History of India
the oldest well-known civilization on the Indian Subkontinent and one of the oldest advanced cultures of the world were the Industal civilization. Their history hands back at least 5000 years. One assumes that arische trunks around approximately 1500 v. Chr. into the area of outside of Indiapenetrated. The mixture and cultural fertilization between Ariern and the early inhabitants of the region let the classical Indian culture develop and coined/shaped the Hinduismus developing at that time crucially.
Starting from that 6. Century v. Chr. unfolded the Buddhismus, that nearly 1000 years beside the Hinduismusone of the relevant spirit currents of India represented. In India always also influences played from the outside a large political role:Arab and centralasiatic invasions began in 8. and 12. Century and 15 became starting from that. Century by European dealers continued. During the Moguldynastie the influences that playedPersian culture a large role. In 19. Century had England complete political control of all Indian territories.
The force-free resistance against British colonial rule, particularly under Mahatma Gandhi and Jawaharlal Nehru, led 1947 to independence. The Subkontinent became in two states divided, the secular (Hindu) State of India and the smaller Islamic State of Pakistan. After two preceding wars with Pakistan a third war led 1971 to the splitting off of east Pakistan and to the establishment of the new State of Bangladesh.
Today the fundamental problems of India are on the one hand the continuing controversy alsoPakistan around the region Kashmir, on the other hand the strong population of over, the increasing environmental pollution, the expanded poverty as well as ethnical and religious conflicts between Hindus and Muslims.
Table of contents
the prehistory of India decreases/goes back in Paläolithikum . India is because of the eastern edge of the spreading of fist wedges. Industries of the Altpaläolithikums are by rough fist wedges, Chopper, Chopping Tools and wedge measurer characterizes. The earliest well-known finds originate from the Acheuléen. The southIndian industries of the Altpaläolithikums are well-known also under the designation Madrasien, after which 1863 by Bruce Foote discovered place of discovery with WAD-race, those from the Punjab as Soan.There is both open land settlements and cave discovery sites well-known, most finds originates however from the Schotterterrassen of larger rivers and is relocated. The place of discovery of Bhimbetka III F-23 with Hoshangabad in central India represents one of the few stratifizierten discovery sites. Here a Stratigraphie was observed, oflate Acheuléen in the Neolithikum is enough. In the layers of the late Acheuléen five round with flat stones paved findings, were observed which perhaps indicate the locations of tents or simple windscreens. The majority of the tools consists of rough yellowish quartzite, artifacts of Chalcedon and rough Silex are rare. The hill of Adamgahr with Hoshangabad and the cave of Gudiyam with WAD-race likewise stratifizierte finds from the old and Mittelpaläolithikum supplied. From Hathnora in the Narmada valley Hominidenreste from the middle Pleistozän originate.
Mittelpaläolithi industries point strengthen toolsup, which are made of anticipated payments, also anticipated payments of particularly prepared cores are well-known. In the Mittelpaläolithikum differences are formed already clear local, for example between the industries of the Dekkan and central India and the traditions of the Punjab and the Indus of valley. The Nevasan (after thatPlace of discovery of Nevasa in Maharashtra) stands at the transition between old and Mittelpaläolithikum. Here above all finer Silices was processed, which may have contributed to „the more advanced “appearance of the artifacts. Clear Bulben at the artifacts refers to the technology of the directly hard impact. Beside smallRetouched anticipated payments, under it drills with steep retouching, seem to fist wedges. Scratches are frequent and in the form very variable, the tools altogether hardly show a standardisation. West the Aravalligebirges, in particular in the Luni basin, is a substantially higher portion of tools from anticipated payments, also herescratches are the prevailing form. Besides also burin and lateral retouchings from prepared anticipated payments occur. The prevailing raw material is Rhyolith.
In Jerruk with Hyderabad impact places of mittelpaläolithischer artifacts were excavated. Newer finds are for example a mittelpaläolithisches mine in the Kaladgi basin in south India.
