History Iran

the name Iran comes from the westIranian dialects of the large Iranian language family (see Iranian languages) and means country of the Arier. The eastIranian equivalent is Aryana. The term Iran refers in the actual sense to a much larger region, thosealso includes the areas of the modern States of Afghanistan, Tadschikistan, Iraq, Azerbaijan, Usbekistan , Turkmenistan and parts of Pakistan and Turkey (see high country of Iran). Thus contain this article to a large part also the history of those states and regions. ThoseHistory of the modern State of Iran begins exactly taken with the establishment of Afghanistan in the east of Iran and the ascent of the Zand dynasty (see below) in the west. The designation Iran becomes since that 21. March 1935 also in the evening country for old Persia uses, during it before bothin the country and outside of the European-American linguistic area always the country designated.

“Only few peoples were able their national identity to protect during a so long period away.” (Willy Brandt)

table of contents

early advanced cultures (approx. 4,000 v. Chr. to 550 v. Chr.)

In the Jungsteinzeit (Neolithikum) the country already became,as Iran designated, one settles, and/or. settlement traces are provable. In 4. Millenium v. Chr. there was a first moving movement of Indogermanen, which have the designation Arier (ariyānām ) with the Indian as it were. The origin of these Arier is disputed, at least from the north, over it is one agree. Already toward end 4. Millenium v. Chr. the agriculture can be spoken operating, established population developed of an urban civilization, from.

realm Elam (2,600 v. Chr. to 640 v. Chr.)

The first realm upIranian soil is the realm Elam, the today's area around Chusistan (Khuzistan), that off large world history of first emerging around 2600 v. Chr. up to the defeat against the Assyri realm, around 640 v. Chr., Existence had. The kings called themselves “ofAnshan and Susa “a designation will find late still use.

The second moving movement (the actual Indoiranier), around 1250 v. Chr., of indogermanischen Reiternomaden from the steppes of south Russia, can be seized historically more exactly. The occurrence of the Meder, (Madai), around 900 v.Chr., in whose consequence the Perser (Pārsa), used with the Medern, from which area of the Urmia lake coming, pulled tight, changed the native population structure.

Meder realm (728 v. Chr. to 550 v. Chr.)

The Meder realm was the first large Iranian realm. ThoseInhabitants were the Meder, as whose descendants the today's Kurds ( Kardukhen) regard. Their language, culture and descent were Iranian. 835 v. Chr. mentioned the assyrische king for the first time the medischen trunks. Soon after their occurance of they knew large ranges of the assyrischen realmsubject. In the year 715 v. Chr. the chieftain leader Deiokes led the medischen trunks without success against the assyrische realm. A successor, Phraortes, could unite the remaining Iranian trunks and destroy the assyrische kingdom. It created the medische capital Ekbatana (the today's Hamadan). Astyages, the last medische king, led the realm to 550 v. Chr..

the antique one (550 v. Chr. to 642 n. Chr.)

See also to Perserreich

the Achämeniden

the rule of the Achämeniden lasted from approx. 559 v. Chr. - 330 v. Chr.
Kyros II. the large one created the first world realm of history, the old-Persian large realm as a Persian king ( Schah).

Perserreich um 500 v.Chr.
Perserreich around 500 v.Chr.
  • 539 v. Chr. Babylon was defeated taken the again-Babylonian realm (Chaldäer).
  • 525 v. Chr. Egypt the Achämenidenreich was integrated.
  • 521 v. Chr. - 486 v. Chr. governs Dareios I.the large one, which was characterised by enormous millitärisches being able. It triumphed to Westreuropa in the first year of its rule in 19 battles in an area of which as largely was as whole.Further it created itself by its wise policy and tolerance a name.
  • 500 v. Chr. rose the Greeks against the Persian rule, with which the Perserkriege was introduced. The rebellion became 494 v. Chr. with the destruction Milets depressed. Here 2 ideologies faced each other.The Iranians represented the realm idea under keeping of the national identities during the Greeks the city states ideology (Polis) under complete independence preferred.
  • 486 v. Chr. - 465 v. Chr.: Xerxes I.
  • 450 v. Chr. - 404 v. Chr.take place rebellions against the Achämeniden in Egypt,Syria and in the heartland of the realm.
  • 359 v. Chr. - 338 v. Chr.: Artaxerxes III.

the Alexanderfeldzug

the Seleukiden

the Arsakiden

the Sassaniden

  • 224 - 650: The Sassanidenreich (based of the last old-Persian dynasty) proved in late ancient times as an important rival of Rome, whereby it however alsoquite to (occasional) a peaceful coexistence came.
  • 642: The Islamic Arabs conquer Persia (see also Islamic expansion). They defeat the sassanidischen armies and it came finally to a Bekehrung Persia to the Islam, even if it in the 50's still to several rebellionsthe Perser against the foreign rule comes, which is however struck down.

break-down Islam, starting from 642

the Umayyaden (661 to 749)

see: Iran under the Umayyaden

the Abbasiden (749 to 857)

see: Iran under the Abbasiden

restaurant dynasties: (681 to 1191)

the Tahiriden

  • 821 - 873 a Persian general with the name Taher, created 821 an independent small state in Khorasan (east Iran and central Asia), that among its successors toCentral Iran was enough.

