History of Sweden

of these articles offers an overview of the Swedish history from the primeval times into the present. Individual events mentioned in this article are described and treated in separate articles in the detail.

Table of contents

in before-historical time (11,000 v.Chr. - 800 n.Chr.)

rune stone in Uppsala

toward end of the last ice age (in order 12.000 v.Chr.) began first humans over a land bridge between today's Germany and care to the coastal regions to immigrate.The oldest finds are about 13,000 years old and in care were discovered. These nomadisierenden hunters and Fischer pulled the coast along northward and as the land bridge around 5.000 v.Chr. , were settled central Sweden and the coasts of north Sweden disappeared. Over approximately 4,000 v.Chr. those heldFirmer settlement forms and community burial places developed for agriculture their introduction in Sweden. Due to the forms, e.g., One can differentiate course graves , stone disk graves, fire graves and hill graves in following thousands of years between different cultures. Grave-added and rock designs supplement the picture.

By the finds to judge foundbetween Christi birth and the beginning 5. Century a lively trade with the Roman realm instead of. Roman import products came into the high north. Scandinavia was mentioned also for the first time in Roman writings, as in naturalis historia the Plinius' of the older one from thatYear 79 and the Germania of the Gaius Cornelius Tacitus, which as the first mentioned the people that Sweden as Suionen. On the map of the world of the Ptolemäus around 150 Scandinavia is for the first time seized cartographically (see Scandza). Contrary to the preceding collective company form it came nowalso to a stronger social layering, as above all magnificently equipped chamber graves show. Toward end of this period also the rune writing was introduced.

In the period between 400 and 800 the concentration of power continued on some centers. Powerful hill graves point out that it local of chieftainsand/or. Master princes gave. Numerous escape castles witness from the uncertain times and the life in constant war readiness. Commercial centres such as Helgö and late Birka suggest extensive international contacts.

Wikingerzeit (800-1050)

Zeitgenössische Darstellung der Wikinger
contemporary representation of the Wikinger

around the year 800 began the long Wikingerfahrten, combined war and commercial courses in western and eastern direction. The Danish and Norwegian Wikingerzüge went to the west. In them also the Wikinger of the today's southSwedish provinces participated, which belonged at that time to Denmark. Wikingerzüge of the centralSwedish population (Väster and Östergötland as well as Svealand)directed themselves usually eastward. By means of the large Russian rivers they reached Konstantinopel (Miklagård) and the silk country at the Kaspi sea (Särkland). This Wikingerzüge was usually commercial courses, but wise historical and archaeological sources on a strong political participation of the Wikinger (also Warägercalled) at the emergence of the large principality of Kiew , whose prince of Scandinavian origin was. After the Wikingerzüge usually a comprehensive Kolonisation followed.

The far commercial courses led to a salient economic upswing, which settled in the establishment of commercial towns. Birka developed after 700, Sigtuna over1000, both been because of mark arene. The international trade with Luxuswaren such as silver and silk from the east, weapons and Gläsern from the west, furs from the north as well as the slave trade formed the economic basis of these cities.

In this time also the basis for those becamelater Scandinavian realms put. At the beginning of the 11. Century was held together the Kingdom of a loose group of independent landscapes (Väster and Östergötland, Svealand and „the small countries “, Småland, in the south) with own Thing and own laws and judges, by the person of the king, that to the choicefrom Thing to Thing to travel had. Their power was rather small.

Into this time also the Christianisierung Sweden falls. The first contact with the Christianity resulted from the mission activity of the holy Ansgar, the archbishop of Hamburg Bremen. It undertook around 830 and 853 two mission journeysto Sweden, which had however no success. In the year 1008 king Olof Skötkonung let itself be baptized however. But to in 12. Century were heidnisch large parts of the population.

