History of Switzerland
from the paleolithic age give it to find, which on inhabited Neandertaler - caves (Wildkirchli, wild man reading hole) refer to. Overfar sections of this time the area of today's Switzerland was however covered and uninhabited of glaciers. Only during the Magdalénien starting from approximately 22,000 v.Chr. a resettlement began with the heating up beginning. So is for instance the area of the today's city Chur since approximately 11,000 years (end of the paleolithic age) settles.
In the Jungsteinzeit was densely populated the area of today's Switzerland. There are numerous places of discovery. Many of the well-known buildings of stakes, whose remnants one finds at the riparian zones of Swiss lakes,originate from the stone, copper and Bronzezeit.
Before conquest by the Romans lived according to recordings of Julius Cäsar in “De Bello Gallico “on the territory of today's Switzerland different celtic trunks and peoples: toothe Galliern belonging people of the Helvetier in the central country, the Lepontier in the today's Tessin, the Seduner in whale-read and in Geneva, the Raetier in southeast Switzerland, etc.
In the 1. Century v. Chr. if the Helvetier wanted to emigrate in the Rhonetal, however with Bibracte by Gaius Julius Cäsar were stopped and sent back. Still in the republican time Colonia Julia Equestris (Nyon) and Augusta became Raurica (Kaiseraugst) based.
In the 1. Century was integrated the area of today's Switzerland in the Roman realm. First Switzerland belonged to the Roman province Gallia Belgica, then to the province Germania Superior, the east to the province Raetia. The central alps (Whale-read and to Hochsavoyen) belonged to the province Vallis Poenina and Alpes Graiae. The center of Switzerland was Aventicum (Avenches).
The Romans built traffic routes, at which settlements (vici) developed, mainly on a line between Geneva and Arbon: AdFines (Pfyn), Arbor Felix (Arbon), Basilia (Basel), Curia (Chur), Genava (Geneva), Lousanna (Lausanne), Octodurus or forum Claudii Vallensium (Martigny), Salodurum (Solothurn), Drusomagnus (?) (Sion), Tasgaetium (Eschenz), Turicum (Zurich), Urba (Orbe), Vitudurum (upper Winterthur). Roman putting ion camps (lat: Castra) gave it in Tenedo (Zurzach) and Vindonissa (Windisch).
After the case of the Limes the westRoman realm could not hold the provinces Rhätien and Helvetien any longer and withdrew themselves. The gallo Roman trunks withdrew themselves into the alps , while Alemannen settled the flat country.
a Christianisierung is only starting from that 3. Century proven, however up to the beginning 4. Century only in meager finds. The Christianity spread along the Roman structures. The initial emphasis was thereby in the today's Western part of Switzerland.
There are legends of martyrs during the Christian pursuit of Diokletian (Mauritius in pc. Maurice, Ursus and Viktor in Solothurn, Felix and Regula in Zurich), which probably decrease/go back to the historical cleanings of the Roman army of Christian 298.
In Geneva, Sion and Basel developed in 4. Century churches and bishop seat. In Geneva and Martigny there are remnants of sakralen buildings from this time. In church documents 381 bishop Theodul von Martigny is testified, around 400 bishop Isaak of Geneva, 451 bishop Asinioof Chur.
on Graubündener area and in the Tessin 5 developed in. Century numerous churches and some monasteries. In the Western part of Switzerland the Christianisierung was promoted by the Burgunderkönige, e.g. the abbey Saint Maurice and the monastery Romainmôtier created. As Germanic Franconias in 6. Humans of the Western part of Switzerland replaced, were already Christian century the Burgunder.
In east Switzerland there were isolated Christian communities from the Roman time (e.g. Arbon), but it dominated thoseby the majority heidnischen Alemannen. As the Irish moving monks Columban, Gallus and Fridolin in 7. Century to the Bodensee , found they came to strong resistance, because the inhabitants admired Wodan there. The first churches in alemannischem area were Säckingen and the Einsiedeleifrom Gallus stone oh, the later monastery pc. Gallen.
The moving monks were however in their mission quite successful, and the numerous establishments of monastery in 8. Century in east Switzerland (e.g. Pc. Gallen, Disentis, Pfäfers, Luzern) took place in a christianisierten country. As in another place however heidnische people customs kept themselves still long time parallel to the Christianity.
the early Middle Ages
By that Contract of Verdun in the year 843 came the area of the Western part of Switzerland to Lorraine (starting from 888 Western part of Switzerland to the Kingdom of Burgund), the remaining area to the German Reich (east Franconia realm and late HRR).
The Königspfalz Zurich, since 800 the southernmost Königspfalz in Swabia,by the Karolingern more frequently one visits.Ludwig the pious one created for his daughters the woman cathedral, which became one the richest landed property in the central and east Switzerland, also Karl of the thickness is repeated in Zurich.
the high Middle Ages
The having citizens have its master lock, the having castle in Switzerland and in the close bridge city Brugg (not far of the ruins of the Roman castellet Vindonissa) their first urban residence in the 11. Century. The Aargau belongs to their master landing.
