History of Scotland

the history of Scotland begins with settling Scotland by stone-temporal hunters and collecting tank after the last ice age and is strongly affected of history and development of England since the Middle Ages. In particular since the union with England in the united kingdom is Scottish historyto understand only together with the English.

The St Andrews cross, the national flag of Scotland

table of contents

Prähistori Scotland

after the end of the last ice age briskly a resettling of Scotland took place. It is assumed that on the search for huntable game humansfollowed the decreasing/going back glaciers. The numerous archaeological finds prove the fact that however humans in Scotland lived already before - over them can be stated however much less, as over it, what began after the large ice melt before approximately 12,000 years.

Steinzeit

Ausgrabung Skara Brae
excavation SkaraBrae

in the Mesolithikum (Mittelsteinzeit) settled between the sixth and fourth millenium v. Chr. first Fischer and Sammler in Scotland. They lived particularly on islands like for example Rum or in the coastal regions, at river courses or at the foot of protecting mountain-slopes. Origin and culture of theseHumans are not clarified until today.

In the Neolithikum (Jungsteinzeit) brought starting from approximately 4500 v. Chr. a further inflow crucial cultural innovations: Agriculture and cattle breeding. The remnants of stone houses ( 4000-2000 v., found with Skara Brae on Orkney. Chr.) are witnesses of this culture.

Mysteries giving way howbefore also the mystisch working stone circles of the Megalithkultur like for example the ring OF Brodgar or the Stones OF Stennes (both on Orkney) or the stone formations of Callanish on the Isle OF Lewis up. These places, between 3000 to approximately 2500 v. Chr. established,among other things as earlytemporal calendars are interpreted. Thus for example the moon rotating phase results in every 18.6 years a clear astronomical constellation at the famous ring of Callanish. From the there process ion road seen the moon over the surrounding hills arouses the impression, as if it in thatStone circle would go down.

Starting from approximately 3,000 v. Chr. developed the stone graves, Cairns , possibly mentioned for high-ranking personalities. The grave chambers in it were covered with whole hills made of earth and stones. Examples of this specific culture are the Maeshowe Cairn on Orkney, the Gray Cairns OF Camster southwest from Wick in the region Caithness and the Clava Cairns with Culloden, in close proximity to Inverness.

Steinkreis von Callanish)
Stone circle of Callanish)

to Bronzezeit

immigrating bell cup people brought starting from 2.500 v. Chr. new techniques, agricultural methods and social structures to Great Britain and therebyalso to Scotland. In the Bronzezeit the lying stone circles and the Hillforts develop in on-board he and Grampianregion, from the Highlands the something always differ.

In the Bronzezeit and in the Eisenzeit following on it (about 400 v. Chr. - 200 n. Chr.) played underother one the talents in metalworking an important role for the production of decoration, furniture and weapons. The latters were used not only for the hunt, but also in the fight. Numerous remnants of the first buildings of towers in the form of Brochs, those their beginning in the Bronzezeithad, occupy a strong Irish influence in many areas of northwest Scotland. Around the turn of an era the only late Broch of towers mentioned was continued to build. Lay close in exposed altitude, Hillforts so mentioned, demonstrated the readiness in the boron the region (Dunnidder) by its enormous extentsto keep the population also after the often only regional Christianisierung their old cult places. Piktensteine develop however increasingly also for CROSS lab cross stones mentioned, which look somewhat differently than Keltenkreuze and show beside the cross pre-Christian motives in the animal and knot style.

In place names is this Brochs,those the old gälische designation Dun or Carn in the name lead, today still beside the remnants present. Best example is the name Edinburgh, which from the old celtic designation “Dun Eidyn” is to have developed.

historical time

thoseRomans in Britannien

of 120 km long Hadrianswall was the border between Scotland and the Roman realm.

The Romans won a first view of the British islands after conquest Galliens by Julius Cäsar. In the year 43 of our time calculation emperor Claudius conquered the southernPart Britanniens; the Roman province Britannia existed then for 400 years. History Britanniens at this time is coined/shaped by a continuous expansion of Roman influence, on the basis of the south not only to Wales, but also mentioned to Scotland, from the Romans Caledonia.

About 80 n.Chr. the raid in today's southeast Scotland succeeded to the Roman governor Britannias, Gnaeus Iulius Agricola, inside. Along its conquest route Agricola built a set of camps and Forts, from which numerous traces are to be found as sketches also today still in Scotland. FirstBattle, which entered history of this country, was delivered from this time and by the Romans.

84 n. Chr. Agricola at the Mons Graupius struck at that time the for the first time united trunks of the Kaledonier destroying. After the descriptions of the Roman historian Ptolemäus the battleground is because of thatNortheast coast of Scotland. The place of the battle could not be identified however until today.

Emperor Hadrian wanted to have a bulwark at the same time after his attendance on the island against the numerous assaults of the Kaledonier and control, who crosses its border. Thus it left 123 n. Chr.the Hadrianswall on the Tyne - Solway - line (close at the today's English-Scottish border), strengthened with awake towers, castellets and Forts, establish.

138 n. Chr., only, its adoptive son and successor Antoninus Pius decided few months after Hadrians death for forward politics in Britannien. Ithis new governor Quintus Lollius Urbicus with the instruction sent to occupy southern Scotland again and to 160 km of far north a new barrier in the closest place of the province, the Forth Clyde Isthmus to build. It became an earth barrier with awake towers and Forts andthe northernmost defense of the entire Imperiums. Also today still numerous traces are to be seen by this Antoninuswall for example in Falkirk.

Many by the Romans before times built and with their departure the demolierten Forts and roads were repaired at that time. Around 142 n. Chr.aroundthe south of today's Scotland was again conquered. The new attachment barrier, Antoninuswall designated after the emperor, became first however only to 183 n. Chr. held.

Already since 142 n. Chr.it came despite the Roman protection barriers again and again to encroachments on Roman territory. The aggressorsunder any circumstances if member of an individual trunk was not, by the Romans however with the comprehensive term Pikten were occupied.

Although the Romans generally withdrew themselves thereafter behind the Hadrianswall, they came however 208 n. Chr. to a third raid with emperor Septimius Severus for however only a short one Time in the country.367 n. Chr. effected larger and for the first time formed attacks spades tables of the trunks over the Hadrianswall on the Roman garrisons (see in addition also the section of spades tables of wars in the article over the Pikten).

At the same time with the fall of the Roman realm on thatEuropean mainland began itself 383 n. Chr. to dissolve the province Britannia. The Truppenstärke in Britannia was very soon drastically reduced thereafter, which of the Pikten from Scotland, which Skoten from Ireland and celtic trunks from the western Britannien were used to raids. After departure thatin the year 410 the Roman culture continued to live last Roman putting ions only briefly, until it was replaced from the penetrating Saxonia and fishing rods. The Dark in such a way specified Ages (“darken time”) broke on.

Germanic trunks

only few member of the island peoples could reador write, so that the years between 400 n. Chr and 800 n. Chr dark age to be often called. It gives as well as no written recordings from that time. Legends and legends as for instance king of Arthur Tafelrunde have their origin in this time.

Despite the nearly four-hundred-year crew of the island the Romans, apart from buildings and articles, left little culture. More brutally and lastingly first their successors of the island pushed their stamp open. Germanic trunks, jutes, fishing rods and Saxonia, fell plündernd and murder-end in of thatRomans and the before-Roman coined/shaped celtic life suffocated abandoned area in wide ranges. In the consequence the new gentlemen based on the soil of the today's England and partly also Scotland sieve smaller kingdoms: The jutes Kent, the Saxonia Essex, Wessex and Sussexand the fishing rods Mercia, East Anglia as well as Deira and Bernicia, the later Northumbria. Latter extended itself of York the east coast up Edinburgh today's into the area . It became the largest kingdom on this many people island.

Christianisierung

nearlyat the same time with the change of power it came also to the widened Christianisierung of England and Scotland. The faith had been brought already by Christian Romans into the province and seeped from therefore into the daily life of the British, Gaelen and Pikten. At the southern coaststoday's Scotland bekehrten Irish monks first the Celts.