In the Jungpaläolithikum finditself the first blade - industries. A local development is accepted by blade industries in the Rohri and Luni groups. For jungpaläolithische finds from the Belan in the southern Uttar Pradesh are present radio carbon data of 18.000-17.000 BP. At the beginning of the Jungpaläolithikums probably still became with directly hard impactworked, later industries of the Jungpaläolithikums show very regular blade and dull Bulben, here a hammer from organic material were perhaps already used. Also paläolithische rock art is well-known. Organic remainders such as bones kept only rare, therefore little is well-known over nutrition and way of life.
Mesolithi industries set at the beginning of the Holozäns in 9. Millenium, a jägerische and sammlerische way of life was partly continued in many parts of India however until far in the Neolithikum, into the present. The transition from the Jungpaläolithikum to the Mesolithikum seems in central andWest India a local development to have likewise been. The used raw material changes gradually, for quartz is liked, and the artifacts become increasingly smaller. Mesolithi artifacts are particularly manufactured from regular blade.
Mesolithi places of discovery are very frequent, if alone artifacts from struck stone are received,however the decision, whether it concerns hunters and collecting tanks or early field farmers, is often difficult. The place of discovery of Budha Pushkar e.g. impact places with mikrolithischen artifacts, ceramic(s) in chalkolithischer tradition and a fish hook from copper furnished. From Bagor in Rajasthan hut sketches originate also, the cultural allocation is however not completely safe of paved floors also here. Places of discovery with mesolithischen industries such as Langhnaj in Gujarat seem to occur still parallel with the Induskultur. From the place of discovery Damdama in Uttar Pradesh are from that 3. Millenium of vouchers for the use of wild Admits to rice and other wild grasses (Eleusine indica , Dactylocitum frame). The animal bones come all of game animals. Among other things in dens late layers numerous chickens were found - bones. Researchers such as fillers (2000, 199) consider a local Domestikation in mesolithischem context.
Mesolithi rock art is outCentral India admits, e.g. from that rock roofs of Baghai Khor, Bhimbetka with Bhopal and Adamgarh. The rock pictures of Morhana Pahar with Mirzapur show goats and chariot already domestizierte. The painting is usually implemented with Hämatit. From Mahadaha a number of stretched funerals is present, which addedfrom heads of the arrow, animal bones and bone trailers exhibited. Further important places of discovery are Sarai Nahar Rai, Birbhanpur in Bengalen and Morhana Pahar in central India.
the Mehrgahr culture in Pakistan and northwest India dates in 7. Millenium and represents the earliest neolithische settlement. In Mehrgarhexcavated in the last settlement phase of houses from loam bricks and stool funerals with rich added. Already in the first, akeramischen settlement phase wheat, barley and Dattelpalme were cultivated. The animal bones still predominantly come from game animals; Cattle, goats, sheep etc. In a developed phase of the culturethe Zebu and perhaps sheep were domestiziert locally, goats and domestiziertes grain probably originate from west Asia.
Also in Rajasthan 7 already seems in. Millenium domestizierte kinds of wheat to have been cultivated. Safe Domestikate originates from prä the Harappa - phase in outgoing 4. Millenium from places of discoverythe Ahar culture such as Balathal. Here cattle and sheep also domestizierte are occupied. Off approx. One speaks 5000 UC in northwest India of a prä Harappa culture.
When the transition took place to a neolithischen restaurant way under course way, is unclear, the transition seems to be very flowing and6 lies between that. and 5. Millenium. Kultigene such as wheat and flax reached the course valley apparently only during the Harappa culture (2500-2000 UC cal.), and penetrated from there off approx. 2500 v. Chr. further to central India (Kayatha) forwards. From the place of discovery Senuwar to middle courseare in the first phase rice (Oryza sativa) and fox tail (Setaria pumila) proven, only from a later phase wheat, barley, lenses and peas. African cultivated plants such as Sorghum, lab lab purpureus and Vigna unguilatica dip only into late 2. Millenium up. On the place of discovery Hulasto upper course come from the time between 1800-1300 finds from cure bites (Coccinia grandis).
