History of the Steiermark

table of contents

prehistory

under the rule of the Romans, during whom the Celts, among them as main trunk the Taurisker, which inhabited country, belonged the eastern part of Steiermarks to Pannonien, the western to Noricum. During the people migration occupied or pulled Westgoten, Hunnen, Ostgoten, Rugier, Langobarden, Franconias and Awaren successively the country through. Since 595 Slawen ( hoists, why in former times the area was called the windische Mark ) took top of the same only untern the part, after defeating the Awaren also in possession. As a part this karentanischen Slawengebiets came the Murland under Bavarian offering moderateness, then under karolingisch Frankish rule.

the Middle Ages

the Christianity spread gradually in these areas from Salzburg , which was raised to the metropolitan seat and its parish also over the later Steiermark expanded. Among Karl's successors it had by hostile ideas, in particular the Magyaren to suffer much. The Mark counts von Karantanien, the region at the left Ennsufer the dukes of Bavaria held the considerable part , westward and the north . In the 11. Century was branched off a special Mark of “Kärnten “ by the duchy Kärnten and 1056 the Ottokar of Steyr the first Traungauer, one used the Lambach sex, lent. Since then the name became Steiermark instead of frühern the Kärntner Mark usually.

Mark count Ottokar IV., which of emperor Friedrich I. in the year 1180 the herzogliche became received, closed, since he was without male inheriting, 1186 with the Babenberger Leopold V. of Austria a succession contract, according to whose latter after Ottokars death combined 1192 the duchy Steiermark with its countries. (see: Georgenberger strong one)

Leopolds of sons Friedrich and Leopold VI. from Austria 1194 the rule of Austria and Steiermark divided, but came already 1198 with Friedrichs death both again into Leopolds hand. This 1230 Friedrich the contentious one followed. Since it governed very arbitrarily, the Steiermärker complaint led with the emperor Friedrich II. and their liberties received in Ottokars will kept again confirmed from the same. This liberty letter and Ottokars will gave the steirischen landstrong their developing. After the death of the last Babenbergers, Friedrichs of the contentious one (1246), the intermediate realm followed, in which the duchy, so perishable for the Steiermark, although a party of the conditions Heinrich of Bavaria 1253 to the duke selected, 1254 under mediating the Pope between the kings Ottokar II. of Böhmen and Bela IV. from Hungary one divided. Ottokar II. defeated those Hungary 1260 on the Marchfeld. It was belehnt 1262 by the German (counter) king smelling pool of broadcasting corporations with Austria and the Steiermark, but merrily it explains 1276 of the German king Rudolf of having castle of these Lehen on which latter 1282 its sons, Albrecht I. and Rudolf, when governor began. Rudolf was belehnt 1283 as an exclusive hereditary national gentleman with the Steiermark. From now on the duchy remained in the possession of the house having castle. With after Rudolfs IV. Death 1365 between its brothers Albrecht III. and Leopold III. 1379 made division the Steiermark with Kärnten, Tirol etc. fell. to letztern. When its sons divided 1406 again, the Steiermark Ernst was awarded to the iron one. Its oldest son and successor (since 1424) was the after times emperor Friedrich III., that again all habsburgischen country combined. When 1456 the gefürsteten counts von Cilli became extinct, Friedrich acquired their possessions due to earlier contracts.

early modern times

the theories of the German Reformatoren already found since 1530 in the Steiermark entrance, and 1547 stressed the national captain Johann baron Ungnad on Reichstag religion exercise free to Augsburg; but the same could only on the land days too bridges 1575 and 1578 the duke Karl II., the youngest son emperor Ferdinands I., which during the land division 1564 the Steiermark, Kärnten and Krain too part had become, are abgenötigt. In order to restrain the spreading of the new teachings, duke Karl 1570 called the Jesuiten to assistance and donated to 1586 the high school to Graz. Its son Ferdinand II., which took over 1596 the government, Karl II. explained the liberty letter of his father. for waived and 1598 knows the Protestant teachers and Prediger from the country. An on that used catholic Gegenreformationskommission instructed all Protestant citizens to go over either to the catholic religion to emigrate or. Many Protestanten swore at that time their confession off; an important number however, usually the richest and most outstanding families belonging, left the homeland, and only in the inaccessible mountains of the Colonel egg Marks secretly the Evangelist faith kept in individual farmer families, why itself there, after Joseph II. 1781 faith liberty had proclaimed, some Protestant municipalities constituted. Ferdinand II. 1619 inherited also remaining Austrian country, and the Steiermark remained since then a part of the same. Since Karl VI. (1728) no more national prince accepted the Huldigung, and since 1730 no more the landstrong confirmed. From now on the Steiermark divided the fates of the Austrian monarchy and remained also during the Napoleoni wars the having citizens.

19. Century

in the first half 19. Century was the mining district of the Colonel egg Marks one of the centers of the industrialization, feed motion carried a traditional ironmongery industry out.

In the age of the nationalism the tensions increased slowenischsprachigen Steirern between German and, without reaching however the same effects as in Böhmen and Mähren. Above all focuses were the German-language cities in slowenischsprachiger environment, beside Marburg (Maribor) Cilli (Celje). Because of the plan to introduce to the Cillier High School slowenischsprachige classes 1895 even the Austrian government was fallen.

20. Century


In the contract of Saint Germain the Steiermark was divided: the lowest egg Mark with the cities Cilli and Marburg came to the SHS kingdom, the remainder remained with Austria. Differently than in Kärnten there were thereby however no bloody arguments.

In the SHS state the lowest egg Mark with Krain was united to the Draubanat. Today it forms approximately the eastern third of Slovenia.

During intermediate wartime the Steiermark divided the fate of the other Austrian Lands of the Federal Republic, the industrial area of the Colonel egg Marks was particularly strongly concerned from the economic crisis.

After the “connection “it formed the realm gau Steiermark in the third realm as well as the south castle country, to which the lowest egg Mark of 1942 was attached - again 1945.

To short Soviet crew the Steiermark came to the British zone of occupation, in which she remained until 1955.

Starting from the 1970er - years is to be observed a relocation of the industrial structure: the old industrial area in the Colonel egg Mark goes through to today a substantial contraction process, while the traditionally agrarian Oststeiermark new industries develops.

Mark counts of the Steiermark from the family of the Otakare (Traungauer)

literature

magazines

  • magazine of the historical association for Steiermark. Bd. 1 (1902) FF. New consequence beginning with Bd. 1 (1954) FF.
  • Contributions to customer of steiermärkischer historical sources. Hrsg. of historical associations for Steiermark. 1 (1864) - 32 (1902). Continued as: Contributions for research steirischer history. NF1 (1903) - NF9 (1918). Again continued as: Contributions for the study of steirischer historical sources NF10 (1931) FF.

Monographien

  • Ziegerhofer, Anita: Ferdinand I. and the steirischen conditions: represented on the basis the federal state parliament from 1542 to 1556. Graz 1996.


See also: History of Austria, Steiermark (term clarifying)

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