Whithorn, at the Solway Firth, became 397 n. Chr., already at times of the Romans, under pc. Ninian for the center of the mission work in Scotland. At the beginning the 5. Century of slave hunters from the regiontoday's Glasgow to Ireland kidnapped young Patrick could escape. He came into France with the Christian faith into contact, to the bishop was raised and 432 n. Chr. of Pope Coelestin I.due to its Sprachkenntnisse back to Ireland sent. There it missionierte clanand and the basis for a like a Christian coined/shaped culture, which is often and called falsely keltisch--Christian church, put trunks. There was no unmarried celtic church. But the early Gläubigen at the northwest edge of the world at that time had its own ways to the faith interpretation and - practice. Outthis faith basis came individual, independent church men, who cared for either the early Christian cells or heidnische trunks missionierten like pc. Ninian in Whithorn, pc. Miren in Paisley, pc. Mael Rubha at the hole Maree, pc. Mungo in Glasgow, pc. Conval, in Renfrewshire, pc. Ethernan on the islandMay, St. Cuthbert in Melrose, pc. Machar in Aberdeen and pc. Columba on Iona. 563 n.Chr. this monk with a small crowd of other monks on the Hebriden island Iona, originating from an Irish king house , landed. He came to his gaelischen, Christian compatriots into Dalriada,and probably it from there out also parts of west Scotland christianisierte. Whole today's Scotland was so already bekehrt at the beginning of the respected century. The influence Ionas expanded however soon also to the south and over the borders.

Lindisfarne Castle auf Holy Island
Lindisfarne Castle on Holy Iceland

Pc. Aidan, one of the most well-known contemporaries pc. Columbas, became one of its most eager and most successful successors. Coming from Iona, he created the monastery Lindisfarne with the help of the northumbrischen king Oswald on an island lain before the east coast of the today's England (Holy Iceland with Newcastle).Lindisfarne became the Urzelle of several other late still more important monasteries such as Hartlepool and Whitby in the northeast of England. Lindisfarne and Hartlepool affected also in Germany admitted monk Bonifatius; with it and other one like Gallus the Christianisierung Central Europe and also „the German country began”.The Gebeine of the Bonifatius rests also in the cathedral to Fulda. Thus humans of the church of this celtic period over Fulda and pc. have. Gallen and „the Scot monasteries in such a way specified”, for example in Regensburg and peppering castle, their traces also in Germany and inAlpine region leave.

the Pikten

was generally accepted for many centuries the Pikten, which have the largest requirement on it, as ancestors of the modern Scots to be regarded of penetrating powers of the Skoten, Britonen, fishing rods and Wikinger was totally destroyed. In the meantimespeak many signs against this acceptance.

At the time, as it 297 n.Chr. for the first time in the Roman writings, inhabited the Pikten all country emerged north of the today's Stirling and Aberfoyle. Archaeologists found however still earlier traces of spades tables settlements. The Piktenv. were probable as a result of the melting glaciers around the sixth millenium. Chr. on the British island come. That would make it the actual natives of this area and Scotland altogether. They were then probable it, those around the first millenium v. Chr. early settler trunksformed.

The Romans were probably well-known these trunks in the northern Britannien. Some their master names by Ptolemäus, the alexandrinischen geographer and son-in-law Agricolas were delivered. For future generations very informative however the Roman putting ions did not occupy for the sake of simplicity all their northernEnemies with the same name, i.e. that of the most powerful celtic trunk in the first century n. Chr. - the Kaledoniern. Their area lay about around the mountain Schiehallion in the center today's Scotland and around its base Dunkeld .

Gradually the Pikten seems itself in largerGroupings under the upper rule of a monarch to have together-found. In this time they fought both against the Romans and against the southern Celts - in addition, against each other. From the silver, which they captured from the Romans or were captivated with that them, became forwardsunite years a large treasure in East Lothian found, which is issued today in the new Scottish national museum.

All aforementioned kingdoms were changed slowly by new invaders, who penetrated into the northern Britannien. Around 300 n. Chr. Piraten came from Ireland. These gälischsprachigen Irish settled themselvesfinally in the today's Argyll in the west on and there 6 based in. Century the Kingdom of Dalriada (Dal Riata). In the sieved century the Pikten opposed however more and more penetrating the gälischen Dalriadianer.

Kenneth MacAlpin, the skotische king of Dalriada, left itself over 843 finally also the king of the Pikten appoint. For the first time with it the two peoples were united, and over the largest part of today's Scotland an alone dominant king governed. This region was called first Alba, and Kenneth like also the following kings became in the following60 years still as “kings of the Pikten” designates. In the scarcely two hundred years following on it Alba was governed by a whole set of kings. The follow-up was decided by the tradition of the Tanistry, i.e., a member of the royal family became first thisOffice of the new king determines.

Among the successors Kenneth MacAlpins fused the Pikten and the Skoten slowly to a uniform people.

dark age

starting from that 7. Century gave it in Scotland four realms, which constantly lay with one another in the Clinch: The realmthe Pikten lay in the eastern high country. The Skoten or Gaelen immigrated from Northern Ireland („Scoti” after an expression of Beda Venerabilis from that 8. Century) lived in Dalriada, in the western high country and on the Hebriden.

Two that realms became up-pulled from from EnglandTrunks based. The Britannier, which came from Wales, had established itself in the Kingdom of Strathclyde - in the area today's Glasgow -. The fishing rods controlled all country north of York in England to highly up to the Firth OF Forth the river Humber. Itthe largest realm was in the area today's England and sat down together from the kingdoms Deira and Bernicia and included with Lothian the southeast today's Scotland. After the legend the fishing rod king is Edwin (7. Century) possibly also the name giver of Edinburgh.

In late 8. The peoples in the today's Scotland and North England of problems got century - contemporaneous with the extension of the Franconia realm on the continent by Karl the large one, who subjected the Saxonia - from the outside: From Scandinavia the Wikinger (north men, Normannen) penetrated intoCountry. They established bases at the coasts of the mainland and on the Shetlandinseln, on Orkney and the Hebriden to down to the Isle OF one. From there from plünderten it monasteries and the surrounding country in Ireland, England and in the northwest and northeastHigh country. With the time the Normannen, quasi as a fifth race, became an enormous cultural and political factor in the north and northwest of Scotland.

The first king, who had some authority in areas south the river Forth, was Konstantin II. It became however 937 ina battle against the fishing rods struck and its successor Malcolm I. became. struck 937 Malcolm the king Athelstan of Wessex.

Under Malcolm II. became the kingdom Alba 1018 after the battle with Carham at the Tweed a part of the anglo-saxon Northumbria, south of the today'sEdinburgh to to the Tweed, attached. That is practically the area of the today's Borders. Same happened after death Malcolms 1034 also in the west. His grandson Duncan I. already was king of the originally britonischen Strathclyde, and it was it then, both kingdomsin his person einte. 1034 were for the first time the entire country, with exception of the islands, but including the high country north of Edinburgh and Glasgow, under a crown. Up to the areas occupied by the Wikingern this Kingdom OF Scotia covered itself nearly alsothe today's national borders.

Scottish unit and independence

Kingdom of Scotland

the new kingdom was everything but a strengthened unit. To be governed in principle only the southeast - the Lowlands - could, there this region already early after the Anglo-NormanLeaning nature was organized. In the Highlands however the patriarchalen clan structures of celtic origin held themselves. Because of the continuing bloody assaults of the Wikinger and the arguments with high land clan could the Scottish rulers only with trouble their independence opposite the English neighbours maintain.

Duncan I., Grandchildrenand successors of the realm founder Malcolm II., 1040 in a battle Macbeth was subject to his cousin. The notorious Macbeth (geb. about 1005) had a likewise entitled requirement for throne due to its origin at that time such as Duncan. Macbeth very successfully governed Scotland over 17 years (1040-57) and strengthenedits position still by its marriage with Gruoch, the granddaughter Kenneth III.