In Gujarat the neolithische production way was supposed since that 4. Millenium admits. Places of discovery such as Padri occupy the production of ceramic(s) and an established way of life in the Padri culture. From Saurashtra are domestizierte animals occupies. Around 4000 cal domestizierte cattle from Bagor are occupied UC in the northern Gujarat, further places of discovery are perhaps Loteshwar and Adamgarh, where cattle and sheep in a mesolithischen context were proven.
The neolithischen finds from Assam consist particularly of stone hatchets,those with difficulty to date are. From Daojali Hading ceramic(s) with cord castings originates and/or. Force away a cord-taped paddle (“cord marked commodity”), which would like to connect some researchers with southChinese ceramic(s). However no reliable data are present also here.
While the southIndian Neolithikum because of the polished stone devices, particularly of heelswith pronounced shoulder („shouldered celts “) traditionally to northeastIndian models one attributed, mehren themselves in the last years the signs for an independent emergence. Important Domestikate was Mung bean (Vigna radiata), whose wild ancestors in the western Ghats occurs, Macrotyloma uniflorum, millet, (Brachiaria ramosa) and fox tail(Setaria verticillata). The wild gathering molds of the last two grasses grew in the savannahs of the southern Dekkan. Perhaps also Yams (Dioscorea) were used, tuber fruits are however to be notoriously badly proven. Other kinds of millet, like Panicum sumatrense, Paspalum colona L., Echinochloa colona L. and Setaria pumila Poir. perhaps becameonly collected. In addition came Jujuben, Myrobalam (Phyliantehus emblemica), almonds (Buchnania lanzan), figs and perhaps wild cucumber plants (Cucumis frame). During the late Neolithikums and Chalkolithikums cultivated plants of African origin emerged, like carrot millet (Sorghum), Perl millet (Pennisetum glaucum), lab lab (lab lab purpureus) and eye bean (Vigna unguilatica), and northIndianCultivated plants such as wheat and barley were gradually taken over. The Neolithikum of the southern Dekkan is divided into the following phases:
|Ashmond tradition, phase 1||2800-2200|
|Ashmond tradition, phase 2||2200-1800|
|Ashmond tradition, phase 3||1800-1000|
in the Dekkan early 2 became in.Millenium v. Chr. Wheat, barley, and leguminous plants cultivated. Useful plants from China or central Asia dip around the turn to 2. Millenium v. Chr. up. This concerns millet /Setaria italica L., Panicum miliaceum L.) and hemp (Cannabis sativus L.).
major item: Indus culture
3000 1500 v. Chr.: Development Harappa - and Mohenjo Daro - culture in the northwest Industal (today Pakistan). In the Harappa culture wheat, barley, lenses, Kichererbsen, peas and flax were cultivated. Gujarat belonged to the sphere of influence of the Harappa culture (Sorath Harappa), was however because of the absencelarger rivers dependent on building of rain fields and shows therefore clear differences in the restaurant way. In places of discovery of the late Harappa culture such as Rojdi and Kuntasi the Kutkihirse (Panicum sumatrense ) outweighs, in addition became S. with the Pflanzenresten. verticillata and S. pumila found. Wheat and barley are only meagerly occupied.From rank pure and Lothal originate Topfscherben, which are with tear roughly gemagert allegedly. That is so far the only, and uncertain proof for the Domestikation of rice in the Harappa culture. Safe remainders of rice originate only from late 2. Millenium v. Chr. Whether the water buffalo domestiziertwas or only one hunted, is unclear. Because of numerous bone finds one assumes that the chicken was held since the late Harappa culture as a domestic animal. Traces of the agriculture with the Arl from the early Harappa culture are occupied from Kalibangan.
the vedischeCulture had its beginnings for instance starting from 1500 v. Chr. and by (from the north) immigrating the Ariern substantially one coined/shaped, when they mixed themselves with the native trunks. These migration movements went very slowly. In the frühvedischen time (approx. 1200-900 v.Chr.) the settlement took place in Punjab and western course - and Yamuna - valley. The vedische religion, which by victim rituals and hymns is coined/shaped to the Gods, experienced a first bloom time. In this phase developed for example the Riksamhitas, that is praise songs to the Gods. The God world resembled the indogermanischenGod world. One asks the Gods for wealth, gold and cattle. The way of life, which was still halbnomadisch at the beginning, turned into flowing into the permanence. The word for car course (grama) for example went through a meaning change and means late villages.
