Society of the USA
every 10 years leads the U.S. Census office a complete counting of the population and the industry through. When 1790 the first census took place, the nation consisted of less than four million citizens, who lived nearly everything at the east coast. Today the total population is with 293 million. The demographic data of the Census office show a rich mosaic to nationalities, a broad age spectrum and a larger range at living conditions than ever before. Here some examples:
in the year 2000 amounted to the population portion of all citizens ethnical European origin 217 million (77.1%), the portion of Afro Americans 36.4 million (13.0%), Asian and Pacific Insulanern 12.7 million (4.5%); and the portion of Indians and natives of Alaska four million (1.5%).
As “Hispanics “(citizen of Spanish descent, also Chicanos, Latinos or Ibero American mentioned) 35.3 million (12.9%) called itself American. The group of the “Hispanics” grew by nearly 13 million (or 57.9%) in the last ten years, faster than every other subpopulation.
experienced age structure the United States in. Century a rapid growth of the older population. The number of Americans, who are older 65 years or, climbed on over 35 million in the year 2000, compared to 3.1 million 1900. For the same years rose the relationship from seniors to the total population from one to 25 to one to eight. This trend will continue with security in this century, if the baby boom generation (the birth-strong classes between 1946 and 1964) becomes older. According to estimations is the subpopulation of the 65 - until 74-jährigen increase between 1990 and 2020 by 74 per cent.
The population explosion with older humans is the result of the impressive rise in that, with an average age of 38.6 years, and from Utah the youngest with 26.7 years.
According to own data the American Association OF Retired has person over 35 million members.
in the year 2000 approximately Americans were married 52 per cent of all adults and lived together with their marriage partner; 24% were single, 7% witwet and 10% divorced. Consisted of 105.5 million households in the USA 71.8% of a family (that are two or more persons, who are related with one another biologically, by marriage or adoption). The remaining households consisted of an alone living person (25.8%) or of two or used persons (6.1%) more not with one another.
About half (49%) of all families consisted of parents and children under 18 years. All in all about 36% of all families can be regarded as a “traditional” family (thus consisting of a married pair with children). Since 1970 the portion of traditional families decreased/went back strongly, fallen around 14 per cent in the last twenty years. However this percentage continued to reduce since 1990 only by a per cent.
While the number of the alone-educating mothers with 9.8 million of 1995 to 1998 hardly changed, rose the number of the alone-educating fathers of 1,7 to 2.1 million. About 28% of all children under age lived 1998 only with parents (23% with the nut/mother, 4% with the father), during 68% with both parents lived together and 4% with other relatives or care parents. Approximately 6% of all children under 18 years lived with their grandparents.
income and fortune structure
the large differences in the income have themselves in the last two decades 20. Jh. continues to intensify. Between 1977 and 1999 the incomes in the richest hundredth of the citizens rose after deduction of tax by 115 per cent. Real wages for 60% the employee are in this time around 20% please. This polarization holds also in 21. Century without reduction on. The number of the Americans, who live in poverty, rose 2002 by 1.7 million humans per altogether 34.6 million. The number of the Americans, who live in extreme poverty (less than cling to the official poverty border), rose from 13.4 million 2001 to 14.1 million in the year 2002. 2004 gave it according to Forbes in the USA of 313 billionaires.
Literature: Diana Elizabeth Kendall, The power OF Good Deeds: Privileged Women and the Social Reproduction OF the Upper Class, Rowman & Littlefield Publishers 2002
one of the dramatic social developments in the last decades was the rapid rise of the prisoner population. The arrest ratio in the USA is at the beginning 21. Century about 10 times as highly as in Germany. “The arrest ratio in the USA sank during the 60's around approximately a per cent annually and reached 1975 with 380.000 convicts their Tiefststand. Since then the prisoner numbers rise however clearly, so that there is ten years later already 740,000 convicts. In the year 1995 there was 1.5 million and at the end of finally of 1998 two million, while the criminality rate remained world-wide constant in the past 15 years first and even decreased later. Despite further dropping of the criminality up-to-date 740 of 100.000 inhabitants of the USA is in the Knast. Including the condemned one with conditioned Strafaussetzung and probation sentences stand up-to-date more than 6.9 million under supervision of the penal jurisdiction, thus unbelievable 3.2 per cent of the adults population. Two thirds of the convicts originate from households, which have available less as half than 'poverty threshold defined incomes and which are particularly affected by the aggravations in the range of the Lohnarbeit and the social net. “
some regions in the USA grow faster than others. The fastest population growth concentrated on the western Federal States, where the population rose between 1990 and 2000 around 19,7%. Behind it the south with 17,3% lay briefly; more slowly the middle west (7.9%) and the northeast (5.5%) grew.