the high Middle Ages (1050-1389)

the actual establishment of realm happened in the high Middle Ages between 1000 and 1300 and wentwith the Christianisierung Sweden. With the success of the Christian mission activity in Götaland also the Christian developed with the requirement on acknowledgment both in Göta - as well as in Svealand after 1000. It was however at first disputed, unstably and usually only ofregional meaning. Beyond that it was a Wahlkönigtum, which often led to fights for the succession to the throne. Thus for king power between the sexes Sverkers and Eric fought 1130 and 1250. The most important position of power after the king had in 12. and 13. Century of the Jarl.The latter and one the most powerful Jarle in Sweden were Birger Jarl, whose son Waldemar was selected 1250 to the king. This was set off however from its brother Magnus Ladulås by a coup d'etat. Under Birger Jarl and the following Folkungern came it to comprehensive politicaland social reforms. It succeeded to them to develop a central power and to organize the society after the model of the feudalen European states. 1350 was finally replaced the old Landesgesetze by generally speaking a realm valid law.

Seal of the king Magnus Ladulås

contemporaneous for the development of king powerthe structure of the church organization progressed. Church and Königtum were one on the other dependent. In the 11. and 12. Century dioceses with seat in Skara, Linköping, Sigtuna and other places were created. From the diocese Uppsala followed 1164 of Sweden first ore diocese. At the church meetingfrom Skänninge 1248 the church received its own canonical church order, which increased its independence from lay power. Strengthening the position of the church had extensive cultural and social consequences, as for example the abolishment of the widespread slavery 1335.

Beside the religious conditions developed alsoa realm aristocracy from the Gefolgsleuten of the king and the master princes, to who 1280 in the statutes were granted by when NO exemption from taxes. Representatives of the realm aristocracy and the church (bishops) educated the realm advice, a counterweight to king power. Power base of the realm aristocracy were - contrary to many EuropeanTo countries did not pale - Lehen, whose castles were centers of the administration.

In 12. and 13. Century was eastward again taken up also the policy of expansion to incorporate with the goal, Finland this time not in the form of Wikingerzügen, but - the new opinions following -of several crusades. In the year 1288 Gotland was bound by a contract at Sweden.

The beginning 14. Century was coined/shaped by throne fights within the king dynasty of the Folkunger. This led to a stabilization of the high aristocracy and in further consequence to conflicts between king and Realm advice and/or the advice aristocracy. King Birger Magnusson was driven out 1317 and its successor Magnus Eriksson was set off 1363. Also the 1363 selected Albrecht of Mecklenburg 1389 were fallen, after he had tried to strengthen king power.

Kalmarer union (1389-1523)

1388 became thoseDanish queen Margaretha recognition of an insurgent aristocracy parliamentary group as Swedish Herrscherin. After the victory over Albrecht in the year after Denmark, Norway and Sweden under a regent were combined. 1397 were crowned Margarethas nephew Erich von Pommern to the king three realms and those Kalmarer Union errichtet. It existed until 1523, even if it functioned rarely.

Aimed to Margarethas and Erich's politics at the delimitation and Zurückdrängung of aristocracy power. The realm advice was entmachtet and a centralized administration with mainly Danish and German Vögten, outgoing from Denmark, was developed. This led- supports of the farmer, which new comprehensive taxes had been imposed upon - to the Engelbrekt rebellion 1434 - 36, who ended with the joggle and driving the king out.

Stockholm blood baths

the following decades were chaotic and coined/shaped from internal fights and frequent changes of government. The politicalPower was with the advice aristocracy, which was split however deeply between proponents and opponents of the Kalmarer union. At certain times the union kings were recognized also in Sweden. Between them governed the Swedish king Karl Knutsson (1448-57, 1464-65 and 1467-70) and/or Swedish realm Weser.

In these arguments developeda strong Swedish national feeling, which became apparent in the spirit life also. Thus 1477 the first Swedish university in Uppsala was created and toward end 15. Century appeared the first printed books in Swedish language.