In the spätvedischen time (approx. 900–600v. Chr.) went the settlement of the Arier in the eastern course valley. A phase of the urbanisation and realm formation began. Since approx. 600 v. Chr. there were about sixteen Königtümer, which were probably unions of two or several trunks. Borders were at that time not yet so exactly fixed. Inthis phase developed many cities, in which trade was carried on. In the war technology one used now elephants also gezähmte. Rice production was intensified. 540 v. Chr. king Bimbisara put the foundation-stone for the future dominating position of the realm of Magadha.
In thatthe mythologische authentication for the box nature developed for spätvedischen time. At the point of the social hierarchy the Brahmanen ( writing scholar, priest) stood, followed from the Kriegern Kshatriyas and the dealers, craftsmen and farmer Vaishyas. At the lower end the society were the members of the originalPopulation, which lived as a servant Shudras. One can assume however the social Stratifizierung of the society was not yet so pronounced in the vedischen time.
The end of the vedischen time (6. and 5. Century v. Chr.) was religious politically like also a time of thePaging. In Magadha two religion founders stepped out, whose teachings exhibited thing in common with the vedischen faith system, like the cycle of the Wiedergeburten (SAM era) and the law of the act (Karma), however however an advancement offer. Mahavira justified the excessive quantity in accordance with as last of24 „Furtbereitern so mentioned “, the Jainismus decreasing/going back to asketische traditions. That, likewise as a prince of a small Principality of born, Siddharta Gautama finally taught „ the way of the center as Buddha 40 years long “, the Buddhismus.
the classical age
major item: Maurya
short after the penetration of Alexander the large one (326 v.Chr.) put Chandragupta Maurya around 322 v. Chr. the bases for the first Indian large realm. During the first large dynasty of India, the Maurya dynasty (320-185 v. Chr.) stretchedthe realm by conquests ever more out. Under king Ashoka (268-233 v.Chr.) was enough the influence until to south India. The central administration with its bureaucracy covered however only the central area of the realm in the course level; excluded the southern part of the Subkontinents (dravidische states) remains. Capital was Pataliputra (the today's Patna). Emperor Ashoka, who itself to the Buddhismus well-known, justified among other things with conquest potash gas the first large realm on Indian soil and at the same time the first social welfare state of the antique ones which is based on friedfertiger tolerance. Ashoka left numerous rock edicts, why this historical periodrelatively well documented. The realm disintegrated around 185 v.Chr. into numerous member states. Those last representative of the Maurya dynasty was murdered its general Pushyamitra Shunga, which justified then the Shunga dynasty.
Shunga, Shaka and Shatavahana
around 250 v.Chr. to 100 v. Chr.: In the follow-up of the Alexanderzüge developed in the northwest border area of Baktrien and Gandhara (today: Afghanistan and Pakistan) the brightistic Gräko baktrische realm. One registered a development of the buddhistischen art and culture. The realm disintegrated to that with the penetrationfrom central Asia coming Skythen, which is called by the Indian Shakas.
In north India governed between 185 and 73 v. Chr. the Shunga. They preferred the Brahmanismus again to the Buddhismus and maintained the Sanskrit. The financing of buddhistischer monasteries was them probably tooexpensively. In the Dekkan the Shatavahana had settled and Ashokas rule had apparent already extracted. They governed four centuries, approx. 230 v. Chr. to 199, their heartland was the upper run of the Godavari around Nasik and Paithan. Around 180 v. Chr. their king struck Satakarnialso the Shunga back. Fourth Indian power beside Shunga, Shaka and Shatavahana was at that time the risen Kalinga.
major item: Kushana
around 50 v. Chr.: The Iranian displace the Shakas part ago, become for their part however from the Kushana (ursp. Yüe tschi)struck, which establish a flowering realm in Baktrien and Gandhara. Under king Kanishka (1. /2. Century n. Chr.) reaches it its largest power. Promotion and development of the Buddhismus (art schools of Mathura and Gandhara) belong to the cultural achievements. The Kushana - realm purged in firstHalf of the 3. Century and becomes until today because of his not-Indian origin rather small estimated.