Nevada is for years the fastest increasing Federal State, its population since that 1. April 1990 around whole 66.3% grew. Arizona is because of second place regarding the population growth with 40%, followed from Colorado (30.6%), Utah (29.6%) and Idaho (28.5%). California registered in terms of figures the largest population growth: 4,1 million.
social safety device
traditional had been it in America the affair of private welfare organizations and the municipalities to help the arms. Newly arriving immigrants had to trust mainly in the fact that compatriots helped them a new life to construct. In late 19. and early 20. Century some European States of already national social programs had introduced. But such efforts could gain a foothold in the USA only slowly, because by the fast industrialization and the everywhere available field, the conviction was fed that everyone, which wants to work finds also work.
The economic crisis, which began in the year 1929, destroyed this confidence. For the first time was a large number of Americans without work, because many banks and enterprises had to close. Only president Franklin D struck few days after his assumption of office. Roosevelt 1932 the congress a program for the new stimulation of the economy and a law reform forwards. With most programs it acted over temporally limited remedial measures, but one of the programs - the social security (Social Security) - became an American institution. A part of the wages and salaries is not disbursed by the employers, but is not exhausted into the social insurance. This money flows into the old age pension insurance, from which pensioners get a small monthly pension paid off, into the unemployment insurance, into the disability insurance and benefits also different aid programmes for income-weak.
Since short feared that the social security in 21. Century will have no longer sufficient money, in order to notice their tasks, if the number of pensioners rises as dramatically as expected. Politicians suggested different solutions, in order to catch the expected deficit, but a long-term solution is still discussed.
In the years after Roosevelts term of office also different American presidents, above all Lyndon Johnson introduced in the sixties, social welfare assistance programs. In addition belong also Medicaid and Medicare, which are described in the chapter over the health service; in addition, the nourishing aid programme in the form of food marks (Food Stamp Program), in order to ensure a sufficient and healthy nutrition from income-weak families to; and the social housing construction promoted with national means (public housing).
In the year 2001 the poverty border lay in the United States for a vierköpfige family with a yearly income of under 17,960 dollar (U.S. Census office. Poverty Thresholds 2001). That applied to 9,2% of all families, contrary to still nearly 12.3 per cent in the year 1993 (U.S. Census office. Historial Poverty Tables).
Additionally to the social achievements already mentioned, many families receive below the poverty border live, social welfare assistance (welfare payments), monthly disbursed amounts around meals to pay clothes and rent. The most frequent form of the social welfare assistance is an achievement in the context of the family allowance (Aid ton of Families with dependency Children - AFDC). Originally meant as support for children their fathers had died, developed the AFDC program for the main source of income for millions of income-weak American families. Many aspects of the American social welfare assistance, particularly the AFDC - payments, were very strongly criticized in and the nineties eighties; the whole system became even an election campaign topic. 1992 during its election campaign promised Bill Clinton “the social welfare assistance, like we it know, to terminate “. The reproach, the social welfare assistance programs it held for arms in a kind dependence, led 1996 to the fact that certain government programs were again conceived. A new social welfare assistance law replaced the federal assistance AFDC by aid programmes of the member states, which are financed from subsidies of the federation (TANF Temporary Assistance for Needy Families). The law limits besides social welfare assistance payments to five years, and requires that all healthy adults work after at the latest two years social welfare assistance. It paints social welfare assistance for legal immigrants, who want not to let themselves be in-patriated, and limits the nourishing aid on three months, if one does not strive work to find.
The costs of the aid programmes of the Federal Government, including social security, Medicare, Medicaid and the different social welfare assistance programs, amount to nearly half of the total expenditure of the government. That is twice as much as in the 60's.