The conflict with the union kings and the internal opposition kulminierteunder realm Weser the Sten stubborn one the younger one, which governed between 1512 and 1520. Kristian II. defeated its Swedish adversary 1520 and let in the November of the same yearly about hundred oppositionals in the so-called Stockholm blood bath execute. This led to the riot of the Gustav Wasa, that 1521 were appointed realm Weser, and the final collapse of the Kalmarer union.

the Wasa time (1523-1611)

Schwedisches Wappen ca.1600 (Siebmacher 1605)
could take 1523 Stockholm Swedish coat of arms ca.1600

(Siebmacher 1605) Gustav Wasas riot was supported actively of Luebeck and with whose assistance it. Still in the same year becameit to the king crowned. The relations with Denmark defused itself, there Kristian II. there likewise one set off. The dependence on Luebeck could be shaken off 1533 finally.

Relating to domestic affairs Gustav Wasa had the goal of strengthening central power. The first crucial step in addition was the meeting of the council in Västerås 1527, with which the old advice front was dissolved and the lay power of the bishops was broken. Also the first steps were introduced for reformation, which led in the 30's to the separation from the catholic church. The Konfiszierung of the church goods, those abouta fifth of the entire landed property constituted, led to a crucial stabilization of royal finances. At the same time the basis for a central administration was put, which was modernized after foreign model in the years 1538 - 42, and likewise fiscal matters was again arranged. This suppliedrebellions by force, which kulminierten in the Dacke rebellion of 1532. Further important steps on the way to the centralization were Reichstag von Västerås 1544, with whom the Wahlkönigtum was replaced by the Erbkönigtum, and which renewal of the national defense.

To death Gustav Wasas 1560 came itto arguments between its sons. First the oldest son became Eric XIV. King. He was fallen 1568 by his brothers Johan and Karl and died in the prison, probably by poison murder. Its successor was its brother Johan III., its son Sigismund Polish and 1592 alsoSwedish king became. Since Sigismund was however catholic and one was afraid that he will support the Gegenreformation, the lutherische faith on the meeting was introduced of Uppsala 1593 of the realm advice and the priest shank as national church. In the year after duke Karl, Sigismunds uncle, led the struggle for power, the 1599 to the joggle Sigismunds led and to the coronation/culmination of Karl 1604. This led to bitter arguments between Sweden and Poland.

The second half 16. Century was coined/shaped of the fight for the rule over the Baltic. The collapse of the German medal state ledto a race around the rule over its areas.1561 placed itself Estonia under Swedish protection. In the following decades it came to a set of wars with the neighbours Denmark, Luebeck, Poland and Russia, of the three-crown war (1563-1570) up to the Kalmarkrieg (1611-1613).

Sweden as great power (1611-1719)

Karl X. of Sweden, after honour steel
Gustav II. Adolf

1611 took over that only 17-jährige Gustav II. Adolf after the death of its father the rule. It succeeded to it to continue the Baltic Sea politics and Ingermanlandto conquer and Kexholm (the area west and north the Ladogasees) as well as live country from Poland Lithuania to, before it turned to 1630 Germany, which was in the dreissigjährigen war.

These successes had become possible by an internal reorganization. With the accession became by a royal explanation realm adviceand Reichstag political say granted. The realm advice got a clear role in the context of the government, and in questions around war and peace, taxes and digging the resolutions of the realm daily were caught up. The four in Reichstag of represented conditions reflected the social structure of this time: The aristocracy,the 1612 comprehensive privileges had gotten, had the monopoly on all higher offices. At the same time this condition border was permeable, so that itself the number of noble ones by new ennobling in 17. Century verfünffachte. The religious conditions played in a state ideology, in which church and state had merged closely,an important role. The middle class attained an increasing meaning in the context noticing anti-reading tables of the economic policy. The fact that last also the farmers were represented as the fourth conditions in Reichstag was singular in Europe, and can historically with the fact be explained that it in Sweden never hörige or body-own farmershad given, and more than one third of the landed property in the hand of free farmers was. They played, particularly by their local institutions, in fiscal questions and in questions of digging of soldiers, who came mostly from farmer families, an important role. ConstantlyDialogue between government and governed explains the internal peace despite increasing loads due to the numerous wars.