320 - 510 n. Chr.: In north India the dynasty of the Gupta prevailed, while in the Dekkan the Vakatakareich took an outstanding position.In 5. Century came along it for the establishment of the buddhistischen university of Nalanda, those over 10.000 students and allegedly 9 millions Books the largest training grounds of the antique world was. The Guptas promoted Buddhismus and Hinduismus. In 5. /6. Century took place the fall of the Gupta realm conditionallyby handing hurrying and Hunneneinbrüche. Latter devastated north India and terminated the time of the flowering city culture.
early the Indian Middle Ages
between 606 and 647 governed Harshavardhana in north India. It is considered to the latter as onelarge promoter of the Buddhismus, his time marks the transition to the Indian Middle Ages. Its attempt for subjecting central India failed however: here the Chalukya - and Pallava - alternated kings.
Pratihara, Rashtrakuta, Pala
of 8. to 10. Centurythe Rashtrakuta divided into central India (approx. 752-973), the Pala in Bengalen (approx. 750-1161) and the Pratihara (approx. 730-1036) in the northeast of India power. The Pratihara kings are the predecessors of the Rajputen - princes, and took over like these also the defense against the moslemischen intruders, e.g. Mahmudof Ghazna. All three parties fought steadily for the old capital Harshas, Kannauj to course, whereby them came longer time into the hand of the Pratiharas.
These centuries are considered as the Indian Middle Ages. No great power was to become generally accepted able and military successesdid not remain of duration. The power of the kings was based on the number and reliability of the Vasallen, while their central administrations were weakly pronounced and extended often only to the periphery of the capital. Vasallenkönige, but also province governors did not only have their own army and appointedtheir officials themselves. Their office was often further-left, so that from them new dynasties developed. As in the European Middle Ages the power of the kings was only apparent despite large outside successes.
Humans of the Indian Middle Ages lived mostly in the country. A characteristic Indian realms howthat the Rashtrakuta and Chola were the associated self-sufficient village communities. In the villages and districts advice from Mahattaras ensured (i.e. the larger ones) for public work on roads and water reservoirs, for the Gerichtswesen and the temples. They were appointed not by the dynasty and were independently of the situation with yards. If the tax A DRIVEr went past, then they had in-collected and delivered the taxes often already them then overall.
The yard culture, architecture like also hinduistische philosophy refined itself on the basis of forms and realizations already existing, brought however little newout, so that one also of a solidification of the social structure and/or. Society speaks. The land properties took out now as much as possible of the farmers and created themselves also economical monopolies. In the Indian Middle Ages the entire population of village was for example often along-given away, if due to shortage of money(little cash with remote trade lacking) land donations instead of firm salaries were made.
The land donations at Brahmanen took in 10. and 11. Century a substantially larger extent on. Of it the kings expected also an attenuation of the province governors and/or. a strong support for itself.
The Buddhismusone back-continued to push, since it supported itself only by the upper classes. With the leaving power of the kings the maintenance of the buddhistischen monasteries for the village communities became too expensively and here rächte itself the missing support in the people, where the Brahmanen dominated. In addition it came thatParts of its theories and styles by philosophers such as Shankara in the Hinduismus were integrated.
the Chola - realm belongs to the important southIndian realms, to which it however never succeeded to control also north India. Its bloom time lasted from 9.up to 13. Century. The large conquerers from this dynasty were Rajaraja I. (move 985-1012/14) and its son Rajendra I. (1012/14 44). Their most important rivals were at that time the Chalukya already mentioned (approx. 550-750 and 973-1190) and Pallava (250/575 897).
Islamic realms and the late Indian Middle Ages
major item: Sultanate of Delhi
in early 8. Century began oneArab and/or. Islamic infiltration in India. With a victory over the Rajputen Prithvirajas III. with Delhi succeed 1192 the Muslims under Muhammad of Ghur in north India. 1199 shifts it also the Buddhismus with the destruction of Nalanda the mortal blow. In Bengalen 1202 fellthe Sena - dynasty a general Muhammads to the victim. The disaster lay among other things to the fact that the Indian war guidance task was the krieger caste Kshatriya and not task of the people, and also to the knightly rules was subject to this caste. Career soldiers, obligation-recruited like adventurers were on Hindu howMuslim side, but the Hindus paid attention to style and code of ethics and had to bring the troops of many small kings with its local traditions under a hat, which did not know the devotion opposite a leader.