Needy Americans can strive however not only at the state but also with other places around support. There is a broad spectrum at private welfare organisations and honorary relief organizations. Honorary commitment, particularly among pensioners, continues to increase in the USA always. It becomes estimated that nearly 50 per cent of all Americans over 18 years exercise a honorary activity, and nearly 75 per cent of all households money for charitable purposes to donate.
in the United States developed a mixed system from private and public health care. The large majority of the Americans pays a part of their doctor's bills by an operational health insurance. Five of six American employees (and their families) are secured by group health insurances, which are alone carried either together by employer and employee or by the employee. Insurance policies differ considerably. Some cover also the costs of artificial dentures and psychiatric treatments; other one however not.
Another kind of the health insurance for many workers is the Health maintenance Organization (HMO). A HMO covers a physician team, which takes over the entire attendance of patients of a person for an in advance paid fee. HMOs attach particular importance to the medical precaution, because they must take over also the costs if someone must take special services up, which cannot offer the HMOs. For example with hospitalization, operations or other special working methods. HMOs are recognized ever more popularly and generally than probates means to keep the medical expenditures small. Some Americans face the HMOs however critically, because she limits to select itself the right of the patients her physician.
American physicians have to limit also helped the medical expenditures, by examining the necessity for hospitalizations. Many surgical interferences, with which in former times hospitalizations were necessary, can be accomplished today also ambulatory. Nevertheless if a hospitalization should be necessary, it is today shorter than in former times.
Even if most Americans have any form of the health insurance, it gives nevertheless humans, who cannot afford an insurance. Their medical supply is ensured by two social programs, which were furnished 1965. Medicaid is a common program of the federation and the Federal States and finances the medical supply for arms. The conditions, to be fulfilled must be able to take up around Medicaid, and the furnished achievements differ however from Federal State to Federal State. With expenditures of 194,7 billion dollar in the year 2000 is Medicaid America largest social security benefit program. Medicare is responsible for the main load of the doctor's bills of pensioners and obstructed. Medicare financed by social security contributions, contributions of the insured ones and by national subsidies. Everyone the requirement on achievements from the social security has, is ill-insured over Medicare.
Despite these two programs roughly a seventh of the Americans must get along at least a part of the yearly without health insurance. Concerns thereby around unemployed persons or around employee, their employer no health insurance offer or humans, whose income lies only scarcely over the poverty border. These humans have also all requirement on medical supply in emergency, however they miss the necessary routine investigations, often help illnesses to avoid. 1996 passed the congress a law, which should guarantee that more working families and their children are secured by a health insurance. This law extended the possibility for the health insurance for humans, who become unemployed or those, which were accepted due to a Vorerkrankung by no insurance.
The newest reform idea, the patient right law (“patient's bill OF rights”), is to ensure that patients visit a specialist of their choice to complain in a hospital of their choice be treated to let itself to be able and receives the possibility against HMOs should the one treatment reject. More than 40 Federal States already adopted such laws, and a federally uniform regulation grants this protection all 80 million Americans, who are insured such as Medicare and Medicaid by a national health insurance.
- see also: US-American educational system
for Americans was education already since the early colonial age a large request. For example already 30 years for the establishment of the first settlement in Massachusetts (1620) by all new settlements one required to employ a teacher. And 1787 ordered the congress of continental that each again-created city had to reserve a property for the public school.
Today the free public schools, those visit nearly 90 per cent of all pupils over taxes are financed. The remaining ten per cent distribute themselves on the different Privatschulen, with which the families themselves must be responsible for the school money. Four of five Privatschulen are located in close connection to religious institutions; with these schools religion teachings are one of the subjects of instruction. In addition there is a small, but rising number of parents, who inform their children at home.
Traditionally the primary school (Elementary School) covers the classes K (kindergarten) to 8 in the USA. In some areas the primary school ends in addition, with the 6. Class, and the pupils spend then the class stages 7 to 9 on a middle school (Middle School) or junior university (junior High School). The resuming school (High School) closes then with the classes 9 to 12, and/or. 10,-12 on.
The United States do not have a national educational system, but the Federal Government issues guidelines and gives subsidies for public and private schools. Each of the 50 Federal States, from Hawaii to Delaware, from Alaska to Louis IANA, has own laws of formation. Some these laws are very different, but in all Bundesstaaaten compulsory schooling up to the age of 16 or 18 years exists. Like that it is ensured that each child in the USA receives a 11-year old education.