Its son Lulach from first marriage took over 1057, even if only for one year, the Scottish throne. 1054 were then struck Macbeth not far by Scone by the Duncans' son Malcolm. In oneother battle it was killed 1057 with Lumphanan ( in close proximity to Aberdeen). After his death its opponent mounted Malcolm III. Canmore (1058-93) the Scottish throne. It created twelve years later with his Mrs. Margareta one of the most important dynasties in medieval history of theCountry.

Margaret was a sister of the legitimate Saxonian successor to the throne of England (Harald?). On the escape before the normannischen conquerer William had landed it 1066 together with its brother in Scotland. With its eight children this family introduced a fundamental turn in Scottish history.Margarets influence led to a strong Normannisierung of Scotland. Trade, handicraft and the arts received important impulses, and within the cultural and above all religious range changed much. Not longer the celtic church of the holy Columba (Culdees) was clay-indicating - from now on the Roman took its placeChurch.

Malcolm and its oldest son were killed 1093 in a battle against the Englishmen with Alnwick. After Scotland throne the sons Edmund, Edgar, Alexander I. followed after some confusions and the intervention of the English king in the 30 years following on it. and David I.

The blossoming England, welded together from celtic Urvolk, fishing rod Saxonia and Normannen, regarded itself increasingly as superior and the peoples beyond its borders superordinate. Thus England won through skillfully arranged marriages with the Scottish king house ever more influence on the country in the north of the island.Alexander I. for example a illegitime daughter of Heinrich I. married. by England, and David married Mathilda, the daughter of the count von Northumbria.

Scotland experienced under David I. (1124-53), the youngest son Malcolms III., a relatively peaceful period. Many cities, which developed at that time, one became Royal Charter lent or it even to free cities were raised. David continues the reform work of its pious nut/mother Margaret, which was holy spoken later mainly for the introduction of the Roman church to Scotland, consistently and successfully. It arranged the country again into Diözesen andPfarreien (lay and religious allocation were identical). David was one of the most eager monastery founders in the history of Scotland. That had above all a practical background: Monasteries were at that time the only educational facilities. They employed Klerus and administrative specialists and were germ cells of agricultural innovations.

By its relationship with thatEnglish king house was David I. one of the largest land owners in the England at that time, so that it could mix together strongly in the English policy. In the English succession to the throne controversy it took for example 1138 a party for its sister, by marching into England simply - the decisive battle in the proximityfrom York it lost however. It entered British history as the battle of the banners (1138).

1157 had David's grandchild, Malcolm IV. „the virgin one” (1153-1165), Northumbria at Henry II.transfer. Malcolm was politically weak and inefficient, and like that it was not a miracle thatthe Scottish princes and Chiefs in the high country against the king revolted themselves. In the low country the normannischen noble ones preferred a weak ruler and gave thus Malcolm cover.

Malcolms brother William I., mentioned “the lion” (1165-1214), began to break in 1174 in England, in order to back-conquer the lost areas.The enterprise failed, William was imprisoned taken and into normandy brought. There it was forced to sign the contract from Falaise to Scotland of the English leaning rule subordinated and Northumbria again as English possession confirmed.

Only its son Alexander II.(1214-1249) it succeeded thenBeginning 13. Century to repair the royal authority interior and with regard to foreign policy. it recognized 1217 his brother-in-law, the English king Heinrich III. opposite the line between Tweed and Solway as Scottish south border on thereby he lost the rich Scottish properties on English soil.Alexander II. was it in addition, which proceeded for the first time against for several centuries the Wikinger living on the western islands. It died during this campaign on the island Kerrera before Oban.

Its son Alexander III. then the Wikinger in the battle struck with Largs in the year 1263 finally. During his relatively long reign humans began to finally see itself as a people of the Scots. The peace let the economy blossom, the monetary value rose, and with the prosperity a kind developed “golden age” in Scotland. From its firstBefore Alexander had two sons and a daughter. When however all three died within fewer years, he married a second time.

But the prophecy of the fortune-teller Thomas the Rhymer soon already fulfilled itself: Alexander fell 1286 with Kinghorn into Fife of the cliffs andMargarete, did not leave inheriting to the daughter of the Norwegian king Eric except its granddaughter.

Margarete of Scotland, later admits than The Maid OF Norway, became after the death of its grandfather than small girl and last survivors from the direct line of Malcolm III. Canmoreas a first Scottish queen recognition. On the way to its coronation/culmination four years later it however 1290 on the stormy passage from Norway died to Scotland. Scotland had now no more monarch, and so the time first began a climbing play inter+rain around, around succession to the throneand power.

There were several applicants around the Scottish throne, lay and church princes could however no agreement find. Thus the brother-in-law Alexanders III. became, the English king Edward I., in the succession to the throne controversy to the arbitrator called. The two relevant throne applicants were Robert Bruce, grandfatherlater Robert I., and John Balliol. Edward votierte for John Balliol, which was crowned 1292 to the Scottish king. With him Edward assumed a willfährige puppet of English interests to have.

As England and Edward I. led four years late war against France.of the Scots military assistance required, refused Balliol him the support. Edward made short process, marched for 1296 into Scotland, slaughtered the population of Berwick upon Tweed and forced John Balliol and the aristocracy and the high Klerus to the surrender. They all had Edward as upper rulers(overlord) recognize from Scotland. Scotland came under English right and English administration. Balliol was eingekerkert in the Tower to London and banished later to France. That was the beginning second inter+rain around.

This Tiefpunkt in Scottish history called for the first time substantial resistancein Scotland out and the education of its own Scottish national identity provoked. Scotland closed a contract with France for mutual support against the common enemy England: The Auld Alliance, which should be later still repeated for Scotland by great and often also fateful importance.

the wars of independence

William „kind of good marriage “Wallace, copper pass from that 17. or 18. Century

the first heroische figure on the way to the Scottish independence from England was not noble: William Wallace. Wallace began 13 in the nineties . Century with others, howfor example the prince Andrew Moray to attack English units. In addition it came that an English Sheriff had accepted, then, had killed Wallaces woman, because this had help him to the escape before English soldiers. Thus still another strong personal motive stepped to its Patriotismus. Itat the beginning of an open rebellion was against the strange ruling powers.

After several and skirmishes even succeeded Wallace would attack 1297 together with Moray in the battle of Stirling Bridge a spectacular military success. There at the bridge over the Forth it destroyed with approximately 10.000Knights doubles superior and feared armed force Edward I..

The not-noble Wallace was honoured by the Scots and appointed „the Guardian OF Scotland”. Later however it was missing to it at further support by the usually normannischen aristocracy. Too often these noble ones had properties also in Englandand these did not want through for Wallace to endanger. Thus the insurgent Scots were struck 1298 - only one year after Stirling Bridge - in the battle by Falkirk of Edward.

Because of these and other heavy defeats, which this king taught to the Scot, is EdwardI. under the surname „the hammer of the Scots” entered national history. After Falkirk William Wallace could flee, but seven years later he was told by a compatriot, imprisoned taken and in a public procedure to 23. August 1305 in London in cruelest way executed. William Wallace became in the consciousness of the Scots the martyr and under its honour name kind of good marriage the first Scottish national hero.

Only Robert I., later than Robert the Bruce admits and a contemporary Wallaces, could the Scottish power vacuum fill. He became its successor in thatGuidance and in the fight for Scottish independence. Robert left itself to 25. March 1306 in Scone to the king of the Scots crown. The parliament had met, and for it power had demanded: That was completely clearly specified in the Declaration OF Arbroath - only seemed themselvesto want not to remind the following monarchs of it any longer. This will demonstration was put on 1320 after the dreadful years second inter+rain around and the wars of independence.