Conquest represented a deep cut due to the different one Muslim culture: so for exampleand are not not permitted Muslims were the figurative representation of God, while it was with the Hindus a basis of the temple organization. The Muslims had only one God, the Hindus many. The Sanskrit - literature became useless and purged. Nevertheless it finally came in the course of the timesa reciprocal effect between both cultures: the language Urdu formed the basis of economic and administrative communication, architecture developed an indo Islamic style, and philosophers such as Kabir (1440-1518) tried to merge Islam and Hinduismus.
The Muslims justified 1206 the sultanate of Delhi, the occasional nearlyIndia controlled completely and 1398 in an attack of the Turkish-Mongolian conquerer Timur Leng was crucially weakened, so that hinduistische dynasties at influence could recover (Vijayanagar in south India). The sultanate was internally not particularly stable, revolts of the governors and subjected princes as well as revolution attempts with yardsfilled out its history.
major item: Bahmani sultanate
the Bahmani sultanate was an Islamic state in central India and existed from its establishment 1345/47 up to its decay after 1489. Bahman Shah took over or defeated the remaining troops of the Delhi Sultans in the south and fought against itshinduistischen neighbours. The Bahmani sultanate separated under the last Sultan Mahmud Shah IV. (1482-1512) up. From it the five cover on sultanates Bijapur , Golkonda , ADN agar , Bidar and Berar followed .
major item: Vijayanagar
around 1336/46 began the ascent of the Kingdom of Vijayanagar(wörtl.: City of the victory) in south India, which existed until 1565. It was designated after a city of the same name and represented (apart from the Kingdom of Orissa) the again independent, hinduistische India.
The founders were the brothers Harihara and Bukka, which possibly Vasallen of the Hoysala - kings were. Vijayanagarattained a considerable powerful position in south India. In addition one came against center 15. Century very strong army, which had 35.000 riders and war elephants.1556 were conquered the kingdom by Muslim generals.
major item: Mogulreich
1526 -1857: The realm of the Islamic Grossmoguln controlled north and central India. It represents the high point of the Muslim culture on this continent, represented by the Taj Mahal, the red away in Agra, Humayuns tomb or Fatehpur Sikri. The fame of this realm radiated toto Europe out.
The Moguln differed from the earlier Delhi Sultanen with its administration aligned to continuity, which was above all the work Akbars ( † 1605). It, its Ministers and successors (excluded Aurangzeb) strove primarily under political and not underto govern religious criteria, how it had not been with the most powerful the Delhi Sultane yet the case.Akbar finally accomplished a reconciliation between Hindus and Muslims. Accordingly the Mogulreich was also more stable.
The India 17. and 18. Century had quite a progressive economicalto show and financial organization. The production engineering in the Karkhanas (Manufakturen) the Mogulzeit was specialized, i.e. Craftsmen worked by groups on certain workpieces and jobs. There were - as also in Europe - national loans for the promotion of the economy. Handwoven materials became in largerNumber in Asia between Japan and East Africa sells. This bloom only depended on the stability of the central state.
major item: Marathen
with the decay of the Mogulmacht under the strengläubigen Aurangzeb († 1707) developed the realm of the Marathen (1674 - 1818, basedof Shivaji) in southwest India. It represented the last Indian great power before colonizing India by the British and was not not particularly well organized. Instead of a centralistic Marathen state gradually a Konföderation of small kings developed, held together by the authority of the prime minister, the Peshwa.
see in addition: British India
in the 2. Half 18. Century expanded the British after displacement of the Frenchmen and Portuguese their sphere of influence. , the troops of the British east India company Bengalen seized and plünderten 1757, after the battle with Plassey thosebengalische vault. First the British under general Robert Clive secured only their commercial interests in Bengalen, by interfering into the disputes of the Indian princes. Soon however they proved as ambitious and flexible ruling powers.