Additionally to the challenges of the education reforms of the last decades, American schools must argue also with new social problems. They must master the inflow of immigrant children, of whom many few or no English speak. The instruction material must consider to the cultural background of all pupils after newest demands. Schools must make certain that all pupils acquire the necessary basic knowledge, which is necessary for the job market, and they must themselves adjust to also the needs of non-traditional pupils, e.g. on pupils, who are already nut/mother.
The schools solve these problems in completely different way, which reflects the variety American training system. Some stop a large number of teachers, who under-smell English as foreign language, or train they; in other municipalities bilinguale schools are furnished. They extend the instruction material designed traditionally for western background by material from African, asiatic and other culture areas. The schools obtain also cognitive authority, which is important 40 per cent of the pupils, who continue to go also for those to nearly not on the universities.
The United States are within the industrial nations prominently which the proportional portion of the young people concern, which attain a university formation. For some branches of profession - jurisprudence, medicine, educating sciences, engineer natures - university training is the necessary basic condition. More than 60 per cent of the Americans work today in an occupation, which contains the evaluation of information; and a university conclusion is rarely sufficient for it. Other occupations do not require directly a university conclusion, but such the chances a place to improved often find and can also positively affect the salary.
The variety at Universitäts-und college - courses has its origin in a law, which was passed 1944 by congress, the “GI in such a way specified Bill”. The law granted financial support for their to all army members (“GI” = American soldier) from or further training after the end 2. World war. To 1955 had more than 2 million veterans 2. World war and Korea the war with the help of the GI Bills studies. Many of them came from poorer conditions and without this law not the chance would have had visit a university. The success of this program has the attitude of the Americans regarding a university - or specialized university education lastingly changes.
At approximately the same time the percentage of the women at American universities began to constantly rise; in the year 2000 were 57 per cent of all college graduates women, compared with 24 per cent in the year 1950. With the end of the racial segregation in and the sixties fifties also many black Americans pushed to the universities. Today the percentage of the Afro Americans, who visit a university, corresponds nearly to that the general total population. In the year 2000 visited 56.2 per cent of all black Americans with High School conclusion a university or a college, compared to 63,3 per cent of all High School Abgänger.
already early in their history rejected American the principle of the state religion, which so many European countries controlled and had divided. The separation from church and state was regulated by the first constitutional amendment, which means: The congress may not issue a law, which has the introduction of a state religion to the article or which forbids free worship.
One of the first firm settlements in the area of the later North American colonies was created by English Puritanern, Calvinisten, which were in their homeland outsiders, where the Anglikani national church prevailed. Thus Protestanten were the furthest common religion in the early years. Today America is one of the societies with the largest religion variety in the world.
In the year 1990 the Protestanten counted 140 million Gläubige, the catholics 62 million and Jew 5 million. The Islam had 7 (after other sources 4.0) million trailer, many of them (approx. 1,0 million) are to the Islam Afro Americans gone over. It becomes estimated the fact that the number of mosques in the USA, today about 1.200 into which doubled to last 15 years. Also Buddhismus and Hinduismus grow with the number of immigrants from countries, in which these are the main religions.
America was also always a fruitful fertile soil for new religions. The Mormonen and the Christian science church are perhaps the best well-known faith communities, which developed on American soil. Because of their tradition of the noninterference into religious affairs the USA offered also a refuge for many smaller religious communities from overseas. So for example for Ami, descendants of German immigrants, who established themselves mainly in Pennsylvania and the adjacent Federal States, and since generations the simple life without modern technology practice there. Some religious communities are called also “cults “(sparkling wines or cult religions), if they occur for extreme convictions and admire a founder figure. As long as sparkling wines and their members adhere to the laws, they are left in peace. Religious-conditioned discrimination is rather rare in America and inter konfessionelle discussions and co-operation is at the agenda.
youth and family
to a family to belong, is a connection, which divides nearly each humans in the whole world, but family structures are very different from country to country. In the United States there are many different kinds of families, but the traditional structure of the American family - nut/mother, father and children - remains also at the beginning of the new century to large parts. But in the last decades the American society experienced a change in the family composition and in many other aspects of the daily life due to of various factors, which reach from new achievements in the science up to the organization of the job. However-educating parents, foster families, stepparents, fathers, who worry at home about the children, grandparents, who largepull children, all that are only some the new stones in the American family mosaic.
