History of Liberia
in 12. Jh. isolated trunks immigrated to the north and the east of Liberia. The country remained however thinly settled; it also never belonged to one of the large kingdoms of the neighbourhood. In the year 1363 normannische businessmen at the so-called “pepper coast “are to have landed and commercial establishments create. Whether this fact was, is however still disputed.
1461 came Portuguese researchers into the coastal strip; other European dealers followed them. Until approximately 1800 the area remained nevertheless to a large extent unconsidered up to isolated slave trade. The American congress issued a Charter for the “American Colonization Society” (American colonization and administration company for colonies) to 1816, which dedicated itself to the feedback of released slaves.
1821 created the American colonization and administration company for colonies Monrovia, one after James Monroe, the president of the USA, designated city, on a part of Sierra Leone, the England bought were. For this territory 1841 were discharged by the US Government a condition.
1847 explained the first Liberian congress its independence. Joseph J. Robert, the past governor became a first president. Political power remained at expense of the natives in the hands of the released slaves immigrated from the USA, who establish a kind “black” apartheid.
1848 took place the diplomatic acknowledgment of Liberia via Great Britain, 1852 the acknowledgment via France and finally 1862 also the acknowledgment via the USA. At 1870 one began in Liberia with the structure of a merchant fleet.
From 1883 to 1980 alone the “True Whig party” exercised the power, which was controlled by the ameriko Liberian elite. After the citizens of Berlin conference 1895 parts of the country had to be transferred to France. The today's borders of the country Liberia were thus determined in Berlin.
1926 were left to the US firms Firestone and Goodrich a part of the national territory for Gummiplantagen for 99 years.
1944 became William S. Tubman to the president of Liberia selected. Somewhat later the “Wirtschaftswunder” began less than 20 years, as if was enough ore and diamond occurrence were discovered. Their dismantling took place already short time later via US firms.
1971 became William R. Tolbert Liberian president. As also its predecessor Tubman it tried to integrate the African population in the hinterland socially. The rise of the price for rice released 1979 however demonstrations and unrests.
To 12. April 1980 took over main sergeant Samuel K. Doe with the military power. President Tolbert and members of its government were murdered. The condition was suspended, the state of emergency was imposed and political parties was forbidden. The USA recognized the new regime not on first. With the fall of president William R. Tolbert and the separation of the past a party rule of the “True Whig party” the country was governed for the first time of native Liberia. Tolbert was descendant of the 50,000 persons comprehensive minority of the Ameriko Liberianer.
The past close relationship to the USA by the Putsch were questioned. The USA use important Air Force and Marinebasen since the Second World War in Liberia. In addition radio mechanisms for the Voice OF America in Africa. Airplanes and ships in the Atlantic ocean were controlled by the Navigationseinrichtungen in the country. In addition the US secret service CIA in Liberia maintained the largest listening post for west Africa. Under US president Ronald Reagan was therefore carried out for strategic reasons an approximation to the Doe regime, despite the dominant force and corruption by the new ruling powers. Financial assistance kept Liberia abandoned from the USA also as Libyan and Soviet citizens 1980/81 the country had.
With the IWF an agreement was met a little later, after a democratization process had been announced. Although thereby the ameriko Liberian supremacy found an end, Doe copied their Patronagesystem. Immediately after the revolution an ethnical allocation of the guide functions had not taken place yet, however Doe brought in relatively short time prefers members of its own Ethnie (Khran) and the Mandigo in leading positions, during other groups of peoples, like e.g. the Gio and Mano in the Nimba County were excluded, as far as possible. Thus 15 took place to. October 1985 elections, with which opposition parties did not become certified, while the leader of the opposition sat in the prison in detention. Doe won the choice with 50,9% of the voices.
Already in November 1985 there was a Putschversuch. For retaliation for it the army in the Nimba County arranged a massacre. To 6. January 1986 was sworn in Samuel Doe under a new condition as president and a head of the government. In the following time corruption and nepotism economics and trade lähmten. Congress of US suspended the military aid for Liberia because of continuous offences of the regime.
to civil war
see also the major item Liberian civil war
in December 1989 came it to the civil war into Liberia. National the Patriotic front OF Liberia (NPFL) under Charles Taylor penetrated from the Ivory Coast to Liberia. The USA regaierten on intervention calls of Samuel Doe not and evacuated only the own citizens from Liberia. In the future the ECOMOG under stating the armed forces of Nigeria prevented a seizure of power Taylors. The ECOMOG sought thereby on urge of Nigeria consciously to keep Taylor away from power and gave up thereby its actually neutral position in this conflict.
In May 1990 the NPFL conquered the cities in the hinterland. In July the attack on Monrovia followed. It came however to splitting the rebel movement; Prince Yormie Johnson creates the INPFL (Independent national front OF Liberia). To 31. July 200 humans on a Lutheri mission were killed by government soldiers. To 9. September 1990 was murdered president Samuel Doe by INPFL. In November a provisional government under Amos Sawyer formed, for a right professor of the university of Liberia. The trailers Does, mainly Khran and Mandigo, created the ULIMO and began fight against the NPFL. The UN imposed an embargo over Liberia, it came to the food scarceness.
Until 1993 there were more than 150000 victims of the civil war. About one million refugees were in the country or in the neighboring countries, which corresponds to more than one third of the population of Liberia.
In March 1994 a Council of State, that transferred power from the group around Sawyer, which had been formed NPFL and the ULIMO. The Council of State agreed on a new government, in which the NPFL was not involved. Fights between the groups continued. Also engagements with troops of the ECOWAS.