The vision of a great power Sweden found its precipitation also within other ranges, particularly within the education range. The University of Uppsala, which had stagnated after the reformation, became nowpromoted, at the same time to 1668 three further universities were based actively. In each bishop city a High School was created and to the illiteratism decreased clearly. The realm administration was removed and the regional and local organs of the civilian and military administration were standardized. Divide this management system exist todaystill.

The largest problem for the great power politics was the weak population basis. 1625 had the Kingdom of about 1.1 million inhabitant, about which, but handed 800,000 in the Swedish heartland neither as tax base nor as recruiting document for the army. Therefore noticing anti-reading tables a handels and an economic policy with stronger becameExport orientation operated and and the influx of foreign capital (particularly from the Netherlands and from Germany) actively promoted the immigration of foreign specialists. Sweden developed to the largest exporter of wrought steels and cannons. Copper and wood products were further important export products.

1658 reached Sweden with that Poland Lithuania depended peace of Roskilde the high point

of its territorial expansion the foreign policy on the acquisition of the Baltic and the Russian coastal regions on Germany and. The imperial troops had reached the Baltic Sea, and the entrance of Sweden into the war could before Reichstag, thatfinally its agreement gave, when preventive defensive war are represented. When Sweden broke in 1630 in Pommern, it had no allied ones, but a Subsidiarvertrag with France 1631 improved the situation. The victory with width field in the same year was a turning point. The political goals grew with successes,but death Gustavs II. Adolf with Lützen 1632 changed the situation. Sweden under realm chancellor Axel Oxenstierna ( the daughter Gustavs II. set nevertheless. Adolf was only six years old) the war away. 1643-45 one fought Denmark and got in peacetime of Brömsebro the provinces Gotland, Jämtland, Härjedalen and resounding and, during the Westfäli peace from 1648 to the acquisition of Bremen Verden (see also castle Bederkesa), Wismar, Vorpommern and other areas led. A further war introduced against Poland, 1644, that itself on enemy side Denmark and Russiaattached, temporarily 1658 one terminated, and in peacetime of Roskilde among other things the provinces Bohuslän , care and Blekinge came under Swedish rule. Still in the same year the war was again taken up, but as the king Karl X.1660 suddenly died, strove the guardianship governmentfor its son Karl XI. around a peace treaty, which flowed in peacetime of Oliva 1660.

Magnus Gabriel De la Gardie

in the following twelve years tried realm chancellors Magnus Gabriel De la Gardie to stabilize the political situation and the catastrophic financial situation of the realmto reorganize. With the accession of the young king Karl XI. but Sweden the careful foreign policy gave up and into the Schoni war (1674-79) was pulled. Thereby clear weaknesses showed up at army and fleet. This led to a comprehensive reorganization in Sweden. Zuförderst becamethe collection in the last decades of the goods assigned to the aristocracy decided - the aristocracy had its landed property in 17. Century trebles! -, the reorganization of military power was alone transferred the king, like also the legislation and foreign policy, those up to then with Reichstag layhad. The king became the autocrat, Reichstag had only more an advisory function. The fact that this was possible without a larger struggle for power with the aristocracy was based on the support of the king by the farmers and citizens, who preferred an effective and strong king power of the oily archie,as also by the low service aristocracy and the officers, which saw a safe source of income in the new military organization.

In following peacetime Sweden could recover, but to 1700 finally opened Denmark, Poland Saxonia and Russia the large Nordi war (1700-21), to that after initial Swedish successes toCollapse of the great power led. The Baltic and almost all other areas south the Baltic Sea were lost.

the liberty time (1719-1772)

after the death by Karl XII. the conditions used unclear succession to the throne conditions, in order to intersperse in the years 1719/ 20 a new condition, thoseReichstag the exclusive legislation transferred. Reichstag still consisted of the four conditions (aristocracy, priest, citizen and farmer). Since in Reichstag the majority principle applied, i.e. that a resolution could be seized only if three of the four conditions for ittuned, developed a lively political activity, which reminds of the modern parliamentarism. But a fundamental democracy understanding was missing. Political opponents were thrown in the prison and to executions sometimes also seemed.