How does the everyday life for children or young people in the USA look? A normal American child spends about six hours on the day, five days in the week, 180 days in the year at school. Children begin in the USA with four years or younger in the preparatory school, then follows with approx. five years the kindergarten. The school offers very much more than only academic education to American children. More than 80 per cent of all pupils participate in except-school offers of the school, e.g. Sport, school newspaper, groups of theatres, groups of discussions, choir and school orchestra.
In their spare time American children spend much time before the television, hear music or play computer games, but many work also after the school. A recently made inquiry showed that nine of ten asked growing up had, either a job or gladly a job would have. Laws against Kinderarbeit see restrictions forwards for the kind of the work, which a young person may accept under 16 years. Many young people work by the hour on weekends or after the school in high-speed lunch restaurant, watch out than Babysitter for the children of neighbours, work than distribution drivers or in business. Many young people engage themselves also in charitable municipality organizations or in the church and other religious communities. Again different belong to groups of young people, like e.g. the pathfinders (Girl Scouts or Boy Scouts), where it civics learns, abilities relating to crafts and artistic it acquire, and tents and other activities in the free one to know to learn can. Thousands of young Americans help honorary with the care of old persons, obstructed and patients in the hospital or in environmental protection.
Even if the life of the most American children and young people is free from serious conflicts, young humans are nevertheless exposed to many kinds of stress. Group pressure, itself changed family conditions, removal, to run away unemployment and school problems can too alcohol or drug consumption lead to go to the refusal to the school from at home or to pregnancy with dte rodents or into the juvenile delinquency.
although 1920 the right to vote received, lasted American women the economic and social change very much longer, and the progress did not run also at each time with the same speed.
In the United States the time of the social changes began in the sixties; for the women the result was the phenomenon of the women's movement. Affected by the success of the civil rights movement for more racial equality and other progressive currents in and the seventies sixties, pushed a multiplicity of organizations and lobbyists on it also the full equal rights of American women to aim at. This request demanded not only a fundamental revision of American institutions, customs and values, but also a revolution in consciousness - in the heads both of women and of men - and particularly in the self understanding of the women. Everyone welcomed the changes developing from it, like a developing of a number of organizations proves, was anxious “ungezügelten toolism “stop to order.
From which perspective one may regard it, there is no doubt to the fact that the changes are to be felt clearly. American women live today completely different life than still in the fifties or in former times.
although most Americans respect for the law have, gives it in the USA - as also in all other states - criminality. But the criminality rate sinks since 1991. In New York town center, Fort Worth and other large cities the police substantial proceeds against offences such as drunkennessness in the public and aggressive begging, and it attributes the strong decrease its employment intensified by force crimes to. The force crime rate decreased/went back actually since 1994 clearly, and achieved the lowest conditions of all times in the year 2000. According to a study office of the OF Justice statistics, which is national Crime Victimization Survey, the percentage at force crimes of 2000 on 2001 around 10% decreased/gone back, and is thereby on the lowest conditions since it these investigations gives. Eigentumsdelikte are around 6% decreased/gone back, a trend since 20 years to likewise observe are. However, annually from the FBI published uniform Crime rose according to report, the general crime rate in the year 2001 again easily (around 0,9%), after it was constantly fallen in the last ten years (in the years 1992 to 2000 around 26,5%).
A high percentage of crimes in the USA stands in the direct connection with the sales and the use of illegal drugs. Drugs are smuggled by organized criminal organizations in the country to prevent despite the intensive efforts of the government the illegal drug trade. Drug-dependent become often culpable, because they try with break-downs in private houses and business money to to procure, in order to be able to pay their drugs.
The drug abuse released large concern in the USA. The Federal Government leads for over thirty years their “was on Drugs” and tries the cultivation of Opium, Coca - plants (for cocaine) and Cannabis (for hashish and marijuana) in other countries to prevent.
the first European immigrants in American history originated from England and the Netherlands. Attracted by reports on great economic prospects and religious and political liberty, immigrants flowed out of many other countries into the United States. The immigration wave reached its high point in the years 1892 - 1924. In late 19. Century furnished the government a special immigration place on Ellis Iceland . This mechanism was from 1892 to 1954 in enterprise and today as part statue of the OF Liberty national Monument is received. The liberty statue, a gift of France from the year 1886 to the American people, stands on an island in the port of New York in close proximity to Ellis Iceland. Between 1820 and 1979 left the United States over 49 million immigrant in the country.
