history of the video games the video games in about 50 years from rather technical attempts at universities to one of the most influential leisure activities forms . Century. See also video game culture.
Table of contents
The further development depended strongly on the technical advancement of the computer technology. Thus the first, graphically still quite simple computer games on large computers at American universities developed and remained thus only for a small number of students and scientists reserving, as for instance “were ! “of 1962 at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (WITH).
at the beginning of the 1970er years developed from the existing mass-produced and therefore relatively low-priced television technology electronic play automats, which for the first time also münzbetrieben the public were accessible. Therefore alsothe designation “video game”. The first successful play was “Pong “, from Atari - founder Nolan Bushnell develops. One met the automats differently than today less in play halls, but - also for children accessible in entrances of supermarkets, kiosks, Pommesbuden, cafeterias or other public places. A playfor a Mark was normal.
In the course of the 1970er years developed the video games rapidly and e.g. became. of companies such as Atari or Magnavox in the form of video play consoles also more attractively for home users; thus the public play halls lost gradually their supremacy within the range of the video games.With the conversion of the very successful play hall play “space Invaders “for the Atari 2600 1979 the break-through came for the home consoles, which developed rapidly to the mass-produced article.
by the introduction of the Home and personal computers (PC) developed for the time being two technically from each other separated kinds of the video game: The actual video game (at that time also “Telespiel”) based on special play consoles and the computer game for the computer.
In the year 1983 it came to the large Crash on the video game market. Reasons were:
- Inundation of the marketby a high number of bad plays (particularly for the Atari 2600)
- unrealistic expectations of profit of the usually small manufacturing firms
- superiority of the home computers concerning technology and application possibilities with price discrepancy between HC and console easy copyableness,
- sinking at the same time, of computer game EN (see: Softwarepiraterie) on cartridges and Disks and attractiveness in relation to the modules of the video games (copy protection was not a competitive disadvantage , an advantage , like sometimes is accepted here ), not higher thereby, copyable for private individuals
, only once past the successful time of the video consoles was. In the year 1984 practically none becamePlays sells, except residues.
In Japan, where home computers were not so popular, and which had been less strong Crash therefore, there was a new hope: There of Nintendo became 1983 published 8-bit console Famicom after initial difficulties a large success. As Nintendo Entertainment system (NES) formodified, Nintendo tested the western market the reaction of the American buyers in the Christmas business 1985. 50,000 systems were marketed limited to the city New York. The resonance was good. Thereupon the NES was introduced 1986 to completely North America and 1987 into Europe. But only the publicationof super Mario Bros. (Japan 1985, North America 1986), which exceeded all video games appeared up to then in length and complexity, released a proper “Nintendomania”: The sales figures rose and a new era of the video games began.< ref> Chris charcoal burner: Power UP. Indianapolis, Indiana 2004, ISBN 0744004241, section ComingHome: Super Mario Bros. S. 54-63 </ref>
The origins of most play category lie in this time epoch. Games of roles, running plays, Jump' n of run, Beat' em ups, Adventures and many further play categories were developed in this time.
[...] There was a break-through in Europe of the so-called 16-Bit-Konsolen super Nintendo Entertainment system (SNES) and Sega mega drive in firstHalf of the 90's. These play consoles were world-wide extremely successful. They offered a better diagram and a better sound than the consoles and computer games to the players into the 80ern. The moreover one further „Handheld “- console on the market - the Sega Game Gear came.
Since centerthe 1990er - Years are again strengthened united the two video game ranges for play consoles and PC for marketing reasons. Thus uniform storage media (like the CD-ROM ) and a compatible hardware formed the possibility, plays both for different consoles and for PCs parallel and thus more economically and forto develop a broader mass-market.
The most important innovation on the console market was the change of 2D in 3D in the middle of the 90's assistance of the PlayStation and the Sega Saturns. The earlier consoles could represent also ansatzweise 3D-Grafik, this however only to assistance of special diagram chips,into the modules were integrated. Later still the consoles Nintendo 64 and the Sega Dreamcast were added. With the PC for the first time 3D-Beschleuniger-Karten emerged, with which one could play 3D-Spiele for the PC. The 3D-Unterstützung of the diagram maps became later indispensable. Later generations of diagram maps hadboth 2D and 3D-Unterstützung integrate firmly. [...]
First networkable plays come for the PC on the trade. Thus develop new play possibilities, which were possible only ansatzweise before. Multi-player plays were usually to 2 players, with Nintendo 64 usually to 4 players limited. With the PCone could include now depending upon possibility far over 10 players into a play. First games of roles and strategy with on-line ability and network appeared.
of video games are nowadays a widespread and important form of the maintenance. Their influence on young people and children is still relatively unexplored particularly. In particular the question is disputed, to what extent video games increase the ready for violence shank of the users. In many countries its own industry formed of them for the development of video games,Conversions partly those the film industry exceed.
Strengthened the artistic aspect of the development is recognized by video games, and so after the year 2000 also first scientific courses of studies were created briefly for the study of this new medium.
2004 lent the music transmitter MTV for the first time “internationally the Game Awards” in Berlin, the publications of the new video game consoles are celebrated in the media as Event (from Microsoft transfer presentation of the new Xbox 360 by MTV).