See: Tahiriden

the Saffariden

  • 861 - 900 in the southeast Iran (Sistan) forges Yaaqub combined ibn Laith, the dissatisfied population, in order to put the foreign rule down of Bagdad. After the conquest of Khorasan, Kerman and Fars an attack on Bagdad even took place,which could be turned away by peace negotiations of the Kalifen. With the murder of the last Saffariden the dynasty expired.

See: Saffariden

the Samaniden

  • 864 - already 1005 under the Tahiriden were the Samaniden from Khorasan to governors von Westturkestan and the area of the today's Afghanistan ascended, which reached up to the establishment of dynasty and coronation/culmination, however the arising Gaznawiden to bend itself had. The Samaniden is considered as beginning of the tadschikischen nation.

See: Samaniden '

the Bujiden (934 to 1055)

see: Bujiden

the Sijariden (927 to 1035)

see: Sijariden

ascent of the Turks

the Gaznawiden (also Gasnawiden)

see: Gaznawiden

the Ghuriden

see: Ghuriden

the Seldschuken(1038 to 1186)

see: Seldschuken

the Choresm Schahs

see: Choresm Schahs

the Mongols

the Timuriden (1370 to 1495)

see: Timuriden under it Tamerlan (Timur) of 1370 - 1405; under the Timuriden particularly the east of Iran experiences a bloom time and a Herat becomes the new capital of Persia; subsequently,to 1499 restaurant dynasties

the Schia

Safawiden

the Afghans

the Afschariden

(Turkish origin)

during the rule of the Afschariden, particularly after death nadir Schahs, the east areas of Persia were conquered by the Afghans, whose kingdom of the Wegbereiter of the today's state became Afghanistan. To the history of this region after thatTo conquest by the Paschtunen (Afghan), see the major item: History of Afghanistan.

the modern times

begin off here the history modern Iran:

the Zand princes

for the first time after 700 years Mongolian andTurkish rule is again provable a iranischstämmiger ruler on the throne. However it carried not the title of the Schahs, but only a realm manager (Wesir) and/or. Viceroy (Wakil). According to many sources the founder of this short dynasty Karim Khan Zand had been a Kurd.

Work on []

Kadscharen

The Pahlaviden

Time board

  • 1925, 12. December: Reza Chan is appointed by the parliament the Schah (Reza Schah Pahlavi).
  • 1925 /1928: Economics, punishing, and civil law are transformed after European (French) models under keeping of Islamic elements.
  • 1926, 24. April: Coronation/culmination to the Schah - immediately thereafter it uses the compulsory military service and a uniform real estate tax.
  • 1927 /1938: Building of the Transirani railway. The north south line was begun 1929 by the German company Berger.
  • 1927: Central bank based, those of that British imperially bank OFPersia the privilege of the note issue and other privileges took over.
  • 1928/1938: Discovery enrich oil fields.
  • 1928: New tariff trade agreements with many countries.
  • 1929: Western clothes are prescribed with men.
  • 1931: Foreign trade monopoly of the Persian state.
  • 1932: Persia recalls the given concession of 1901 at W. K.d´Arcy.
  • 1934: National designation “Persia” is replaced also in Europe and America by the national designation “Iran” official common in the country and.
  • 1935: Establishment of the Anglo Iranian oil of cost. as well as the university in Teheran.
  • 1936, 7. January: The veil (Tschador) becomes with thatWomen forbade.
  • 1937, 8. July: A Grenzvertrag between Turkey, Iraq and Afghanistan is limited locked on 5 years.

the Second World War

  • 1941, 24. August: British and Soviet troops engage from the west and the south into neutral Iran.
  • 1941, 10. September: Armistice. The new government accepts the demands of Great Britain and the Soviet Union. Among other things: Exemption of railway and road layouts for the transport of war material to the Soviet Union.
  • 1941, 16. September: Reza Schah Pahlavi must due to the pressure thatIf Mohammad Reza Pahlavi allied to favour of its son, resign and from the British to South Africa one kidnaps.
  • 1942, 29. January.: Alliance contract between Great Britain, the Soviet Union and Iran. Under article 5 it is specified that all allied troops at the latest 6 months after end of warIran abandoned must.
  • 1943, 8. April: Trade agreement, which lowered the US-American tariff to Persian carpets and other Iranian products against concessions.
  • 1943, 9. September: Iran explains the war to the Axis powers.
  • 1944, 26. July: Reza Schah Pahlavi diesin Johannesburg.
  • 1946, 22. January: The Republic of Mahabad is proclaimed in the west of the country by Qazi Mohammed at the Car Cira place. He becomes a president of the only Kurdish state of the modern times.
  • 1946, 1. March: British troops leave Iran.
  • 1946, 6. May: Soviet troops leave Iran after it some heavy defeats in the north of the country had suffered.
  • 1946, 16. December: Iranian troops conquer the Republic of Mahabad back.