At that time humans had that still clearly under impression of English occupation and the spell, the church over the kingand largest hero of Scotland - Robert the Bruce - imposed, had confessed. Thus most prominent Scottish personalities in the abbey of Arbroath had met, a sense explanation in best and most polished latin had written and them at Pope Johannes XXII.sent. In this communist manifesto hadthe Führungsschicht of the country - land gentlemen and princes, high citizens and the entire church authority - their determination to defend the independence of Scotland stresses.

They had wanted simultaneous to support Robert also further - it was, it became the enemies of the country (thus onfirst place the English king) bend. This „declaration of Arbroath” never reached the admitting heating degree like the famous Magna Carta, which was forced upon 1215 - scarcely 100 years before - by the English authority to the there king John and submitted for signing.

Because of the murderat its cousin and its former loyalty to Edward I. distrusted to it the Scottish aristocracy and refused to it the support, so that Robert was make and landless king. It was struck several times by Edward and had to finally flee even to Ireland.

At 1307 beganto back-conquer it its realm. Into small skirmishes it reached the Englishmen again and. Its Guerillataktik was successful and brought in for it with the time the respect and the support of the Scottish noble ones. His ore enemy Edward I. died in the same year.

To 23. and 24. June 1314 celebrated Robert the Bruce its largest military success: In the argument around Stirling Castle, the last castle in Scotland, held by Englishmen, became seven years later the enormous English army in the historical battle at the small brook Bannockburn, that Battle by Bannockburn, reamed by the Scots so well completely. Approximately 8,000 Scots under the guidance of Robert the Bruce defeated those about 24,000 Englishmen under Edward II.. The unexpected victory over Edward II. guaranteed the complete acceptance of Robert I. asKing in the own country.

After the trauma of the wars of independence made 1320 clear their king the free ones and powerful ones of the realm however that it could not act perfectly arbitrarily: In the Declaration OF Arbroath explained it that they would support him only so long, like it thoseRight one of the nation to protect was ready.

As the first of its kind at all in medieval Europe this serious declaration of intention a moving document and the answer of a suppressed nation to the policy of many stronger powers, which wanted to limit their liberty, is only quite as well as an eloquent expressionScottish consciousness for an own national identity. Scotland emphasizes itself thereby under the other European nations, in whose self understanding the Gottesgnadentum of the crown was fundamental, singularly.

The war between England and Scotland still stopped, but became 1328 - 14 years after Bannockburn- the independence of Scotland by English king the Edward III. in the agreement so mentioned recognition by Edinburgh and Northampton. Robert the Bruce died 1329. His son king David II. , only five years old, to the king of Scotland one proclaimed.

The Englishmen could however stilldo not forget the schmähliche defeat with Bannockburn. They joke ores now morning air and encouraged Edward Balliol, son luckless John of the Balliol to seize as Gegenkönig after the Scottish crown. The young David II. had to flee in the allied France.

Edward Balliol became however from royalist,Scottish prince hunts, and thus the way for David was again free. Arisen and matured returned, David occurred then to 1346 among other things with French troops in England and came thereby into shank.

Robert Stewart - by its nut/mother Marjorie Bruce a grandchild of RobertI. - was the nephew of David II. Its father had transferred the office of his Vorväter - lord High Steward OF Scotland - to his names (the lord High Steward is also today still one of the highest representatives of the crown). For the time, during Davidin England, transferred Robert the Regierungsgeschäfte was kept imprisoned in its name. By the payment of an astronomically high ransom at England it made the return to the throne for it possible. Scotland suffered completely thereafter from an enormous fiscal charges. As David II.1371 childless, left he diedhis successor Robert II. a Scotland weakened by deliveries, hunger emergencies and plague epidemic diseases.

the Stewarts

with Robert II. 1371 entered for the first time a member of the house Stewart the political stage. It began the king dynasty, those over 350 years long on the Scottishand later also on the English throne sat. The Stewarts steered the country in the Middle Ages by most difficult driving water. Nearly everything of them came already as a child or as a baby on the throne, but only few died a natural death.

Robert II. was with itsAccession already 55 years old and could cause much for its country no longer. It was considered as a weak king. Also his son John, that as Robert III. the throne 1390 mounted, no large political successes had granted.

There Robert III. by an accident partlywas, the Regierungsgeschäfte were noticed by his brother, the first duke of Albany. This killed later probably even its own nephew - the oldest son of Robert and Thronfolger - to only receive in order for itself power. In this difficult time 1414 became in pc. The Andrew's first university of Scotland based.

Robert's son James I. if 1406 became the legal king of Scotland, Henry IV. stayed at the time however in shank at the yard of the English king. Only 1424 it returned to Scotland. James succeeded it duringits reign to hold rivaling high land clan and the influential lords OF the the Isles in chess to renew as well as the Auld Alliance with France. 1437 it was murdered.

As James II. its son came 1437 with seven years on the throne. The rose wars, thosein this time in England as succession to the throne wars between the prince houses York and Lancaster raved, weakened the southern neighbour. The beneficiary the peace in the Scottish realm and granted a small breathing space to the economy for upswing. In its reign 1451 became - after pc. Andrew's - thosesecond university in Glasgow based. Thus there were many higher educational establishments in Scotland exactly the same as in England with Oxford and Cambridge.

James II. 1460 on the high point of its power died. Its son, James III., married 1486 Margaret of Denmark and could on thesePoint the Orkneys and Shetlands again in the Scottish kingdom integrate. James III. Reign was characterised by fights relating to domestic affairs against the Scottish aristocracy. After the battle from Sauchieburn it became at the 11. June 1488 of a wrong priest murders.

The son of the unpopular James III.IV. came in the age of 16 years as James. on the throne. Under its regency the country recovered in 15. and 16 beginning. Century economically and culturally. James IV. was with regard to foreign policy. less successfully: For political reasons he married Margaret Tudor, the sister Henrys VIII.. Due to the old alliance with France (Auld Alliance) it turned however against Henry VIII. and in the battle by Flodden Field one struck and one killed. Its son had been born 1512 in Linlithgow and only 17 months old, asit its father as James V. in the year 1513 after the throne followed.

Scotland had been always already a small and poor country at the edge of the diplomatic stage of Europe. But although the country could play only one satellite role, it was in Europe at that time a decisiveQuestion, in whose political sphere of influence - England, France or Spain - Scotland belonged. In the eyes of France and Spain Scotland was a basis, from which one could attack the ore enemy England of behind jerk (best example of such an attack is Flodden). England again regarded Scotlandas one „safety locks”.

Since beginning of the reformation there was church element in these international relations beside the political also still another. Large parts today's Germany and Scandinavia to center of the 1530er of the Roman-catholic church had loose-said themselves years. Because the Pope the divorceby his Mrs. Katharina von Aragón , separated 1534 then also the English king Henry VIII. did not accept. of Rome.

Thus understandable considerations aimed off in Rome at the question whether and how Scotland could be brought still under the papal influence. Thus that becamePerhaps country in the north Britanniens an important base for the Gegenreformation under the guidance of Spain or France its, because from there out could be back-conquered England for Rome. On the other hand England was anxious, common with Scotland a Protestant Great Britain than counterweight to Roman-catholic powers of theTo form continent.

Henry VIII. therefore offered to the young James V. its daughter Mary (late Mary „the catholic one” or „Bloody Mary”) to the woman on. That would have probably drastically changed - if James would have assumed - the process of history between England and Scotland, but itrejected. James knows beyond that the further English suggestions back and decided instead to bring Scotland into the French-papal camp. Apart from its search for a rich dowry that was one of the reasons for its marriages with two Französinnen.

In January 1537 he marriedLarva line, daughter of the French king François I., which died however in the July of the same yearly. Shortly thereafter James took Marie de Guise in second marriage to the woman.

To 24. November 1542 came it in the southwest of the country to the battle on Solway Moss against itsUncle Henry VIII., with which the Scottish armed forces were destroying struck. Only few days after the battle James V. died, and its only legitimate child, the straight times six days old Mary, became its successor.

Mary Queen OF Scots

Maria Stuart

Major item: Maria Stuart

after their birth was promised already briefly small Maria Stuart by its regent Arran the young English prince Edward. The promise was explained by the Scottish parliament for invalid, what to a new war with England and 1547 to the catastrophic defeat thatScottish army with Pinkie in close proximity to Edinburgh led.