delimitation of the Zuwanderung
1924 the first laws were adopted for the delimitation of the permissible immigrant number from the individual countries. The upper limit referred to the number of citizens of this country, who already lived in the United States. Starting from 1965 the immigration ratio depended on who placed first a request, and which became land ratios replaced by hemisphere ratios. Used from US citizens and immigrants with certain professional training in the country were left preferential. 1978 created the congress the hemisphere ratios again off and determined a world-wide immigration upper limit. The United States permit more immigrant than every other country in the world. 1998 amounted to the number of all abroad born Americans 25.2 million, that are 9.3% of the total population. The 1990 revised Einwanderungsgesetz plan a flexible upper limit of 675.000 immigrants per year, whereby certain groups are excluded from this upper limit. This law tries to get well trained workers and specialists into the USA and immigrants from those countries, which placed in the last years of fewer immigrants.
of the US-American immigration authority IN (immigration and Naturalization service) it estimates that about 5 million live illegal immigrants in the USA, and this number rises over approx. 275.000 per year. In the USA born Americans and legal immigrants are anxious because of the problem of the illegal immigration. They fear that illegal immigrants (also “illegaly aliens “mentioned) take other citizen, above all younger and member away from minorities, jobs. In addition illegal immigrants load the social security benefit system financed by taxes. 1986 have the U.S. To get congress the Einwanderungsgesetze revised around the problem of the illegal Zuwanderung into the grasp. Many illegal ones, which already were since 1982 in the country, knew their status legalisieren to leave and thus on unlimited time in the USA remain. In the year nearly 900,000 humans of this law change use made 1990 and are now legal immigrants. The new law contained also strict measures to fight over the further illegal immigration and plans punishments for entrepreneurs, who employ knowingly illegal immigrants.
The constant inflow of immigrants into the USA had large effects on the American character. One needs to leave courage and flexibility around its homeland and to begin in another country a new life. The Americans are admit for their readiness risks to die and new things out try, for its independence and its optimism. If Americans, whose families are already longer in the country, run the risk economic comfort and political liberty to consider natural, then are always the new immigrants there, in order to remind them of how important these privileges are.
Immigrants enrich also the American society in that it aspects of their own culture bring along. Many black Americans celebrate Christmas just like Kwanzaa, a celebration been based on African rituals. Hispano Americans celebrate their traditions with road celebrations and other meetings at the Cinco de Mayo (5. May). And in most American cities there is an abundance of ethnical restaurants…. President John F. Kennedy, even a grandchild of Irish immigrants, summarized this mixture from old and again and called America “a society of immigrants, where everyone again began its life; under the same conditions. That is the secret of America: a nation of humans with the fresh memory of old traditions, new borders dare to investigate. “
the first American “immigrants” more than 20,000 years ago were intercontinental Wanderer: Hunters and their families, that followed the herds from Asia to America as still another land bridge existed where today the Bering Strait the two continents separate. When Christoph Kolumbus 1492 discovered the new world, lived approximately 1.5 million Indian in the today's area of the continental United States, although the estimations go far apart over this number. Kolumbus confounded the coast of San Salvador on the Bahamas, where he landed, with India and called the natives “Indians”.
In the next 200 years humans came from different European countries on Kolumbus' traces over the Atlantic around America to investigate and around commercial posts and colonies establish. The natives suffered much from the penetration of the Europeans. The country changed by contracts as well as by war and force, of the Indian into the hands of the Europeans - and later the American -; the Indians were continued to displace ever by the newcomers pulling to the west. The government solution for „the Indian problem " existed in 19. Century therein to force the Indians into certain areas - the reservations -. Some trunks fought for their traditional territory not to give up not to have. In many cases it concerned with the reservations inferior country, and the Indians became dependent on maintenance payments of the government. Also today there is still to poverty and unemployment among the Indians.
By the territorial wars as well as by diseases, which were brought in from the old world and to those the Indians were not immune, their number of 1920 was dezimiert on the lowest conditions of history, i.e. 350,000. Some Indian trunks disappeared completely: as for example the Mandans from north Dakota, the Meriwether Lewis and William Clark 1804 - 06 had helped to investigate of America unbesiedelte wilderness in the northwest. Other trunks lost its own language and culture. The Indians of North America survived nothing the defiance. Today live about 2 million Indian and native of Alaska in the United States (0,8% correspond to the total population), and only about a third of the indianischen total population lives in reservations, and/or. in direct neighbourhood.
