmers was waived.

At the beginningthe Empirezeit remained Denmark neutrally, both opposite France and opposite England. Despite this neutrality the country refused the passage of English ships into the Baltic Sea. Whereupon 1801 the English fleet reacted with the attack on Copenhagen. As afterby Tilsit England its influence to water and strengthened, attacked it again saw the economic effects by the continental barrier threatened to the peace 1807 Copenhagen and took the city after three-day-long bombardment to 5. September. On it the followingNaval warfare with England until 1810 induced Denmark, Napoléon Bonaparte to supported. This had however as a consequence that on the Viennese congress was decided and in peacetime by Kiel that Denmark Norway had to surrender to Sweden, this was the end that Danish-Norwegian personnel union. Greenland, Iceland, the Färöer and Danish west India remain however with Denmark. (Literature for this: EH Heinzelmann/Thomas Riis/Stefanie Robl. (Hgg.), the Danish total state - an underestimated world realm? / The Oldenbourg Monarchy - at UnderestimatedEmpire?, dt. /engl., Kiel (Ludwig) 2005, ISBN 3-937719-01-6.)

nationalism and liberalism

the destroyed mill with the Düppeler digging (1864)

the Danish national movement and the liberals began into the 1830er years to win at power and afterthe European revolutions around 1848 (see. March revolution) was established Denmark 1849 to a constitutional monarchy under the line luck castle of the house Oldenburg: It receives its first condition. An important role plays in this time the important Danish theologian,Paedagogue, poet and politician N.F.S. Grundtvig

Kopenhagen um 1895
Copenhagen around 1895

after the second Schleswig war 1864, was forced Denmark to surrender Schleswig-Holstein to Prussia and Austria Hungary. Hieran reminds today still the national memorial place with the Düppeler digging, where each yearto 18. April the anniversary of the lost decisive battle is committed.

This defeat of caused deep cuts in the development of the national identity of Denmark, the home policy experienced a link jerk, the foreign policy of the nation accepted a strict neutrality course, and kept this toafter the First World War .

the First World War

in the First World War remained Denmark neutrally. 1917 sold it to Danish west India to the USA. 1920 fell after a popular vote Nordschleswig and/or. South Jutland (dän.: Sønderjylland) Denmark and those todayexisting boundary line was specified. In connection with the reunification with south Jutland, which was coined/shaped by German administration 56 years long, in the southern (German) and northern (Danish) part Schleswigs the rights of the respective minorities were particularly strengthened. These rights of the GermansMinority in south Jutland and the Danish minority in Schleswig-Holstein are also political of special importance.

the Second World War

to 9. April 1940 was occupied Denmark by Germany (operation Weser exercise), under ignoring its neutrality, and remained toEnd of the Second World War under German control. Contrary to other occupied countries both the head of state remained, king Christian X., like also the Danish government in the country.

Im Oktober 1943 kam es zu einer beispiellosen Tat, der Rettung derDanish Jews by the Danish people: 7300 over the Öresund could be brought by 7500 Jews to Sweden. However could be paid Fischer involved the passage very well. Also were Werner Best, the governor of the Germans, and thatNavigation expert of the German message, George Ferdinand ducking joke, very well over the rescue informs; they had warned and bore Danish politicians before the planned action against the Danish Jews and made the rescue action possible. Also many Danes sympathized with the Germans;joined about 2000 of them the weapon SS and fought to end of war on German side.

1944 took place the independence from the Germans not occupied Iceland, which had been connected with Denmark since 1918 in personnel union.

Post-war period

after the war was Denmark 1949 initial member of NATO, and became at the 1. January 1973 after a popular vote member of the European community. Since that 1. May 1979 possesses Greenland autonomy. 1989 have Denmark as the first country thatWorld civil partnerships for homosexual ones imported. 1998 were opened the bridge over the large Belt, in the year 2000 took place the inauguration of the Öresundbrücke, those the two economical centers of Denmark (Copenhagen) and Sweden separated by the Öresund (Malmö) connects.

time board

see also

literature

  • Berdichevsky, Norman: The Danish German boron that disputes, 1815 - 2001: aspects OF cultural and demo graphics politics. Bethesda; Dublin; London: Acad. Press, LLC, 2002. - ISBN 1-930901-34-8
  • Bohn, Robert: Danish one History. Munich: Beck, 2001. - (Beck' row; 2162). - ISBN 3-406-44762-7
  • Frandsen, standing Bo: Denmark - the small neighbour in the north. Aspects of the GermanDanish relations in 19. and 20. Century. Darmstadt: Scientific book company, 1994. - ISBN 3-534-11712-3
  • cool,Jørgen and Bohn, Robert: A European model? National minorities in the GermanDanish borderland 1945-2005, Bielefeld: Publishing house for regional history, 2005. - ISBN 3-89534-541-5
  • Stræde, Therkel: Denmark: the difficult memory of Kollaboration and resistance. - In: Myths of the nations: 1945 -Arena of the memories/hrsg. of Monika Flacke. - Mainz on the Rhine: of Zabern, 2004. - ISBN 3-8053-3298-X - S. 123-144

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