In August 1995 in Abuja (Nigeria) a first peace agreement was closed. Charles Taylor in Monrovia and under it the NPFL was now the crucial power factor. In December one agreed upon an armistice between the seven groups of rebels. In addition the Council of State was extended; Charles Taylor became member. A new government was educated.
In April 1996 it came again to the civil war. There were particularly violent fights in the capital Monrovia. Thus here soon again large difficulties in the food and water supply arose. In August 1996 a renewed peace agreement was closed; as is the case for the first time in Abuja (Nigeria).
Ruth Perry became in September presiding the Council of State and thus as a first Mrs. in Africa state president. Observers stated that Nigeria represented own interests in the civil war by ECOWAS. Also some European companies were accused of weapons in the exchange against tropical wood and diamond to have supplied.
In January 1997 the ECOMOG accomplished measures to the disarmament and Demobilisierung. 18% the NPLF soldier were children: of it 69% between 15 and 17 years old, 27% between 12 and 14 years old. 21,315 fighters were demobilisiert, of it were 4306 children. To 19. July became Charles Taylor with 75,33% of the voices choice winners. The NPP (national Patriotic party) won 49 of 64 seats in the house of representatives. Charles Taylor became to 2. August as a new president of Liberia swears in. Few days later the condition was set from 1986 (changed in some points) again into force. One year later, to 18. July 1998, began a dreiwöchige conference to sketch with the goal a plan for Liberia until 2024. Participants were Liberianer, which live abroad, groups from Liberia and foreign partners.
To 19. September 1998 came it again to fights between government soldiers of the AFL (Armed Forces OF Liberia) and fighters of the “ULIMO-J “ Roosevelt Johnsons (United Liberian Movement for Democracy in Liberia Johnson) into Monrovia. Johnson looked for protection in the US embassy. Thereupon Taylors soldiers besieged embassy buildings. The army of the state consisted by the majority of former fighters of the NPFL. Altogether there were 52 dead ones on this day. 6 days later Johnson from the USA to Sierra Leone one went on a trip.
The catholic organization “justice and peace” (Justitia et Pax) endorsed an independent investigation of the fights in Monrovia in October. The organization of “physicians without borders “(“Medecins sans Frontières”) announced the locking of his main hospital in Monrovia in agreement with the Ministry of Health.
Murders, acts of violence and lawlessness in Monrovia increased in the following months. Archbishop Michael Francis of Monrovia deplored wide-spread injustice, murder and arbitrary arrests.
To 10. December asked the former leader rebel parliamentary group a Prince Yormie Johnson ECOWAS for switching between it and Charles Taylor. The government disclaimed meanwhile that child soldiers were trained in barracks with Monrovia.
To 15. Nigerian ECOWAS troops their retreat made of Liberia began January 1999. Refugees came a little later from Sierra Leone, in which likewise unrests prevailed, into Liberia on. In March two Liberian human right organizations before court, because of the statement, in four regions stood children as slaves were held.
To 9. April white the government ECOMOG accusations back, Liberia supports rebels in Sierra Leone. Already in January 1999 it had given similar accusations from Great Britain and the USA. To the African conference about “child soldier” to 22. April was accused of Liberia to recruit and use in Sierra Leone child soldiers. This accusation was rejected by the government of Liberia.
The catholic bishops demanded a dialogue for the solution of the national problems. The UN welcomed the decision of the government to destroy the weapons of the former rebel movements stored in the ECOMOG base.
To 9. June quit Taylor as date for the final departure of the ECOMOG to the 26. July on.
In August rebels in the north of the country occupied briefly some cities and villages and took hostages. The hostages (6 European development aids and 73 Liberianer) became after and/or. two days again released. There were strong fears because of the refugees from Sierra Leone in the north of the country, who came between the combat lines of the rebels and government troops. In the meantime the government, it announced the situation had again under control.
Liberia described reports from Guinea as nonsense, according to which Liberian soldiers are to have attacked three villages in the south of Guinea and kill 28 humans. To 5. Octobers were again opened the borders to Sierra Leone. With a symbolic destruction of weapons became to 18. October the conclusion of the general disarmament of the country celebrated.
To 19. November was appointed general Kpenkpah Konah the commander in chief of the armed forces. In December 1600 refugees returned from the Ivory Coast to Liberia.
At the 11. February 2000 was again opened also the border to Guinea.
In March publicly in question it was placed whether the debts (27 million dollar) of the former rebels under Taylor are to be counted to the foreign debts of the state.
The police a little later closed the independent radio station “star radio”, which was operated by Swiss NGO Fondation Hirondelle. A Kommuniqué of the government justified this with the reference that troublemakers abused the talking and Pressefreiheit of the country. Also radio Veritas was closed on the same day. To 21. All independent radio stations agreed to boycott March until further notice all government meetings. The newspapers appeared on weekend from protest with black title pages. Radio Veritas became to 22. March after discussions again certified.
With the expenditure of new notes the central bank of Liberia terminated to 29. March of two systems existing parallel for ten years.
In August 2003 civil war confusions persisting still led to the intervention of an African peacekeeping force. President Charles Taylor was forced to the resignation and went into the exile to Nigeria. Followed it at the 11. August vice-president Moses toe blow in the office after.
Equatorial Guinea |
Burkina Faso |
The Ivory Coast |
The Gambia |
Cape Verde |
Democratic Republic of the Congo |
Republic of the Congo |
The Niger |
São Tomé and Príncipe |
Sierra Leone |
South Africa |
The Sudan |
Central African republic
Other areas: Ceuta and Melilla | Kanari islands | Larva Irish Republican Army | Mayotte | Réunion | Pc. Helena | West seeing era