By becoming extinct some local count sexes in 13. Century, concentrated the landed property at the aristocracy - the having citizens inherited expanded Ländereien of the Zähringer, spring citizens and Kyburger in the area of the today's cantons Schwyz, Nidwalden, Glarus, Zurich by skillful marriage politics.
Cities such as Zurich, Berne, Basel and Freiburg became in 13. Century to free realm cities.
beginning of the confederation
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Starting from 1230 becomesthe God hard passport by the building of the devil bridge to a trade route. Bünder of passports is however further more important.
The forest place Uri (1240) and Schwyz (1231) attain in 13. Century of liberty letters of Friedrich II., them the realm immediacy with large autonomyassure by a Landammann. 1273 become Rudolf I.of having castle German king. It begins in the forest places Vögte, officially as a court representative for the emperor, in fact as a representative for the house having castle. To 15. July 1291 dies the king.The federal letter from 1291, which does not want to revoke existing conditions, probably develops as direct consequence of death: The forest place (places) Uri, Schwyz and Unterwalden close the federation of 1291. Surely an older precedes this federation, probablyof 1240.
1315 want Leopold I. implement Habsburgi claim to power in inside Switzerland from Austria. Its armored knight army comes however into an ambush of the oath comrades and in the battle with Morgarten is nearly completely destroyed. The fairy tale controversy went to the battle to thatSchwyzer with the monastery a settling standing under the protection of the having citizens ahead, in whose process the Schwyzer was exkommuniziert due to a complaint of the abbott and thereupon the monastery plünderten. Leopold took to the cause for the war course.
In Zurich mayor Rudolf Brun gets after the guild revolution difficulties with the Habsburgi Rapperswil, where itself the refugees noble ones andCommercial gentlemen determined and solve them 1351 by an alliance with the forest places.
Also Glarus looked for the entry to the confederation, in order to resist the having citizen pressure, however 1352 got only one entry as Zweitklass Eidgenosse.
Course was the Habsburgi commercial envelope place upthe God hard route and after the entry of Zurich to the confederation a considerable obstacle. The city course was habsburgisch gesinnt, the office course (the environment) had strong sympathies for the oath comrades. After a FE storage course was taken, and then 1352 city andOffice taken up to the federation of the oath comrades.
1353 closed also Berne one „eternal federation “with the forest places.
The resulting thing is called the eight old persons of places. It concerns however not a confederation of states but rather around a conglomerateof alliances of the individual partners among themselves.
Within the confederation it comes 1449- 1450 to the old person Zurich war, because Zurich and Schwyz argue about the Ländereien at the upper Zurich lake, left by the last count von Toggenburg. With sank the Jakobs to burst a minority by Swiss by the French army one reams,however after so strong Gegenwehr that the Frenchmen do without a far march.
After the Bernese the Savoyard Waadt, tooBurgund belonged, had conquered, undertook Karl the bold one a campaign. After the FE storage of Grandson it becomes to 2. March 1476 in the battle with Grandson at the new citizen lake into the escape struck. The oath comrades do not only capture hundreds of cannons,but also the camp of the duke, who did not do as an at that time richest European prince also in the field without splendid yard attitude. The castle-and-captured immeasurably large for Swiss conditions brought in the consequence social conditions in the Wanken. Few months later besiegedKarl the city Murten, where its professional army to 22. June 1476 in the battle with Murten was reamed by the oath comrades. In the next year the oath comrades the friendly duke from Lorraine came to assistance. Karl the bold one falls to 5. January 1477 in the battle with Nancy. Popular edited version: Karl the bold one lost the property, with Murten the courage, with Grandson with Nancy the blood.
A substantial consequence of the Burgunderkriege was that the victories of Grandson and Murtenagainst a military great power the princes of Europe caused, the successful oath comrades as mercenaries to enlist the so-called rice runners. At the same time the force equilibrium shifted in favor of the cities. A heavy crisis developed, as the two cities Freiburg in the Üechtland and Solothurn, thosein the Burgunderkriegen on the side of the oath comrades had fought, likewise admission into the federation demanded. With the Stanser come-sneeze came it by the switching of Nikolaus of Flüe in last minute to an agreement.
With the entry of Solothurn and Freiburg 1481, Basel and work living 1501, and Appenzell 1513 the confederation extended to thirteen old persons of places. The Waadt was conquered, Lugano and Locarno were attached likewise the federation. In addition the cities pc. came as turned places. Gallen, Biel, Rottweil, Mülhausen and Geneva, the abbey pc. Gallen as well as new castle.