Meanwhile the child Mary was hidden and to 7. August 1548 finally brought in the allied France in security. The contract closed over it planned that it the oldest son of the French king Henri II.andhis Mrs. Katharina von Medici to marry should.

To 24. April 1558 married the educated young woman as agrees upon the French Crown Prince François. It was induced then to sign a secret agreement in that it insured, their Scottish kingdom as well as its requirement on the EnglishThrone to France to surrender, should die it childless.1559 died king Henri II., and Marys man became as François II. inthronisiert. Already one year later died the young king due to an illness.

Now Maria Stuart was unwanted in France and in Scotland was urgently used.Thus it left France and reached to 14. August 1561 Edinburgh. For the time being Mary let the Regierungsgeschäfte keep running simply. It insisted however on, its own exercising catholic religion further which caused the distrust of John Knox and other Reformatoren. Under the guidance of their advisor and half brother James Stewart, count von Moray bereiste it the north of Scotland, in order to suffocate the opposition against it in the germ.

Mary became the kings of Sweden, Denmark and France, the ore duke Karl of Austria, Don of Carlo of Spain, the dukes of Ferrara, Namur and Anjou, the Earl OF Arran and the Earl OF Leicester as potential married men suggested. Finally however it fell in love very suddenly 1565 with its cousin Henry Stewart, lord Darnley, the son of the count Lennox. The two became to 19. July 1565 in Holyrood Palace trusted. The marriage ceremony led to a short, fast struck down rebellion under the guidance of Moray and Hamilton. Despite initial doubts Maria did not let its married man Darnley seize after the crown.

After Morays rebellion became her secretary David Riccio its main advisor. Ricciothat was initially even friendly rapidly with Darnley, but changed, when Darnleys of desires were not fulfilled. Darnley saw the largest obstacle on its way to the throne in Riccio and forged together with the Scottish counts Moray, Ruthven, Morton and other Protestanten a Komplott.In the evening 9. They penetrated and erstachen March 1566 together into the dining-room of the queen in the palace of Holyroodhouse Riccio in the anteroom.

To 19. June 1566 was born Maria Stuarts son James in Edinburgh Castle. At the time of its baptism to 17. December 1566the divorce between Mary and Darnley was publicly discussed. Shortly thereafter Darnley at the smallpox got sick. At the night to 10. February 1567 flew the house, in which this was accommodated during its illness, by a gun powder explosion to air.

The main wire-puller of this climbing play was very probably the Mary very devoted James Hepburn, count Bothwell. He was accused the murder, however again acquitted. Later the same Bothwell the queen on their way from Stirling caught and kidnapped straight once twelve days to Edinburgh off it on its castle after Dunbar.

At the 3. May, thus only few daily later, could be separated Bothwell from its wife. To 12. May assigned Mary to their kidnapper publicly, by raising it to the duke from Orkney. Again three days later, and straight once three months after thatMurder of their man, married Mary this man.

Because of this marriage its before faithfully resulted in noble ones demanded its resignation. When also its own army turned against it, itself Mary had to 15. June 1567 result in. It became from its own princes on an island in Hole Leven imprisoned set. To 24. July signed it their resignation in favor of its son, that from now on as a king James VI. governed.

Still to 1573 you fought each other still devoted princes and those in Scotland, who stood on the side of their son. Only afterthe case of Edinburgh Castle an end of the civil war was to be foreseen.

To 2. May 1568 succeeded it to Mary to escape from hole Leven. Again she stated an army of 6000 faithful ones, became however to 13. May with long-simmers, in close proximity to Glasgow, destroying struck. Mary fled after Carlisle, where she wanted to please her cousin, queen Elizabeth von England, for support.

Elizabeth Tudor felt however threatened by Maria Stuart. As a daughter Henrys VIII.it was Protestant and by many English catholics was not supported -this regarded Mary Stuart, the catholic great-granddaughter Henrys VII., as a legitimate successor to the throne.

Therefore Mary was finally locked up in the 19 years after its escape by faithful Vasallen the Elizabeth in the English castles in Carlisle, Bolton, Chatsworth, Sheffield, Buxton, Chartley and Fotheringhay. The strained situationled to several conspiracy; finally the Babington in such a way specified Plot, which among other things the murder of Elizabeth and release Marys planned, was uncovered and Mary were accused of of the connivance. Their in September 1586 in England the high treason process was made and the expected death sentencebecame to 25. October expressed. At the 1. February 1587 signed Elizabeth the execution document, and to 8. February 1587 was cut back Maria Stuart, Queen OF the Scots.

union with England (17.Jahrhundert)

personnel union and civil war

James, that against the execution of itsNut/mother only for the sake of the form protested had, held back itself also in things religion in Scotland diplomatically. In order not to endanger also further its requirements for throne as related childless Elizabeth von England, it agreed 1586 even the contract of Berwick. The present Treaty was inProtection alliance against France, the centuries-old partner of Scotland.

With the death of Elizabeth James VI. mounted 1603. as more directly related and descendant of Heinrich VII. English throne and thereby king became James I. of England. Both countries became from now on in a personnel union of a monarchgoverned, kept however own parliaments, separate administrative and right natures as well as their own national church.

After the accession James' centered itself the political life from now on around English London. The king pulled with his entire yard state of Edinburgh there and turned only only once(1617) to Scotland back. The pompöse English yard was more attractive for it than the more modest yard of Scotland. James tried to occupy offices which can be assigned again evenly with Englishmen and Scots and to get a larger union going of the two states. Understandably these attempts methowever with the political elite of England on little approval and stopped in the initial stages.

James' second son Charles I. one bore in Dunfermline, in Scotland, buildup however in England and was during its accession 1625 with Scottish conditions not muchtrusted. Its oldest brother Henry, the actual Crown Prince, died 1612 at the age of 18 years. The sister Elizabeth married the German Friedrich, cure prince of the Pfalz. This again became the böhmischen king Friedrich V.selected, however one year later and at the beginning of the dreissigjährigen war(1618 - 1648) exile forced and “the winter king “entered into German history under the title.

Charles introduced the Royal Mail, made themselves among other things however by high taxes, other deliveries and unpopular by its extravaganten life-style extremely.The largest problems in handling Scotland prepared however its complete holding to the Gottesgnadentum of the crown for it as well as its attempt, the episkopale anglikanische church order in already since 1560 calvinistisch reformed Scotland to intersperse, in that the Church OF Scotland a bischöfliche hierarchy in favor of the presbyterialen church conditionrejected.

John Knox

of the Unwille of the people over it showed up clearly in the riot in of Edinburgh pc. Giles'. When the new Liturgie was introduced for the first time there, that caused the anger of the municipality reformed by John Knox. A part left the church and protested before it loudly- finally even chairs are to have flown, and the bishop had to flee in a borrowed Kutsche neck over head. The whole culminated 1638 in the fact that the reformed Scottish aristocracy and the middle class in national the Covenant in such a way specified united. In this explanation it recognizedclearly and clearly the lay rule of the king on. They demanded however with reproduction the independence of the new, reformed church from lay influences and the abolishment of the old hierarchies in favor of a Presbyteriums. The members of the movement called themselves since then “Covenanters “.

1638 used theseinfluential group the general assemblies of the Scottish national church (under the moderator Alexander Henderson) and the Scottish parliament, in order to abolish the bishop nature - in Scotland a revolution in air lay.

Something similar of resistances Charles I. discovered. also in England. Here it governed as an absolute sovereignsince 1629 even without it uncomfortable the parliament. But exactly this parliament had it 1640 to again call up, in order to finance calculated the fight of religious unrests in Scotland. From the old differences between the king and the English parliament in England very soon that was inflamed Civil war, which persisted from 1642 to 1648. In its process the puritanisch dominated English parliament uses the again created new Model Army under olive Cromwell (1599 - 1658) against the king. This army was for the first time in British history a professional army,of convicition-faithful of the parliament consisted.