With the time two political groupings, the so-called developed. Hats and caps. The hats, a aristokratische party, represented noticing anti-reading tables an economic policy with active promotion of Manufakturen and the export as well as a revanchistische foreign policy against Russia with support of France. The caps, antiaristokratisch aligned, noticed the interests of the agriculture and operated a careful foreign policy, thosea reconciliation with Russia and an approximation at England looked for. In the first half of the century usually the hats at power and they were entangled Sweden also into two wars.

East India drivers Göteborg, copy

in this time came the ideas of the clearing-up to Sweden. Those Pressefreiheit and the public principle were introduced and fachten the political debate additionally on. The new liberty led to a departure within the range of the economy, the science and the literature.

The mercantilism dominated the economic policy. Special attention was dedicated to the foreign trade, and therefore also 1731 became a Swedish Ostindienkompagnie based. The moreover one also a national promotion for Manufakturen was furnished, in order to decrease the import dependence of the country. The most important export product was still iron, which was processed in several hundred metallurgical plants on the country.

Also in the agriculture sat downnew ideas through and agricultural reforms, like the pool of strewing possession, led to an improvement of the economic situation of the Landbevölkerung. In addition it succeeded to the farmers to be formed in the political arguments in Reichstag and to achieve a strong political position. Toward end of the liberty timebecame they the driving Kraft in Reichstag.

In the Polish succession war Sweden Stanislaus I. supported 1733-1738. Leszczynski against August III. (Poland).

the Gustaviani epoch (1772-1809)

Gustav III. 1771 the throne had mounted, which had at this time only more representative functions. 1772 putschte Gustav III. against Reichstag and forced a new condition, which transferred the king the government power, while it limited the power of the realm daily strongly. The king, who stated from itself to stand over the party and condition disputes relied however on the aristocracy,while it followed in its economic policy of the economical and liberals politics of the caps.

Gustav III.

A set of reforms were accomplished, among other things it, a Branntweinmonopol tried to introduce, hospitals was built and Kreisärzte employed, and the first local poorhouses developed. But Gustaf was III. forwardseverything in the culture life interests. 1786 it created the Swedish academy after the model of the French Académie Française, it let an opera house establish and promoted the forming arts and architecture. In this time the Möbeltischlerei developed and for the silver silberschmiede in the areas of the interior decoration,an own style in Sweden, the gustavianische style.

But for the political opposition hard times came. 1774 were limited the Pressefreiheit, and neither politics nor national church and religion could be discussed. Gustavs government style became ever more authoritarian, and than the aristocracy, itself its, To Reichstag of 1786 saw Gustav III. robbed of influence against the king turned, led. the country into a war against Russia (1788 - 1790), in order to strengthen its position relating to domestic affairs. From discontent with the war it came to a Meuterei of more thanhundred, predominantly noble officers at the front in Finland. Gustav III. understood, this Meuterei and to use thereupon flashing Royalismus, in order to introduce with the help of the not-noble conditions an absolutist system of government. At the same time the aristocracy privileges were abolished to a large extent. The opposition against the king became now in the undergroundcontinued, and 1792 became with a Maskenball a firing assassination attempt on Gustav III. committed, which it succumbed two weeks later.

Its son Gustav IV. Adolf followed it after the throne. He was an opponent of the French revolution and followed the anti-French coalition . 1807 leftRussia the coalition and closed an agreement with Napoleon, on which it attacked 1808 Sweden. The Russian troops occupied rapidly Finland and the coast Norrlands to Umeå. Sweden Finland led the Swedish failures to the joggle of the king 1809 and in peacetime of Fredrikshamn had, Åland and the eastern part of Västerbottens up to the river Torne älv at Russia transfer.

Schweden und Norwegen um 1888

Das 19. Century (1809-1906)

on Reichstag of 1809 was decided, Gustav IV. To exclude Adolf and its descendants from the succession to the throne. Onits place was selected his uncle Karl to the king, but only after it had agreed a new, from Reichstag the decided constitutional law. The new condition was the basis the thought of the division of power, even if yet of a parliamentary system cannot be spoken. The king had stillalways legislative power and also the ständische organization of Reichstag remained. But the civil fundamental rights were defined.