Countless American place names decrease/go back to Indiani words, among other things the names of the Federal States Massachusetts, Ohio, Michigan, Mississippi, and Idaho. Indians taught the Europeans plants, which become estimated as agricultural products now in the whole world cultivate: Corn, tomatoes, potatoes, tobacco. Kanus, snow shoes and Moccasins rank among the many Indiani inventions.
under the immigration stream to North America was a group, which did not come voluntarily. It concerned African: 500.000 of them was brought between 1619 and 1808 as slaves in the country. 1808 became the import of slaves into the USA illegaly, but to possess held itself slaves and their descendants particularly in the agricultural south, where many workers on the fields were used. The process the slavery to abolish began in April 1861 with the outbreak of the American civil war and/or. War of secession between the “free states” of the north and the “slaves states” of the south, which had separated from the union. At the 1. January 1863, in the midst of the war, discharged president Abraham Lincoln the Emanzipationserklärung, in which it all slaves in the “rebel states” for freely explained. The slavery became 1865 by the ratification 13. Constitutional amendment in the entire United States abolished.
But even after the end of the slavery black Americans were still disadvantaged by racial segregation and worse education. On the search for new chances it pulled ever more to Afro American from the rural areas of the south into the cities of the north, so that it came to an internal-American migration wave. But in the cities many black ones did not find a work, and they had to live separately from the white ones; thus Ghettos so mentioned developed in heruntergekommenen quarters.
End of the 50's and at the beginning of the 60's 20. Century demanded Afro Americans under guidance of Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. with boycott, marches and force-free protests an equal treatment after the law and the end of the racial discrimination.
This civil rights movement reached its high point to 28. August 1963, as more than 200,000 humans of all races itself before the Lincoln monument in Washington D.C. met around Kings speech to hear: “I have a dream that the sons of former slaves and the sons of former slave owners will be capable of of a daily on the red hills of Georgia to set itself together to the table of the fraternity. .... I dream to be judged that my four small children of a daily in a nation live, in that it not by its skin color, but by their character “. Not for a long time after it congress of US adopted laws, which forbade political, legal and social racial discrimination.
Today black Americans constitute 12.7% of the total population. In the last decades black ones have much reached and ever more to belong now to the middle class on. 1996 had 44% of all colored Americans so mentioned “white colar “jobs - which is academic occupations and positions in the management and in the administration, contrary to occupations of service or such require the manual labor. In the same year 23% all black American were written between 18 and 24 years at a college, compared with only 15% in the year 1983. The middle income of colored ones is however still lower than from white ones, and unemployment - particularly under young men - is higher. And still poverty forces to live many Afroamerikaner in quarters with high criminality rate and drug abuse.
In the last years the focus of the civil rights movements shifted. Today anti-discrimination laws are into force and ever more black one belong to the middle class. Therefore one concentrates on the question whether the American government not in view of earlier discrimination to compensation and/or supporting measures, which is committed to “Affirmative so mentioned Action”. These measures can plan that a certain percentage must be assigned by jobs to colored ones or that a certain number of pupils of a school member of minorities to be to have. The public discussion over the necessity, effectiveness and justice of such programs was intensified in the nineties.
The perhaps largest change in the last decades however is the attitude of the white Americans. More than one generation is grown up since King its “I have A dream “- speech held. Above all young Americans show a new respect for all races, and there is an increasing acceptance of black ones within all ranges of the life and the social surrounding field.
to point to new immigrants the way were already afraid the first Americans born in the USA began Asians as the liberty statue that too many immigrants could come into the country. Some citizens feared that thereby its American culture and way of life were threatened, or that they could lose their jobs to newcomers, who were determined to work also for smaller wages.
1924 discharged the congress the Johnson Reed immigration act. For the first time the USA limited the number of immigrants, who let them enter from each country. The percentage of humans, who the immigration from a certain country was permitted, corresponded for the total number of the immigrants from this country, who already lived in the USA. From it an immigration sample in the next forty years, which reflected mainly the population of immigration, thus European and Nordamerikaner already existing, resulted.
1924 ago the American Einwanderungsgesetz excluded immigrants even completely from asiatic countries. The Americans in the west of the country were afraid that Chinese and other Asians would take their jobs away. Prejudices against humans with asiatic appearance were far common at this time. The law, which excluded Chinese immigrants, was waived 1943, to become discharged and 1952 a law, which all humans - equal which origin - permitted, American citizens.