1769 came Warren Hastings to Bengalen, 1771 becamehe there governor and knows his people on to take over the administration. The company always behind the fictitiously maintained rule of the Nawabs of Bengalen hides. Hastings and its successors linked Indian soldiers with European war guidance and British operating profits with Indian taxes, fought with Indianand the British equally widespread corruption, locked protection contracts and took over region around region.
The British east India company monopolized the trade of Bengalen. Bengali craftsmen were inevitably bound to the commercial representations of the company, by being obligated to supply their goods at a minimum price. Their fiscal chargesincreased strongly. The result was the hunger emergency from 1769 to 1770, in which 10 million inhabitant of Bengalen died. From 1813 to 1948 India was subordinate to the Britisher and as colony was exploited. In India a long period began, in which home industries broke down. Toothis time died up to 40 million Indian at hunger.
The Indian weaving mill ruined as branch of industry for example by the machine production beginning to Europe, which was European market locked, at the same time introduced England finished clothes in India. 1835 was omitted the inland tariffs andthat domestic trade increased. The privileges of the eastIndian company were already abolished 1813. But the investments held themselves within close borders, because the European and American market were safer and had better logistic conditions to show. As counter measures one began 1839 with the building of a largeRoad between Kolkata (Calcutta) and Delhi. Banks were furnished, steamers on the rivers begun and starting from 1853 began one with the building of the first railway line.
the Indian soldiers (Sepoy), trained after European model, was the most suited in Asia, them by the British was befehligt at that time and counted 1830 187,000 men. Indian could ascend only up to the company leader. The purely European regiments counted against it only 16,000 men. However endedafter the September Oy rebellion 1857/58 the rule of the British east India company, their last powers and/or. Specialgenuine were transferred to the crown. The September Oy rebellion is seen every now and then also as the first liberation movement against the British, since it was based on the resistance against cutting traditional rights and traditions.
1877 accepted queen Victoria of England the title „empress of India “. The Empire of India in personnel union with Great Britain covered the today's India, Pakistan, Bangladesh and Burma and existed until 1947. Before 1866 also Burma were occupied by Great Britain and attached to British India (to1937).
the flag empire of the India 1885 together the Indian national congress, that occurred for the independence of India. Because of the increasing influence of the Hindus in Inc. came it 1906 to the establishment of the rivaling Muslim league. Indian national congress and Muslim league wrote 1916together an explanation with demands for Indian independence. This was answered by the British government in August 1917 with a political declaration of intent to grant to India a gradual transition for self-government. Under the guidance Mahatma Gandhis (1869 - 1948) came it in intermediate wartime to the passive resistanceagainst the British rule. Gandhi strove thereby around the political unit between Hindus and Muslims. Within Inc. there was Subhash Chandra Bose at this time in particular under the guidance to the late 1930er years direction disputes over the employment of force against the BritishRule.
and Mahatma Gandhi finally fought for Republic of India under the name universe India Congress after 1945 the independence of the country. 1947 heard the Empire of India insist on. Jawaharlal Nehru and Mahatma Gandhi knew the division specified in the Mountbattenplan of theIndian Subkontinents into that predominantly of Hindus inhabited India and the moslemischen State of Pakistan in the Industal and the course delta however do not prevent. Mahatma Gandhi became to 30. January 1948 of a fanatischen Hindu murders.
India attained as former colony and part of British India under thatName „Indian union “to 15. August 1947 the independence from Great Britain. The entire Indian Subkontinent was divided into a hinduistischen, an Islamic and a smaller buddhistischen State of (India , Pakistan and Sikkim). Sikkim became after the failure of a popular vote the combination with the Indian unionin the same year sovereign kingdom after it under Great Britain already for 130 years a kingdom with limited autonomy had already been.
The conflict around Kashmir led in the long run to the first war Indian-of Pakistan, which 1949 with the De-Facto - division in two parts of Kashmir under switching of the united ones Ended to nations.