Since Karl was XIII however old and without inheriting, successor to the throne had to be selected. The choice fell on the Danish prince Kristian August, however the 1810a riding accident died. In the choice following on it Jean Baptiste Bernadotte, a French marshal was finally selected, to the successor to the throne. In the autumn of the same yearly he came to Sweden, accepted the Protestant faith and the name Crown Prince Karl Johann and became from Karl XIII. adopted.Even if it only 1818, after the death of Karl XIII., as a Karl XIV. Johann was crowned, then he took over the Regierungsgeschäfte for the kränklichen foster father.

When Napoléon Sweden forced, to lead war with England - the war was on both sides not led avowedly however- and illegally Swedish Pommern for its Russia campaign occupied, turned Crown Prince away Karl Johann from France. It introduced its government with a complete re-orientation of the foreign policy, i.e. from the past in the east into a future in the west. In a convention with the RussianZar Alexander I. he did to 1812 without Finland. Sweden took thereupon at the campaign against Napoleon part and turned then against Denmark, which was forced 1814 to surrender in peacetime from Kiel Norway in the exchange for Swedish Pommern to Sweden. When thereupon Norway explained its independence, forcedKarl XIV. Johann by a short, nearly unblutigen campaign the establishment of the Swedish-Norwegian union, whereby Norway remained its own kingdom and for Karl here the title Karl II. from Norway led. After this last war Karl Johann led a consistent policy of peace, those to the basis of the SwedishNeutrality became.

The napoleonischen wars had hard met of Sweden economics, which led to economic stagnation and profound crises. Sweden was in the first half 19. Century an expressed agrarian state, the industrialization began only late. The largest reforms took place also in the agricultural range,where comprehensive consolidation of farmland and Parzellierungsverordnungen both the economic situation and the rural culture drastically changed. In the industriellen new technologies and the competition led range, which was dominated of the numerous metallurgical plants, particularly from England to comprehensive quiet putting. A large infrastructure project was the buildingthe Göta channel, which should connect the Baltic Sea with the Katz hole, however after his inauguration as outdated proved already briefly.

On the other hand Sweden experienced a bloom time within the cultural and scientific range. 1842 were introduced to a school reform the mandatory school attendance and elementary schools in each municipalityprescribed.

Between 1815 and 1850 rose the total population of 2,5 to 3.5 million. The population growth took place above all in the country, on which 1850 lived still 90% of the population, and led to large social problems. A solution offered the emigration, which isolates around 1840, over 1860 began used and 1880 its high point correctly reached and only at 1900 out-ebbed. In this time left approximately 1.2 million Sweden the country.

After the death of Karl XIV. Johann 1844, which had operated relating to domestic affairs a strictly conservative policy, opened the possibilitythe liberalisation, at least in economics and sociopolitical range. Became gradual under OSCAR I. and his successor Karl XV. the economic life liberalisiert and social reforms accomplished. In a constitutional reform 1865-66 also the four-stand calibration day was replaced by a two-chamber parliament.

At 1870 the break-through of the industrialization began. ThatDevelopment of the Eisenbahnnetzes and new technologies in the steelmaking made the utilization possible of new ore finds in Norrland. At the same time the wood industry experienced a high point, and a substantial paper and pulp industry developed. New inventions led to the establishment of enterprises in mechanical engineering and electrical range (as for example L.M. Ericsson, ASEA, Bofors, SKF, AGA). At the same time however the agriculture experienced a heavy crisis.

In the second half 19. Century took place the transformation from the agricultural country to the industrial company. The number of inhabitants rose from 3.5 million (1850) to 5.1 million (1900).The population was not entitled to vote to large parts, but developed now the large people movements, which have also today still another clear political influence: the free-church arousing movement, the Abstinenzbewegung and the workers' movement.