1506 established the Pope Julius II. the Swiss guard, the Cohors Helvetica, which represents to today the actual army of the Vatikan. The high pointSwiss federal military power was 1513, when they became even protectors of the duke of Milan.
After the defeat against France with the battle with Marignano the oath comrades closed to 14. September 1515 peace with Franz I. from France, did withouton further military interventions in Italy and explained themselves for neutral. As mercenaries Swiss, particularly those from the catholic cantons, continues to fight however up to the French revolution in strange war services.
reformation and Gegenreformation
of game houses Ulrich Zwingli 1519 introduced reformation in Zurich spread in the central country . To the Kappelerkriegen it came 1531 in the second Kappeler land peace to the compromise: Zurich, Berne, Basel, work living and parts of grey federations remain reformed; the Urkantone, Luzern, course, Solothurn and that Freiburg remain catholic. 1541 interspersed Johannes Calvin in Geneva the reformation.
to 24. October 1648 reached Switzerland owing to the negotiation fate of the Basler of mayor Johann Rudolf stone in the Westfäli peace the international-law acknowledgment of their actually long achieved sovereignty.
Helvetik, Mediation, restoration
to 5. May 1798 became the old person confederation of Franceconquers and the central state Helveti republic thereupon establishes. Later, Napoléon Bonaparte in the Mediationsakte a new condition and returned dismemberment ordered five years for 1803 and to Switzerland their autonomy to a large extent. The former subject areas and turned places Pc. Gallen, grey federations, Aargau, Thurgau, Tessin and Waadt became independent cantons (19-örtige confederation).
1815 were recognized “the neutrality of Switzerland” always lasting by the European great powers at the Viennese congress. A new condition, „the federal contract“, the self-sufficiency of the cantons strengthened in the restoration time in such a way specified. That whale-read, new castle and Geneva came as new cantons to it (22-örtige confederation). In the cantons of the central country the conservative restoration already ended in the so-called. Regeneration 1830/31, howa two-splitting of Switzerland into liberals and conservative cantons developed.
Swiss Federal State
after a sequential polarization between liberals (by the majority urban-reformed) and conservative (by the majority rural-catholic) cantons and after the free crowd courses the catholic places Luzern close, Uri, Schwyz, Unterwalden, course, Freiburg and whale-read 1845 to the special federation together. The antagonism between the catholic and reformed cantons led in November 1847 to the special federation war. The special federation becomes finally after military conflicts under general Henri Dufour terminates.
at this time, to 9. August 1847, became the first railway line of Switzerland, which opens Spanish bread dear ancestor, between the cities Zurich and bathing. After first kantonalen stamps, Zurich 4and Zurich 6 1843 given change are, 1848 the Swiss post office were based. (see also: Post office history and stamps of Switzerland)
to 12. September 1848 assembles Switzerland as “parliamentary Federal State” and gives themselves a Federal Constitution. The latter became to 19. April 1874 totalrevises. This revision remained existing with some changes and adjustments to 1999.
during of the The First World War retained Switzerland its neutrality, however the army was mobilized. Social tensions unloaded themselves toward end the war in the form of unrests, strike (national strike) and demonstrations. After the war Switzerland became 1920 member of the Völkerbundes, which has its seat in Geneva.
1926 were created the welfare organization of children of the highway the pros Juventute on energizing the Upper House of Parliament Giuseppe Motta. Under this welfare organization jenische children their parents entrissen were partly obligation-sterilized and . 1972 became “childrenthe highway " dissolved. After today's Swiss right applies this pursuit as genocide.
the Second World War
major item: Switzerland in the Second World War
Switzerland appointed itself during the Second World War to its armed neutrality and arranges the general mobilization of the army under the commander in chief general Henri Guisan (1874 - 1960). Completely enclosed from the Axis powers, tried one with rationingand systematic use of among other things Green areas such as meeting football fields (plan elections) of the food scarceness. Occasionally the Axis powers planned the invasion of Switzerland (operation fir tree).
Despite strict asylum politics 51,100 “illegal” civilian, from it 21,300 Jews received andfurther pursued ones, refuge in Switzerland. Many other protection-looking for the entry was however refused (“the boat is full”). The official Ludwig report from 1957 proceeds from 10.000 rejected refugees. A historian federal archie estimated 1996 30.000. Its estimation method is howeverdisputed. Dossiers remained only in the district Geneva, where after the official border locking for “illegal”, civilian refugees of 13. August 1942 the majority of the refugees arrived. In accordance with a computergestützen analysis of the refugee dossiers in the year 2000 by that Geneva public recordsdespite closed border 86% of the “illegal” refugees and 92% of Jewish descent were taken up.