India remained for the time being a monarchy within the British Commonwealth. Head of state remained king George VI. of Great Britain. The office head of the government took over Jawaharlal Nehru (1889-1964), it was before one of the central leaders in the Indian liberty fight.
1950 came it to a contract with the Kingdom of Sikkim, in accordance with which India took the responsibility for defense, foreign policy, telecommunications and other affairs, what increasingly to itit led that Sikkim lost and starting from 1965 to one with India associated its „international personality “kingdom became.
After political unrests in the kingdom Sikkim intervened the government Indira Gandhis in the year 1975 over allegedly in accordance with a desire of the Council of Ministers of Sikkim thoseTo restore order. The situation was used however from India to annektieren the small kingdom. After a renewed popular vote for combination with India to 14. April 1975 was set off the Choygal (king) from the Indian authorities and it became the entry of crimping CIM to the Indian unioncommunicated.
The second half of the first reign Indira Gandhis was coined/shaped by unrests and separate ion movements of individual regions, so that it proclaimed in the middle of the seventies the state of emergency and the democraticRight limited.
In order their course of the people to leave, proclaimed they absegnen 1977 elections, what led however to its fall. After three turbulent years she could celebrate 1980 a triumphales comeback.
Members of the religion of the Sikhs revolted to 19. July 1982 in Amritsar andcalled with the demand after an independent Sikh state in the Punjab to the fight against the government. When the conflict far escalated and groups in the Punjab tried to create a Sikhstaat Khalistan Indira Gandhi let the golden temple in Amritsar storm in June 1984. From revengebecame them to 31. October 1984 of one their Sikh Leibgardisten murders. At the 3. December 1984 came it into Bhopal to a poisonous gas disaster in the chemical plant of the US-American company Union carbide with more than 2000 dead ones.
Unter ihrem Sohn Rajiv Gandhi, der ihr problemlos im Amt, to India liberalisation followed in the economy were introduced. Because of corruption reproaches Rajiv Gandhi lost to 29. November 1989 however power. Despite relatively good cutting of the congress party off with the choice 1989 a coalition formed against a government led by the congress party.
Followedonly short-lived coalition governments among different prime ministers, before 1991 P. V. Narasimha Rao the government to stabilize knew and until 1996 consistently economic reforms interspersed.
The chairman of the party of the Bharatiya Janata party (BJP), Lal Krishna Advani solved 1992 unrests with rushing slogans during the destruction Ayodhyas in Mumbai out and strengthened the tensions between the groups of religions. That was probably one of the reasons that Rao won the choice of 1994 not clearly and it 1996 by coalition changes of some parties was replaced. A new phase of the instability arose. Only Atal Behari Vajpayee could do to 19. March 1998 again a stable government form, that won the elections of 1999 clearly.
This choice brought the Indian people's party to BJP to the point of India. With nationalistic slogans and the march on Ayodhya the BJP had won the elections against the congress party.The polarizing and per hinduistisch aligned policy was located completely in the indication of the Hindutva - to movement, which had the Hinduisierung India as a goal.
Vajpayee however successfully reformed the economy, which led to a boom, which hardly improved however the layer above all the poorer Indian.
After a notice on a course with pilgrims in the year 2002 began massacres in Gujarat, which were only halfheartedly fought against the Indian people's party governing there. ThisUnrests brought moderate Hindus to a certain reorientation, particularly since the vision of a Shining India („shining India “ ), high-held by the Indian people's party, far parts of the population, which did not profit from the boom of the last years whether the high-put goals let become rather sceptical.
With the parliamentary electionfrom May 2004 the oppositional a congress party under Sonia Gandhi obtained an unexpected victory. Sonia Gandhi (* 1946), wife 1991 of the murdered prime minister Rajiv Gandhi, encountered because of their Italian origin however resistance and did without the office as a government boss. New Prime Minister became to 22.May 2004 of the 1932 born Manmohan Singh - a member of the Sikh religion.
In consequence of the tide disaster (Tsunami) after the sea-quake of 26. Decembers 2004 before Sumatra died in India at least 12,407 humans (to 24. To June 2005 confirmed, possibly even over 16.000), see earthquakesin the Indian ocean 2004.
See also: List of the prime ministers of India
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