Today “Asian Americans” are one of the fastest increasing subpopulations in the country. More than 11 million American of asiatic descent live in the USA. Although most of them immigrated only recently, they belong to the most successful all groups of immigrants. They have a higher average income than most other ethnical groups, and many of their children study with success at the best American universities. (Portrait OF America: Limit on of newcomer)
to Chinese place the largest asiatic group in the United States. Americans of Chinese descent place more than 20 per cent of the 11.9 million humans, who call themselves according to census 2000 as Asians; so a press release of the U.S. Commerce department of 4. March 2002. That is, that 2.7. Millions as Americans of Chinese descent call themselves - the largest asiatic group in the USA. “The Asian population 2000”, a report in a set of publications, which rely on data from the census of the yearly 2000, in addition shows that live about 50 per cent of the asiatic Americans in three Federal States: California, New York and Hawaii. In two of these states the number of asiatic Americans exceeds the 1-Million-Marke: California with 4.2 million and New York with 1.2 million.
it is not to be heard to speak at all unusually in an American city on the road humans Spanish. 1950 came less than 4 million US citizen from spanischsprachigen countries. Today there is more than 27 million. Approximately 50 per cent of the Hispanics come from Mexico. The other 50 per cent originate from a multiplicity of other countries, like El Salvador, the Dominican republic or Colombia. 36 per cent of all Hispanics in the USA live in California, in addition, some other Federal States have a large number of Spanish speaking population. That applies for example to Texas, New York, Illinois and Florida, where hundredthousands Kubaner live fled, which before the Castro - regime. There are so many Kubanoamerikaner in Miami that the Miamis Herald, which appears largest daily paper to the city, also as Spanish expenditure.
The term “Hispanic” was coined/shaped in the seventies by the government, and covers all Americans and such born in the Spanish-speaking countries of South America, who can retrace their origin to Spain or into the earlier Spanish colonies. Naturally this covers a large number of countries and ethnical groups with many different social, political and emotional experiences. Most Hispanics understands itself however depending upon its individual origin rather as Mexico American, Puerto Ricaner or Kubanoamerikaner, as as members of a larger group of peoples about Hispanics or Latinos.
Many believe that the Hispanics came as the recent group of immigrants into the large pot America. Debt at this wrong conception is mainly the attention of the media, which to the Hispanics in the eighties assign became, after the office OF had published the Census the results of the census of 1980. This report showed the fact that the Hispanics was soon the fastest increasing group of peoples in the USA and the largest Minderheitengruppe would become. One equated automatically population growth with immigration, and forgot thereby the long history of the Hispanics in the United States.
The hispanische influence in the USA hands back a long time. When Plymouth was created into years 1620, Santa Fe existed already 10 years and pc. Augustine celebrated already its five-and-fifty-year old existence.
Other hispanische groups, like e.g. Puerto Ricaner, are actually no immigrants, but became by the American expansions 17. Century to Americans. All Puerto Ricanern the American nationality was lent to 1917. Economic crises and two world wars forced to pull many Puerto Ricaner on the search for better living conditions of the island on the mainland. Their momentary political situation confuses still many Americans, who regard Puerto Rico as strange country.
of special books
- Kristina Boriesson: Censor the USA. As the American press is brought to the silence. Pendo publishing house, Zurich 2004
- Olivier Demy: Racingism in the USA. History and analysis of a race construction. Unrast 2001
- Michael Harrington: The other America. The poverty in the United States. German paperbacks publishing house, Munich 1964
- Kevin Phillips: The American money aristocracy. A political history of the wealth in the USA. Campus, Frankfurt/Main/New York 2003
- Studs Terkel, Harry bricklayer: American one of haven advice. Reclam, Leipzig 1987 (interview)
- Harper Lee: Who the nightingale disturbs
- Jack London: The iron heel.
- Eugene Nelson: Bracero. (Novel over history and the living conditions of the agricultural workers)
- Meridel Le Sueur: The Girl. Westend press (novel over unemployed person women)
- Upton Sinclair: Jungle. (Classical novel over the slaughterhouses in Chicago)
- T.C. Boyle: The Tortilla Curtain (novel over the problems by the illegal immigration of Hispanics develop)
Web on the left of
- http://www.census.gov/ - And. S. Census office