post-war period

  • 1949, 4. February: Unsuccessful assassination attempt on the Schah at thatUniversity of Teheran.
  • 1951, 29. April: Mohammad Mossadegh (1881-1967) (political opponent of its father, Reza Schah Pahlavi), Prime Minister becomes. Mossadegh leads at the 1. May the nationalization that Anglo Persian oil CO. through.
  • 1952, 16. July: Freiwilliger resignation from Mossadegh due to the oil crisis. The Schahsees itself forced by country-wide protests to use it again.
  • 1953, 16. August: Escape of the Schahs abroad. 19.08.: Mossadegh is fallen by the army - with the help of the CIA, (“operation Ajax “) among other things Colonel H. N. Schwarzkopf - its son, Norman Schwarzkopf, stated later the alliance in the second Gulf War .
  • 1954, 28. October: New contract with that Anglo Iranian oil CO. The 17 oil companies involved confess half of the share in the profits at Iran too.
  • 1960, 14. September: Establishment of the OPEC (Iran, Iraq, Kuwait, Saudi Arabia,Venezuela). Cause of the establishment were the price dictations of the mineral oil companies.
  • 1962: Introduction of the woman Mrs., Landreform - allocation of the crowning goods among landless farmers.
  • 1963: Mohammad Reza Pahlavi leads the white revolution for the modernization of the country (and. A. Land reform, woman right to vote), refuses however a democratization to thatpolitical structures. The rule Reza Pahlavis is called also prime example of a corrupt and brutal puppet regime (source:Time 34/2003).
  • 1964: Chomeini is sent by the Schah into the exile into Turkey.
  • 1967: Law for the protection of the family. This law made the divorce more difficultfor men and it facilitated for women, gave to women the possibility of exercising the custody for children. 26.10.: At its 48. Birthday crowns itself the Schah to the emperor (wife Farah Dibah).

Hegemoniale politics of Iran: The armament of Iran for the largest military power of the region happened first alsoUS credits, military and 20,000 civilian US advisors are later in Iran up to 41.000.

  • 1969: Conflict with Iraq around the border and navigation at the treasure aluminium-Arab. Iran quits the contract of 1937.
  • 1971: Bombasti 2500 anniversary of Iran. Final departure of British troops at the gulf.

Military occupation of the Tumb islands, driving the Arab population out. Establishment from naval bases to the safety device of the oil transports by the road of hearing mash.

  • 1973, 31. July: Agreement with the international oil consortium. The national Iranian oil CO. transfers all plants of the oil economy to government property.
  • 1975: Institutionalizing a one-party system.Agreement with Iraq for the regulation of open border questions.
  • 1977: Supplying crisis. The national front carried by intellectual ones demands the end of the dictatorship of the Schahs.
  • 1978, 7 8. January.: Demonstrations for Ayatollah Chomeini. 8. August: The Schah promises political liberties, free elections, Pressefreiheit. Heavy one Unrests are the results.13. August: Martial law in several cities. Concession to the Shiite party: Return to the Islamic calendar, locking of the play casinos, political parties become again certified. 7. September: General strike, the strike wave puts oil production quietly. Martial law expanded since all cities. 16. September:The secondaryheaviest earthquake of Iranian history demands at least 25,000 dead ones.5. November: Chomeini and the national front form into of Paris the Iranian-Islamic national movement. 6. November: Installation of a military government.
  • 1979, 16. January: The Schah, Mohammad Reza Pahlavi leaves Iran. First holdsit itself up to 15. December in the USA up, afterwards in Cairo. There it dies to 27. July 1980. The highest authority becomes the Shiite leader Ruhollah Chomeini (1902-1989).

the Islamic Republic of

Chomeini proclaims at the 1. April 1979 the Islamic republicIran. Islamic and communist revolutionaries occupy 1979 the message of the USA in Teheran. The prisoners come only in January 1981 freely (see: Taking of hostages of Teheran).

The neighboring country Iraq seizes 1980 Iran on (the first Gulf War). It comes to the armistice intoAugust 1988.

At the beginning of the revolution Mehdi Basargan Prime Minister of the provisional government becomes.