In the foreign policy the accession OSCAR II. led. 1872 tooa reorientation of the traditional friendship with France to a ever more clearly becoming approximation at Germany, which itself in military affairs, in which economics, in which science showed and in the culture life. The most difficult problem with regard to foreign policy however were the relations with Norway, in that itselfever more strongly becoming independence efforts made noticeable, and which finally flowed into the dissolution of the union 1905.

the break-through of the democracy (1907-1920)

had been replaced 1865 the medieval condition day by one two-chamber realm day, but was only about 20% of the male population, there entitled to voteonly the second chamber, and which was selected after a census right to vote. A except-parliamentary right to vote movement developed into the 1880er year, carried from the Social Democrats and the liberals. The introduction of the military service became the strongest argument. The key word „a man, a voice, a rifle “made deep impressionalso on the conservative ones. To a right to vote reform 1907 the general right to vote for men (with certain restrictions) for the second house of parliament were introduced and also the first chamber was finally democratized partly. The class contrasts were however large and the general strike of 1909 deepened the ditch betweenSocial Democrat and liberal and/or conservative one. Zur wichtigsten innenpolitischen Frage jedoch wurde die Verteidigungsfrage. When the liberal reset government Staaff of arms plans, in order to lower the costs of the defense in favor of a social reform politics, it finally came to a violent political argument with the conservative ones, into those 1914 the kingon sides of the armament proponents intervened and thus a constitutional crisis caused. This led to the outlet of the government and the appointment of a royal official government under Hjalmar Hammarskjöld.

But the political opponents peace closed and supported the new government after outbreak of the First World War. The countryif its neutrality explained, however moves trade maintained particularly with Germany, which led to a limited blockade by the allied ones. Thus and by the comprehensive exports from food to Germany the supply of the population became ever more difficult. Hunger emergencies broke out, and also in the policytook place a radicalization, which led in the long run to the establishment of a communist party (socialdemokratiska vänsterparti). In the spring 1917 the government Hammarskjöld arose back and after socialist successes with the choice to the second house of parliament 1917 a liberal-social-democratic coalition government was formed, a further important stepthe way to the democratization.

Under the impression of the German defeat and due to the radical tendency in the country between 1918-1921 a new Wahlreform was accomplished. The general right to vote and the woman right to vote were introduced now for all elections and the democratic restrictions were waived.

thoseIntermediate wartime (1920-1939)

the 20's were coined/shaped by a strong industriellen upswing. Large-scale enterprises such as Bofors, Aktiebolaget gas Accumulator (AGA), Svenska Kullagerfabriken (SKF), Allmänna Svenska Elektriska Aktiebolaget (ASEA), Ericsson and Electrolux as well as a comprehensive shipbuilding industry developed. Politically the contrasts stepped between the civil block and the Social Democratagain more strongly out. The Social Democrats were however too weak, in order to educate their own government, the civil parties however deeply split. Conservative ones, liberals and a farmer party developed again had different opinions in several central political questions such as school politics, defense policy and alcohol politics. A set ofdifferent minority governments and frequent changes of government marked the political situation of the 20's.

1930 seized the world economic crisis also Sweden. The employment of the military against strikers in Ådålen 1931 and the look up-exciting bankruptcy of the Kreuger - company prepared a political change of power: after the elections of 1932 the Social Democrats educated a government, that was supported starting from 1933 by the farmer party under by Albin Hansson. Their reform politics covered first occupation programs and agricultural subsidies, in order to work against the effects of the economic crisis. 1936 was received both parties a coalition and put a comprehensive sociopolitical programto the development of the welfare state forwards. The dream of the “people home” however retarded due to the outbreak of the Second World War. 1938 were put however in the agreement by Saltsjöbaden between employer representatives and trade unions the foundation-stone for the “Swedish model ”.