In order Jews recognize and to reject to be able, pushed Switzerland 1938 the Hitler realm to mark all passports of Jewish realm members by a J. The J-stamp-reproach is to 21.March 1954 in an article observers please for the first time: “To Swiss Rothmund comes the terrible merit/service the way (to the J-stamp) to have cleared”. In the expenditure 18/1998 the observer for the consequence-fraught mistake apologized - on himDr. Max cellar had made attentive - and corrected the old reproach unmistakably: “Is clear with it; with the Jew stamp it concerns a German raid ".
Since the Jews were considered as refugees only for race reasons, they did not have a legal claim on admission.The refugee politics during the Second World War are to occupy particularly by the word of the Upper House of Parliament Eduard von Steiger already strongly life raft to have been coined/shaped. The role of Switzerland in the Second World War became into the 1990er-Jahren with writing of the Bergierberichtes revises.
orphan politics and thing children
between approx. 1800 and 1950 were taken away orphan and divorce children from the authorities and interested as thing children publicly offered for sale. One could do these in a regularly accomplished public thing market ersteigern. The Zuspruch gotthat family, which required at few the food money. These children were mostly used in farms to hard labour. They were frequently exploited, degraded or raped thereby. The number of such children amounted to several hundredthousands. Many these, which into the 1960er and 1970er years were hired, today still wait for an official apology of the government and require financial remunerations.
Switzerland after the war and the EEC
The Upper House of Parliament leaned to 13. September 1988 the entry of Switzerlandto the European community and the people to 6. December 1992 the entry of Switzerland to the European marketing area (EWR) off.
as lastly internationalrecognized state except the Vatikan stepped Switzerland after a good-been called popular vote to 10. September 2002 the United Nations (UN). See also: Switzerland in the United Nations.
To 10. December 2003 became Christoph Blocher of that SVP in place of Ruth Metzler (CVP) to the Upper House of Parliament selected and transferred the law and police section. Thus for the first time the party-political composition of the Upper House of Parliament (= Federal Government) changes, the “magic formula in such a way specified since 1959 “(party-political reconciliation). With the choice of the populist right politician Blocher now a completely changed situation in the Upper House of Parliament, which puts the concordance politics of the Swiss federal government practiced up to then seriously to the test, develops.
old and Mittelsteinzeit (Paläolithikum and Mesolithikum)
- J. - M. Le Tensorer, And. Niffeler (Hrsg.): Paläolithikum and Mesolithikum. Switzerland from the Paläolithikum to the early Middle Ages (SPM). Bd 1.Swiss society for Ur and early history, Basel 1993.ISBN 3908006503
- A. Furger, C. Fischer, M. Hone iron (Hrsg.): First thousands of years. Switzerland from the beginnings to the Eisenzeit.Archaeology and culture history of Switzerland. Bd 1.New inhabitants of zurich newspaper, Zurich 1998.ISBN 3-85823-721-3
- E. Stöckli, And. Niffeler, E. Large clover (Hrsg.): Neolithikum. SPM. Bd 2. Swiss society for Ur and early history, Basel 1995. ISBN 3908006511
- S. Hochuli (Hrsg.): Bronzezeit. SPM. Bd3. Swiss society for Ur and early history, Basel 1998.ISBN 390800652X
- Gabriele Kastl (talk.): Golden centuries. The Bronzezeit in South West German country. Yearbook. Bd 2. Theiss, Stuttgart 1997. ISBN 3-8062-1298-8
- Ute Seidel: Bronzezeit. Collections of the Württembergi federal state museum. Bd 2. Stuttgart 1995. ISBN 3-929055-38-4
Eisenzeit (resounding place and Latènezeit)
- Andres Furger Gunti: The Helvetier. Culture history of a Keltenvolkes. New inhabitants of zurich newspaper, Zurich 1984, 1986, 1988. ISBN 3-85823-225-4
- F. Mueller, G. Kaenel, G. Lü (Hrsg.): Eisenzeit. SPM. Bd 4. Swiss society forUr and early history, Basel 1999.ISBN 3908006538
- Konrad Spindler: The early Celts. Reclam, Stuttgart 1983, 1991, 1996. ISBN 3-15-010323-1
- W. Drack, R. Skin man: The Romans in Switzerland. Theiss, Stuttgart 1988. ISBN 3-8062-0420-9
- L. Flutsch, And.Niffeler, F. Rossi (Hrsg.):Roman time. SPM. Bd 5. Swiss society for Ur and early history, Basel 2002. ISBN 3908006546
- Andres Furger: Switzerland between antique ones and the Middle Ages. New inhabitants of zurich newspaper, Zurich 1996. ISBN the 3-85823-560-1
early Middle Ages
- R.Windler, R. Marti, And. Niffeler, L. Steiner (Hrsg.):The early Middle Ages. SPM. Bd 6. Swiss society for Ur and early history, Basel 2005. ISBN 3-908006-56-2
- J. Ewald, J. Deaf (Hrsg.): Scene past. Results from the archaeology today.Meadow,Basel 1998.ISBN 3909164625