In the summer 1643 the English parliament signed one „Solemn League and Covenant”. This act obligated it opposite the Covenanters, over the Scottish assistance against the Royalisten sake to introduce the Presbyterianismus also to England and Ireland and to it alsoto pay still another high sum of money.

Meanwhile formed in Scotland under James Graham, which count von Montrose, a Royalistenstreitmacht in the Highlands, which fought the Covenanters bitterly, the support of the Lowlands attained and with the defeat king were however never dissolved.

First the majority of the Scots fought thus for the thing of the English parliament, but changed, when Charles of the Scottish army resulted. It rejected it however to establish the presbyterianische church in England and so the Scots handed their king over to thosePuritaner. They should repent that however soon, because the Englishmen left Charles to 30. January 1649 before Whitehall execute. The actually royalist Scots were in such a manner frightened over the execution of the king that they briefly proclaimed its son in Edinburgh thereafter to the king and to 1. January 1651 in Scone inthronisierten. Charles II. the last king should be, who was crowned there.

The coronation/culmination brought olive Cromwell also in Scotland on the plan: he struck 1650 /51 with its elite troops, the Ironsides, the Scots first with Dunbar andthen later again with Worcester in England. Charles fought at the point of the Scottish army, but after its defeat in Worcester he had to flee on an adventurous escape abroad. Scotland was occupied thereafter by Cromwell.

Until 1654 its general Monk suffocated also the latterroyalistischen resistance in the high country. Altogether the occupation of Scotland lasted up to the death of olive Cromwells (1658). Although Cromwells son began the follow-up of its father, he had inherited not its personality and ability of getting through and had long not been set off. The parliament called up again by Monk provided forthe restoration of the monarchy, by inviting Charles to also mount now English throne.

Killing Time

after its declaration of Breda in the year 1660, in which he promised freedom of religion for everyone, became Charles II. in London inthronisiert and brought thenboth Kingdoms of the peace. Although it was reserved in religious affairs first, Charles regarded however the extreme party of the Covenanters in Scotland as threat of its there authority.1662 he recalled the Covenant signatory by him first against-striving and set for it in the church the episcopacy.

Charles entered never again Scottish soil. Instead it left itself there by John Maitland, which represent duke of Lauderdale. To likewise intersperse this tried with reproduction the episcopacy in Scotland. The result was that it particularly in the Dumfries lying in the southwestand Galloway to bloody arguments came. There were two rebellions 1666 and 1679 ( the Pentland Rising and the battle with Bothwell Bridge) - they were bloodily struck down both.

The trailers of the Covenants met in Konventikeln, in private houses or even in the open airServices held and partly even from armed men were guarded. On the side there were the moderately reformed royalist ones, on the other one the extreme, reformed trailers of the Covenant. Lauderdale was replaced finally from the brother of the king, James , duke of York, and thatKing house tried to bring the church under control by law - the test in such a way specified act of 1681 -.

This attempt and the associated pursuit of the Presbyterianer culminated in a time of dreadful fights and blood baths. It entered history as the KillingTime - which „years of killing” -, which reached their high point between 1681 and 1689 and so that over the death of Charles outside persisted. In its historical novel Ringan Gilhaize (1823) describes John applied very drastically over three generations - from the reformationup to „the Killing Time” - the time of religiously motivated tumults in Scotland.

Charles II. died without legitimate descendants to 6. February 1685. In England it - particularly with the simple people - had been popular. He was a friend of the arts and becamegenerally as the most capable Stuart king recognition. Charles was however an through-trieven politician. It had to recognize the ability, when the correct moment had come for compromises, in addition, for inconsiderate reaching through.

The duke of York mounted 1685 as James II.English throne and becamethus James VII. in Scotland. Extremely able and likewise popular, he, after whom New York was by the way designated , committed however a large error, when it tried, Great Britain to rekatholisieren.

As then its only son James, the future successor to the throne from second marriage, then also still catholic, feared the majority of the English Protestanten a long-term dominance of the catholicism was baptized by a further catholic king house of the Stuarts.

glorious revolution

in the Glorious revolution of 1688 decided the English parliament in London with the majority of the Whigs, JamesVII. to set off and the Protestant daughter from James - Mary - and their Protestant married man William from Oranien, governor of the Republic of that filters combined the Netherlands to offer the throne in English history Wiliamanmary - William and Mary mentioned. After this unblutigen revolution fledJames VII. in the French exile. The Scottish parliament in Edinburgh recognized William likewise as a king on, it succeeded to it in the consequence, like the English parliament to mehren its rights. So it had to be called up from now on regularly and introduced the Presbyterianismus again as national church.

In the Scottish Highlands however the support of the legal Stuart king was still very large. William let the hesitating Clanchiefs of the high country under pressure a loyalty oath swear on the flag, what by most only extremely against-striving was obeyed. The Jakobiten was Stuart trailers, itself inEngland, Ireland and particularly in Scotland after this, its former king James designated.

They particularly held in the consequence in the Scottish high country to the Stuart dynasty. In age-old tradition the Clanchiefs and Feudalherren felt there despite religious differences by her loyalty oath the kingconnected. Now the situation ungekannte so far occurred that the new, Protestant king William of them demanded evenly this oath of loyalty, while the James fled in the exile still lived.

When then however the Chief of the MacDonalds of Glencoe arrived by five days late to the oath achievement,William saw the possibility of setting an example. It let 1692 arrange by its Scottish representative in the valley Glencoe a massacre among the members of the MacDonald clan. Of course occurred in the high country exactly the opposite of, which had intended William - there were after thisPogrom the sympathies for London finally concerned at the freezing point.

18. Century

complete union

the Scottish Expert of financial politics William Paterson, which had created the bank OF England in London and had made in England a fortune, thought to thisTime, it would have a solution for the dilemma. It created the company OF Scotland - a Scottish commercial company - and planned to create a colony in the region today's Panama. Since the English East India company stood to it in opposition, English buyers of it becameheld to invest into this plan and the whole became a purely Scottish affair. Half of the entire capital of Scotland was into Patersons society, but the adventure ended as disaster: The selected area was malarious, and the Scottish settlers were attacked by Spanish colonialists.

The king gave express instructions to grant to the Scottish settlers no assistance. After the collapse of the colony the invested money was lost, and more than 2000 Scottish settlers died, before the whole plan was finally given up. Scotland was literally bankruptcy.

The parliamentary unionbecame only in the year 1700 slow a political topic in England. The future queen Anne lost with the death of William, duke of Gloucester, the last possible successor. It was that youngest of their 17 children - its brothers and sisters had already died all before it.The English act OF Settlement of 1701 made it thereafter for catholics in principle not possibly to govern or dress a public office. The Scottish parliament determined beyond that that the follow-up Annes should take place via the house Hanover. Since it was childless now, Anne determined thoseCure princess Sophia from Hanover to their successor. This was the fifth and only Protestant daughter of Elizabeth von Böhmen, and thus a granddaughter of James VI./I.

1703 adopted the Scottish parliament a law, which should prevent that Scotland by the successors Annes into martialEnterprise would abroad be pulled in. In response Annes government 1705 decided the Alien in such a way specified act. This law threatened to treat all Scots outside of England as foreigners and to exclude it in such a way from the trade with England and his colonies - Scotland was into thoseTightness floated. Many Scottish noble ones, among them the duke of Argyll and the duke of Queensberry, saw to maintain and protect thereupon in the parliamentary union with England the only way, the interests of Scotland.

After 1705 a perfect union seemed further ever.By a set of mutually aggressive actions and laws that had concerned anglo Scottish relationship at a further Tiefpunkt:

1) The attempt of the 1696 created company OF Scotland to develop a colony in today's Panama was sabotaged from outside and politico-economic reasons of the English government.The failure of this plan entered as Darien disaster history and probably represents the largest economic debacle of Scottish history. Nearly a third of the entire available Scottish capital was lost thereby. In addition impairments of the economic efficiency as well as numerous harvest failures came into the 1690er- Years, so that Scotland economic situation at the beginning 18. Century was extremely precarious.