the Second World War (1939-1945)

toBeginning of the Second World War explained to Sweden again its neutrality, some months later took over a coalition government of the four largest parties affairs of state (under exclusion of the communists). The outbreak of the Finnish winter war in November 1939 and the German attack on Denmark and Norway in the spring 1940 (Enterprises Weser exercise) placed the Swedish government before a hard sample. The support of Finland by weapon supplies and corpscorps corps as well as the indulgence in relation to German demands to be allowed to transport troops over Swedish area were made possible by a “pragmatic, non-doctrinaire” policy of neutrality. Only as itself the war luck of the Germans1942-43 turned, came it to a course change in the Swedish policy of neutrality, which adapted now to more and more the allied demands.

post-war period

in July 1945 replaced a social-democratic however government the coalition government. In the next years by the war the interrupted becamesocial reform work again taken up and a modern welfare state developed. Parallel with the development of the social system one worked also on a constitutional reform, which was gradually carried out in the 70's by several Basic Law.

1969 replaced Olof palm the prime minister days Erlander in the office. Palm coined/shapedin the coming years the picture of Sweden abroad by its engaged foreign policy: by its hard criticism at the Viet Nam war, as UN mediators in the Iran Iraq war and by its international disarmament initiatives. Relating to domestic affairs it met several difficulties. On the one hand the constitutional reform and the new parliamentary situation made more difficult afterthe choice of 1970 away, on the other hand one economic problems, particularly after the oil crisis 1973, overshadowed a stable co-operation over the block borders the social reform work. Besides the choice of 1973 led to a Patt in the parliament: Government and opposition received ever 175 mandates. Often tunings becamein Reichstag therefore by lot decision decided. The nuclear power debate divided the Social Democrats and brought a new political factor in the play, the environmental policy and the green motion, and the unionized demand for introduction of employee funds intensified the contrasts to the civil parties. After the choice loss of the Social DemocratsSweden of different civil coalitions was governed of 1976, until palm came 1982 again as an Prime Minister of a social-democratic government to power. The Social Democrats had been affected however already strongly by the neoliberalen ideas from the USA and Great Britain. Under the new Minister of Finance Kjell Olof Feldtbeen inflamed violent debates over neoliberale reforms of the welfare state. The conflict caught fire particularly between Feldt and the chairman of the trade union “LO”, stairs Malm. This “war of the roses” led in the long run to the outlet of Feldt in the year 1990.

After Palmes murder 1986 took over Ingvar Carlsson thoseGovernment and resumed its politics in all important points. At the same time the murder Palmes caused a such shock, which led to large satisfying in the political argument. A political change of power carried out itself 1991 with the choice loss of the Social Democrats.Carl Bildt, a system changein the sense of neoliberaler ideas , formed a coalition government of civil parties had demanded and began to carry out these ideas. With the realm tag choice 1994 the Social Democrats won and Ingvar Carlsson again educated a minority government. 1996 handed Ingvar Carlsson its office business at Göran Persson, to the today's prime minister over. ThosePolitics of the following years concentrated on a stabilization of public finances, which entailed deep interferences into the social system. Despite the discontent caused by the dismantling of the social system the social-democracy in the elections of 1998 and 2002 knew its government position due to thatSupport by the left wing party and the Green maintain.

1995 joined Sweden after a popular vote, with which 52.3% had been correct for an entry, the European union. Already the popular vote of 1994, in addition, the following elections and public opinion polls showed that a widespread skepticism opposite thatEuropean Union prevails. Therefore Sweden already decided 1997 not to participate in the monetary union. In the autumn finally 2003 this question was submitted to the people for tuning. A majority of the population was correct against the introduction of the euro. The referendum became from the murder of the Foreign Minister Anna Lindh few days before it overshadows.

see also

to literature

  • Taffinder, Jacqueline: The airs OF the exotic: the social use OF of non local raw material during the stone age in Sweden, Uppsala:Department OF Archaeology, University OF Uppsala, 1998. - 182 S. : Ill., graph. Darst., (=Aun // Societas Archaeologica Upsaliensis; 25) Specially t.p. with thesis statement and English abstract inserted. - Zugl.: Uppsala, Univ., Diss., 1999, ISBN 91-506-1312-X
  • Hadenius, stairs, Svensk politics of under 1900-talet. Conflictoch samförstånd, Stockholm 2000

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