At the end of of 1998 took place with the Sega Dreamcast the introduction of the new console generation. Later the PlayStation 2 followed, that Gamecube and the Xbox. There were hardly innovations with the consoles, otherwise only graphic and acoustic evolution found instead of (clearly more highly detailed and aufwändigere plays, 3D-Sound is possible).
Later Sony, in co-operation with Logitech, published some years the Eye Toy camera for Sony PlayStation 2. This,to video games new input device, is considered as large innovation and found also more support on the part of the play developers than other similarly revolutionary ideas. Also for the Sega Dreamcast gave it already an optionally available camera (DreamEye), these however not as input device one used, but only as Webcamfor the associated on-line VideoChat software. Whether this concept works finally will have itself to still show.
The Handhelds likewise experienced a technical evolution, if also not in the same measure as the consoles. However the newest generation of the Handhelds, which appeared 2005, but technically more advanced is as the old generation, which could represent only 2D-Grafik (in color). The current Handhelds have partly the efficiency (still) of the current consoles.
|1958||in October presents William Higinbotham with tennis for to Two the first “video game”|
|1962||Stephen Russell was developed!for the PDP-1|
|1967||Ralph bear builds the TV Gaming display|
|1971||Nolan Bushnell designs the video game automat computer space, which was on! been based. For the mass break-through the play is still too complicated.|
|Don Daglow programs baseball for the PDP-10|
|1972||Nolan Bushnell and TedDabney create Atari|
|Pong for November sell|
|Magnavox publish the play console Odyssey|
|of the hobby cave researchers William Crowther program a Vorversion first text-based adventure play Adventure; the program is meant as a simple cave research simulation, not as play in the actual sense.|
|Gregory Yob programs the Proto Textadventure Hunt the Wumpus|
|1973||the play automat Elepong of Taito publishes|
|Midway licensed Pong and drives it out under the name Winner|
|1975||Midway publishes the play automat Gun Fight with microprocessor|
|Don Daglow programs the Proto RPG Dungeon for the PDP-10|
|Don Woods extends William Crowther's cave research simulationaround various Fantasy - elements; the result is Adventure, the first genuine adventure play.|
|a home version of Pong successfully publishes|
|1976||Apple I successfully introduced|
|Fairchild drives out the first programmable, module-based play console Channel F|
|1977||the first play console of Nintendo arisesthe market|
|the video computer system (VCS) of Atari presents|
|Apple II comes on the market|
|Commodore presents the programmable personnel electronics Transactor (PET)|
|RadioShack places the TRS-80 home computer before|
|1978||the play automat space Invaders of Taito becomes world-wide successfulsold|
|Roy Trubshaw develop the first on-line play at the University of Essex|
|1979||smelling pool of broadcasting corporations Garriott program Akalabeth, the forerunner of the Ultima - series|
|of 1980||Pac One becomes the usually sold video game|
|space Invaders appears for the Atari VCS|
|Shigeru Miyamoto sketches the play hall play Donkey Kong, in thatfor the first time Jumpman appears, late, under the names super to Mario, cult|
|Nintendo published with the Game & Watch - row the first successful Handheld console|
|1981||Commodore publishes the VC 20|
|IBM brings the first PC on the market|
|1982||Commodore brings that C64 on the market|
|Don Daglow programs the Proto Sim play Utopia for the Intellivision|
|1983||Sega publishes the play console SG 1000|
|electronics kind published first plays for the Atari and Apple the II|
|Atari makes large loss|
|1984||the console play market practically broke down. The computer game market boomt.|
|1985||Nintendo sell Nintendo Entertainment system (NES) in the USA and Europe|
|1986||Commodore publish the Amiga 500|
|1987||Nintendo publish the first part of the play series The putting OF Zelda|
|LucasArts publish the computer game Maniac Mansion|
|1989||Sega bring the mega drive on thatMarket|
|Nintendo publishes the Game Boy with Tetris|
|1990||Nintendo publishes the super Nintendo Entertainment system|
|1991||simmers Meier Civilization appears|
|Don Daglow and Cathryn Mataga programs the Proto MMORPG Neverwinter Nights for AOL|
|1993||Doom of ID software appears|
|Commodore publishes the CD32, thosefirst 32bit console|
|1994||Sony publishes the PlayStation in Japan, 1995 in Europe and America|
|the electronics Entertainment Expo finds for the first time instead of|
|1995||Tomb Raider of Eidos appears|
|1996||Nintendo publishes the first part of the play series Pokémon|
|1997||Ultima on-line ones starts|
|1998||Sega bringt Dreamcast auf den Markt|
|2000||Sony bringt die PlayStation 2 auf den Markt|
|2001||die Xbox von Microsoft und der Gamecube von Nintendo erscheinen|
|2005||Nintendo DS wird veröffentlicht|
|Sony veröffentlich die PSP|
|Microsoft veröffentlicht die Xbox 360|
- play consoles and home computer - 256 devices from 1972 to 2002 (author: Vienna never Forster, GAMEplan, ISBN 3-00-010658-8, 10.00 euro, 144 sides)
- play consoles and home computers - 2. Edition from 1972 to 2005 (author: Vienna never Forster, GAMEplan, ISBN 3-00-015290-3, 24,80Euro, 224 sides)
- Steven L. Kent: The Ultimate History OF video Games. From Pong ton of Pokémon and Beyond - The story Behind the Craze That Touched Our live one and Changed the World. Roseville/California 2001, ISBN 0-7615-3643-4