2) Additionally the Scottish parliament had repealed set 1703 by the act OF Security actually the OF Settlement for Scotland and the possibility of a separate succession to the throne for English act into thatboth countries production and stressed additionally to direct in the future the Scottish foreign policy (act Anent Peace and was). The English parliament reacted to this development with a commercial embargo and the actual treatment of all Scots as a foreigner, until the question of the follow-up as well as the politicalUnion is clarified (Alien act).

The successful union negotiations 1706/1707 offered advantages for both countries: The Scottish economy could go to reorganizing itself since it had from now on unlimited entrance to the markets in England (and additionally its colonies), vital for Scotland.The Scottish state, which was due to the Darien debacle actually bankruptcy, could shift its debts now to London, and those creditors of the Scotish company were completely compensated by England.

England however could implement now the Protestant succession regulation of the act OF Settlement in both countries and hadno more do not fear that Scotland the old alliance with France, which renewed Auld Alliance, and thus the north flank of England in the Spanish succession war would be suddenly hostile.

The union agreement (act OF union) became to 16. January 1707 with a majority of only 43 voices entitled, butagainst the desire of at least 75% of the population of Scotland of the Scottish parliament ratifies.

The ratification of the union document came off only under large protest of the population: In the kingdom developed again Great Britain applied the Protestant succession regulation of the act OF Settlement. The parliament in Edinburgh was dissolved,and Scotland sent from now on 45 Commons and 16 Peers in the new British parliament to Westminster. The self-sufficiency of the Church OF Scotland and the receipt of the Scottish juridical system were guaranteed and determined substantial economics and tax political concessions at Scotland.

1714 died queen Anne. That nowBritish parliament got George of Hanover, to the German descendant of James VI./I., as George I.to the Themse. This king George felt not well in the role: He understood too few about the British mentality and the policy. In addition it came that it thoseLanguage did not control. So it had itself of Prime a Minister, who first in British history, represent to let.

the Jakobiteraufstände

major item:Jakobiter

the events in Scotland were after the escape of James VII.to France in December 1688 absolutely obscurelyand contradictory. Not one larger city supported the catholic king or came it to assistance. Even Aberdeen, once a bastion of the Stuarts, recognized now Maria and Wilhelm on. Except in the high country there was little opposition, if the movement of the Jakobiter also a constant threatthe Welfenkönigtums George for fifty represented years.

While it was laid out in such a way in England, as if Jakob with its escape had done at the same time without the throne, stepped the Scottish convention parliament to 4. April 1689 by the majority to remove from the Jakobs the crown. In Scotland was this decisionmet from only one reason - the parliament regarded the monarchy since hundreds of years as a contractually bound, nearly monarchy which can be called constitutionally. (see above: Robert the Bruce)

the Oranier William was the son Marys, the daughter of Charles I. Williamand married Mary, which daughter of James VII., was Protestant, which was likewise a Protestantin. For some was that the perfect Protestant alternative to the catholic James. For the first time the catholic Royalisten rose in the rebellion from 1689 under the guidance from John Graham in ScotlandOF Claverhouse, called Bonnie Dundee. The massacre of Glencoe, which took place in a revenge action, caused however in the western high country much sympathy for the Jakobiten. Very fast it became clear that the king in London was interested cordially few in Scottish interests.It ratified English laws of the English parliament, which strengthened the English colonies and whom English trade protected, however from everything excluded Scotland.

The special of the verworrenen political situation was that you lay the follow-up shank of the Stuarts to reason. That becomes by the rebellions of the Jakobitenin the years 1715, 1719 and in the long run 1745 completely clearly, but between them and only one year after the union took place already 1708 a rebellion. In the square between the yard of James VII./II., the dissatisfied Scottish low land aristocracy, the Hochlandchiefs and that, living in the exileFrench government of 1700 on and in the 40 years following on it first by France, and later also from Rome always double play was played: French assistance depended in each case on whether large support of a rebellion seemed ensured in Scotland. On the other handthe Scottish commitment depended again on how far military support and material were assured from France.

The government reacted to this last rebellion very decided and with drakonischen measures. Over already in the 30's 18. Century developed way and road systemtroops were brought in the high country, and stationed there at strategically important points in fortresses like that particularly for it built enormous away George, in close proximity to Inverness.

The Clanchiefs and often also the clan members taken part in the rebellion had to flee abroad or became afterLooking processes executed. The gälische language, which became high land culture like for example a carrying of the traditional high land clothes and the Dudelsackspiel forbidden. A majority of the old gälischen cultural property always triumphed. The economic and social structure in the high country were drastically changed. Which remained, was however the romantic memoryto the last catholic Stuart - Bonnie Prince Charlie.

the Scottish clearing-up

David Hume
David Hume
Adam Smith
Robert Burns
James Watt
James Watt

at the beginning 18. Century was Scotland still one of the poorest countries in Europe. The agriculture was primitive and industry existed practicallynot. The only export products were animal skins, wood, coal, salt and occasionally still wool or linen. But only one century later was Scotland already on the best way to develop one most flowering managing of the time at that time. First began however at the same time with driving the high countries out (English. Highland Clearances) also the time of the Scottish clearing-up. It literally brought an explosion out of the spirit. It seems, as if the energies of century-long fighting had been rerouted suddenly and instead of liberty heroes now personalities in the areas of the art and literature, the science, technologyand architecture to bring out could.

The roots for it lay in the time, when the economic development after the union of 1707 and the end of the Jakobitenaufstände brought a fundamental change to the use of land. The realizations and experiences of the land and owner of soil, those on European journeys, that„Grand so mentioned route was won”, contributed decided to it. Returned to Scotland, they put these knowledge into practice, improved them partially and adapted them to the conditions of the country.

Instead of a constant sacrificing for the spreading Imperium Britannien of English coinage,now a transformation began in Scotland after Culloden. The collapse of the centuries-old, back-looking cult of honour and bravery created place for a flowering and forward looking modernity. Only 20 years after the battle became the cities Glasgow and Edinburgh admit as the citiesof spirit and genius. At this time the Scottish Romancier Tobias Smollet ( 1721-1771) could let its hero Matthew Bramble in the letter novel Humphrey Clinker (1771) determine: „Edinburgh is a breeding place of the genius”. Within a relatively short period of only few decades developedthere a mental elite, which looked for their-same even on the continent. It consisted of a large number of men, who did not only leave an extensive cultural, technical and economical inheritance to the country with their works, but also an almost immeasurable to future generations of our timeTreasure of valid realizations and techniques gave.

The Scottish Enlightenment had its center in Edinburgh, because a new Scotland was born here. The unersättliche appetite for facts and fortunes bore a constantly becoming larger potential of scientists and artists. Thus also first became- the first - progress theory in Britannien of Scottish philosophers - David Hume (1711-76) and Adam Fergusson (1723-1816) - develops.

They recognized the entire span of the human social development in the historical tragedy of their own country: of collecting tanks and hunters over an established agriculture toto the true civilization - the commercial, industriellen and scientific world of the cities. The probably most obvious expression of this clearing-up period is to be seen so this very day in that new Town from Edinburgh to.George Drummond, the very farsighted mayor, is to be owed it that itself thatPicture of the city and their situation in view of the over-population of the old part of town in such a manner drastically to change could. Large architects became in 18. Century into Scotland born or came to stays into England back to Scotland. Partial their traces are to be there also still admired. One the largestat all was Robert Adam, who conceived the Edinburgher plant around Charlotte Square in that new Town. It left over completely in this city a large number of wonderful buildings and distributed to Great Britain magnificent manor-houses and locks. This very day this becomes in Kircaldy at the Forthborn man in Britannien as the first style king in architecture recognition. It sketched and built among other things for the aristocracy and the again-rich English restaurant barons the palaces, which radiate the Roman size wished by the owners in their pure, neoclassical feature still.