  • 1980: To 25. January becomes Abū l-Hasan Banīsadr president, must however due to unbridgeable resistances regarding the future policy to 10. June 1981 Iran leave. It flees to Paris.
  • 1981: By the choice victory of the religious Islamic-republican party (IRP) separates the revolutionary council to 9. May up. A devastating bomb attack to 29. August on the party meeting of the IRP brings completely in disorder the structure to the revolution. Party leader Ayatollah Mohammed Hussein Beheschti (* 1929) andover 70 delegates are killed. Also the new president Mohammad Alī Radschāʾī and the new Prime Minister Mohammed Javad Bahonar become victims. To 02.10. becomes Hojatoleslam Seyyed Alī Chāmene'ī president - me Hossein Moussavi Prime Minister becomes.
  • 1982: The penal law of the Islamic Republic of Iran (of 25. August) comes into force.
  • 1984: With the parliamentary elections to 15. April loses the IRP the absolute majority, Moussavi remains however an Prime Minister.
  • 1985: Alī Chāmene'ī becomes to 16. August as a president red-elect.
  • 1987: The dissolution of the IRP to 2. June confirmsonly complete deviating of the original revolution thought.
  • 1988: To 2. June appoints Chomeini (Iran stands in the war against the Iraq at the edge of a defeat), the parliament president Alī Akbar Hāschemī Rafsandschānī the acting Commander-in-Chief.
  • 1989: Chomeinis Fatwa against Salman Rushdie (14. February) isolates Iran completely with regard to foreign policy. With the death of Ayatollah Chomeini (3. June) begins the fight for the follow-up. The past president Alī Chāmene'ī becomes (4. June) of the guard advice to the new religious leader determines. The fight for power winsbut parliament president Rafsandschānī. He is selected to the president and receives by a constitutional amendment larger executive powers (omission of the Prime Minister office).
  • 1992: With the parliamentary elections (10. ) The trailers Rafsandschānīs approximately 70% of all seats win April.
  • 1993: Rafsandschānī for further 4 years inOffice (president) selected.
  • 1997: With the presidency elections (23. May) triumphs the former culture Minister Mohammad Chātemī. A limited liberalisation process begins with it, whose border is always limited by guard advice (Chāmene'ī).
  • 2003: In October Schirin Ebadi is distinguished with the Nobel peace prize.
  • 2003: To 26. December around 1:56 UTC comes it to one of the most devastating earthquakes in the modern times of Iran, which cost several thousand humans (one proceeds from more than 30,000 victims) the life. The Epizentrum of the quake lies in the proximity of the southIranian city Bam, which is destroyed to the majority.
  • 2004: After with the elections of 20. February thousands of liberal candidate and other reform-oriented politicians their candidacy were impossible had withdrawn, are the election turnout according to official data of the ministry of the Interior with only 50.57% the lowest sinceExist the Islamic republic. Following the elections it comes to road battles with the safety forces in several cities, with which eight persons are killed.
  • 2004: In the November of the yearly Iran communicates that the country does not want to develop nuclear weapons; the U.S.A.,in addition, European governments continue to regard this promise with a certain distrust.
  • 2005: Around the Iranian uranium enrichment it conflicts under the pressure of the USA and Great Britain to negotiations between Iran and the EU-3, Great Britain, France and Germany.

literature

  • Burchard Brentjes: The Iranian world before Mohammed. Charcoal burner & Amelang. Leipzig. 1967.
  • Arthur Christensen: The Iranier. Culture history of the old person Orients. C.H.Beck, Munich 1933
  • William Eilers: Commemorative volume of German Iranists for 2500 the anniversary of Iran. Bonn 1971
  • smelling pool of broadcasting corporations Frye: Persia. Kindler publishing house, 1962
  • Ulrich Gehrke: Iran. . 2. Aufl. Earthling publishing house, Tübingen 1976 (Ländermonographien, volume 5)
  • Monika Gronke: History of Iran - from islamizing to the present. Munich (2003)
  • Alfred von Gutschmid: History of Iran and its neighboring countries of Alexander the large one up to the fallthe Arsaciden, Graz 1973, ISBN 320100863X
  • walter Hinz: The realm Elam. Kohl hammer publishing house, Stuttgart 1964
  • Heidemarie cook: It tells Dareios the king…. Philipp of Zabern, Mainz 1992 ISBN 3-8053-1347-0
  • Mahmoud Rashad: Iran. DuMont publishing house, Cologne 1998
  • Hans Henning of the east: The Perser. Emil Vollmer publishing house, 1966
  • Josef Wiesehöfer: Antique Persia. Of 550 v. Chr. to 650 n. Chr. Kind-badly and to Winkler, 1994 ISBN 3-7608-1080-2

see also

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