ThatScot, who left the world-wide deepest development impression, was the restaurant philosopher Adam Smith (1723-90). In its book Inquiry into nation it specified the Nature and Causes OF the Wealth OF with its theory, like in a scientifically founded fact, that mankind a natural slopefor self improvement has. If one permits it to follow its natural needs she would create also inadvertently a better world: enrich, more freely and with better training; only condition is, governments might not into the way of the developing markets place itself. With this thesis createdit the term of the free free-market economy.

Some different of the outstanding personalities of this time were, writers and poets such as Robert Burns (1759-96) and Sir walter Scott (1771-1832), painters such as Allan Ramsay (1713-84) and Sir Henry Raeburn (1756-1823) and technician such as James Watt (1736-1819).

Owing to this largeHeads succeeded it to Scotland to find the connection to the clearing-up taking place at the same time on the continent. While 1796 in France the cometful ascent Napoleon began, the trend „of the Enlightenments sat down” to in 19 in Scotland. and 20. Century away. Many large personalities achieved oneconsiderable series of Ersttaten, discoveries and achievements in the most diverse areas. Among them were James Clerk Maxwell (1831-79); Nature philosopher, electricity and magnetism), Sir James „Young” Simpson (1811-70; Anaesthesia), Joseph Lister (1827-1912; Antisepsis), the writers Robert Louis Stevenson (1850-94) and Arthur Conan Doyle (1859-1930), the discovererand Africa researcher David Livingstone (1813-73) and the physician Sir Alexander Fleming (1881-1955), which discovered penicillin. John Logie Baird (1888-1946) invented the colour television.

19. Century - change to the industrial company

the turn to 19. Century was at the same time a turn from the agrarian toIndustrial nation. Great Britain became the case of model of the Industriellen revolution. This development reached Scotland and particularly the Lowlands into the 1820er years. Hand in hand with it a rapid population growth went. Effects of the Clearance (evacuations) of the high country it was that ten thousands of high countries into the cities of the central beltflowed. They formed the factory hand shank busy in the industrial centres developed again.

The underdeveloped infrastructure of Scotland caused difficulties: There were only very few ways and roads. As in England therefore 19 became starting from beginning . Century in Scotland of channels built, those by the substantially more economic railwayshowever very soon outdated were lost and at meaning. The centralization of the industry using then and the development of productive coal seams in southwest Scotland were the factors, which led to the phänomenalen ascent of Glasgow.

Center of the 1840er years moved on the escape before the KartoffelfäuleHundredthousands of humans from Ireland. Provisional dwellings particularly grew without each planning by the manufacturing plants of Glasgow around. It came several times to epidemic diseases, and typhoid fever and Cholera dezimierten whole quarters. Nevertheless however the population grew itself, both due to further Zuwanderungen and due to that slowlyimproving living conditions.

After its fantastic ascent under the wealth of tobacco barons Mitte 18. Century, Glasgow with the loss of the Plantagen in Virginia had suffered a dramatic fall. With the industrialization however the city rose like a Phönix from ash. Around 1850Glasgow was the worker city absolutely, first due to its shipyards, and with the arising of the railway as a center of the building of locomotives. Glasgow became to London the second city of the British Empire. Great architects, like among other things David Rhynd, the Burnets, James Thomson, Alexander „Greek”Thompson, Honeyman, and late Charles Rennie Mackintosh left their legacy from the small becoming, viktorianischen world in this metropolis. Unfortunately the appreciation of these wealth awoke only in recent time again.

With the industrialization and the viktorianischen army blowing up always further increaseditself however in Great Britain first the Woll and nutritional requirements. The sheep could supply that everything, and country gave it in the high country to enough. Sheep made the new land owners rich.

Scotland began itself to change. The influences of individual Scottish personalities on the totalBritish life were not to deny. Turned around English conceptions and habits in addition, sloshed over the border northward. Despite the exchange Scotland was however far by England to be assimilated - many old differences remained existing, others were however gradually settled. The country changed in such a wayvery and so fast that Sir walter Scott wrote 1814 as Postskriptum to its Waverley novellas: „No European nation changed within only a half century as totally, as this kingdom Scotland”. In the parliament in Westminster Scotland was from the outset - since 1707- clearly underrepresented. 1885 developed however with the Scottish Office its own Ministry for Scotland.

The year 1875 became the year of the turn, even if the impulse proceeded from England: For the first time the existence and right to strike were legally guaranteed to the trade unions at that time.

The viktorianische age was Of Great Britain large epoch. It was characterised by industriellen prosperity, and by expansion. As reaction to the industrialization more and more however particularly moved the longing after nature and landscape into the focus in England; Queen Viktoria was it above all, Scotland in thisConnection for itself discovered and as urwüchsiges tourist country made popular.

While Glasgow with the industrialization grew, Edinburgh developed to the cultural center of Scotland. The medical profession, philosophers, scientists, engineers, and discovery travelers announced the city by their achievements, and writers such as Stevenson wrote over her.

20. Century - particularly in

the west of Scotland an enormous working class had created Devolution and new beginning the Industrielle revolution. The majority was accordingly politically left-oriented. The peace treaty after the First World War brought a substantial economic depression for Scotland very soon, because the country hung ofthe heavy industry off and the international competition affected itself.

Glasgow became politically „red”. 1929 came it to general strikes; occasionally even revolution lay in air and it threatened military employment. On the high point of the depression 1931 then 65% the throwing worker at the Clyde were unemployed.Because itself the economic situation in Scotland always far worsened, with some right it was accepted that London aggravated the situation by neglect of Scottish interests. After the call home rule, its own government, became ever louder in Scotland. The British government set thereupon 1928 oneUndersecretary of state for Scotland with the rank of a cabinet member. In the course of this first step toward devolution, the administrative detachment of London, it the line of the ranges health, agriculture and education was transferred into Scotland. This Minister had his seat in the pc. Andrew's House in Edinburgh.

But all are sufficient not, in order to suppress in Scotland the desire for self-sufficiency. A salient expression its was 1950 the dramatic kidnapping of the Stone OF Destiny of the coronation/culmination chair in Westminster Abbey to Scotland. In the House of Commons elections of 1974 succeeded then the 1934developed Scottish national party the break-through, after voices became it a second-strongest party. Under pressure of the SNP the British labour was correct - government of a popular vote over limited self-determination too. The law for popular vote was torpediert however of anti- home rule conservative ones, with the help of the conservative opposition brought ita clause into the legislation, a simple majority any longer to therefore be sufficient should, but 40% of the voters to at least agree had. A simple majority was reached, but could not be taken the 40% hurdle.

partial independence

in September 1997 tuned in onesecond popular vote 80% of the voters for a partial independence of Scotland, in consequence its to 6. May 1999 was selected after 300 years parliament for Scotland. Its legislative power extends to the areas health service, education, local government and administration, social, housing, economic development, law, environment,Agriculture, fishery and forestry, sport, art and culture and different ranges of the transportation. The parliament selects a roofridge Minister (Prime Minister) as a director/conductor of the Scottish executive, which the past Scottish Office replaced and which parliament account placing must. The first office holder, the Donald Dewar liked all-side, deceased in October 2000.


See also: List of the rulers of Scotland - Scottish ones of clan - list the Scottish clan

literature

  • Hans walter Arends: The small Scotland booklet. Everything - from the Pikten to the new parliament - and still much more.Luath press, Edinburgh2001, ISBN 0946487898
  • Hermann writers: Scotland. The history of a country at the edge of Europe. Kasimir Katz publishing house, Gernsbach 1990, ISBN 392582541X
  • gentleman Mr. writer: The Stuarts. Between crown and scaffold. Kasimir Katz publishing house, Gernsbach 1999, ISBN 3925825738
  • Ernst Wrba, Peter Sahla: Scotland. Bridging man, Munich 2000, ISBN 3765429848

Web on the left of

This article was taken up to the list of the articles worth reading.
 

  > German to English > de.wikipedia.org (Machine translated into English)