Gestapo is the acronym for „the secret state police “in the time of the national socialism. It was subordinated the realm Ministry of the inside and of Heinrich Himmler was led as „ a political police “. It possessed extensive powers and developedtherefore to a feared instrument of the LV state.
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the Gestapo became 1933 on operationof Hermann Göring based. It concerned first a relatively modest and small Prussian authority, which was in direct tradition for the political police of Prussia and their major task the observation and fight of political opponents. Their first leader was Rudolf Diels, which said Gestapo to the origin of the abbreviation once, it was an independent invention of the realm post office, which shortened the long name of the agency arbitrarily and provided the used run temples with it. The secret office for state police in Berlin andits state police directing centers and state police places first in Prussia, later in the entire realm formed than Gestapo the well-known organization. The Gestapo was extracted from the general interior administration and worked as a political police independently of the remaining organs of the law.
In firstYears of the LV rule the struggle for power was not yet decided around the line of the political police in the realm:Heinrich Himmler had united, on the basis of Bavaria, gradually the competencies for the political police in the non-Prussian countries on its personand 1934 wanted to integrate also the Gestapo into its sphere of influence. Göring, which concentrated on the development of the Air Force, gave way, and in April 1934 Diels was already replaced from pure hard Heydrich. Starting from this time this took over the guidance thatGestapo, although nominal still Hermann Göring held the line. Now the Gestapo developed to a surface covering large organization for spying on the population and elimination of regime opponents, who verwoben closely with the SS-state were.
In June 1936 Heinrich Himmler became alsodirect support of Hitler to the boss of the entire German police, with which the different police federations no more did not fall under a supervision by the ministries of the Interior of the countries and were centralized in the consequence. Himmler was now nominal subordinated the Gestapo also. In particular thoseState police places in the non-Prussian countries were subordinated at this time clearly the Gestapo, although the gau leaders took like for example in Hamburg still influence on the work of the state police places. The Gestapo became with the Kriminalpolizei in the office state police(Sipo) folded up, their line again pure hard Heydrich took over. For the fight of the regime opponents the new department II, whose line held Heinrich Mueller, was directly responsible. The Gestapo became additional now a repression instrument, over against political opponents of the national socialism to proceed. Jews, homosexual ones, so-called Asoziale and work-shy came into their visor.
1939 took place the next change: Gestapo and Kriminalpolizei were united as parts of the state police with the security agency (SD) to the Central Reich Security Office (RSHA). The Gestapo firmierte now as departmentIV the RSHA and was divided into technical (IV A) and Länderreferate (IV B) as well as the border police (IV G). To the direct boss of the Gestapo and/or. the office IV of the RSHA Heinrich Mueller was appointed. Until 1944 the secret state police counted32,000 coworkers. The Gestapo had become thereby up to its dissolution after the end of the Second World War part of a power conglomerate, in that the distinction between actual police authority and the SS, thus a political organization going medal, organizational units hardly more possiblewas.
in the initial years
the Gestapo an intensive reporting relating to domestic affairs developed state-police practice and groups of opponents. The different state police places informed the LV authorities in detail about the agreement, which experienced the regime on the population. This activity became 1936adjusted and one year later the SD transfer, since were accused to the Gestapo reports, which determined a fragile loyalty of the population, to carry out for a Defaitismus feed motion. It handed information, which the SD won with the fulfilment of this task over political opponents,to the Gestapo further, which introduced pursuit measures.
Because their actual task was the fight of the political opponent. It had that a broad equipment, with relatively harmless fines and pub prohibitions began and into the serial Exekutionen of political opponents of theLV regimes during the last war years an extreme taper experienced. These measures it was common to all that they were arranged and accomplished without examination of the courts or other administrative authorities. Only if the Gestapo considered it expedient, for example with pursuit more prominentRegime opponent, delivered her the cases to those, certainly since 1933 also thoroughly nazifizierte, law.
Most important instrument of the Gestapo, in order to fight political opponents of the national socialism, was the protective custody. This served the short term Verwahrung of persons 1933 ago only.By the emergency decree after the realm tag fire however stipulation of a time limit like judicial examination were waived. By a decree of the realm Minister of the inside of 25. January 1938 was allowed to arrange only the secret office for state police in Berlin protective custody. This was executed in principle in concentration camps; notthe opportunity was used rarely to kill the political opponent. Of the Gestapo 1940 additionally so-called work educating camps (AEL) were furnished, in which humans could be in-supplied because of „default of their work obligation “. After a circular order of the Reichsführers SS of 15. Decembers 1942 became additionalin the larger enterprises, in whose proximity no work educating camp was, educating camps under line of the state police directing centers furnished, in which the prisoners were guarded by member of the factory protection force.
The opponent fight of the Gestapo was directed in particular against persons. In the initial years those infiltratedGestapo conspiratorial groups, which had developed from the forbidden political parties. Members of these Organisatione were induced by threat and material advantages to co-operation. These V-people ensured for the fact that an organized resistance before beginning of war became to smash. Around political groups of opponentsin the later years to fight, special commissions were used, so for example after the murder Heydrichs or the assassination attempt on Hitler to 20. July 1944. Information was forced in brutal torturing and used during the following processes. Uncoveringthe red chapel wanted the Gestapo to use, in order to deceive the Soviet war opponent in co-operation with the armed forces with radio plays. The Gestapo fought also critical expressions of opinion to the regime, which had been explained by the Heimtückegesetz for illegal, for which them Denunziationenused.
Beside political opponents also homosexual one was instructed in concentration camps; zynischerweise was left to them the choice between castration and further arrest. This process was intensified in the course of the “third realm”. The Gestapo relied in the initial years of the regime stillon raids in the scene and passed on most cases to the law, then it set in later years on Denunziation and implemented a considerationless arrest in concentration camps. The Gestapo a procedure practiced that her with allOpponents used: If the concerning had carried out one of the courts imposed punishment, then they were taken due to the same reproaches after their release in protective custody and instructed into a concentration camp.
During the war the Gestapo extended its pursuit measures upnew groups of opponents. The countless prisoners of war and forced laborer had to be supervised, which bound approximately half of the personnel. In the center of the attention were located thereby Bummelei, sabotage in the enterprises and strikes as well as bad handling Germans for example business on the black marketor sexual traffic. In the second war half organized yourself the resistance of the forced laborers either conspiratorial in the enterprises or, in case of of escaped forced laborers, in form of small groups, which hid themselves in the large cities. The Gestapo seized thereupon too alwaysmore brutal methods, straight Eastern European and Soviet forced laborers were exekutiert numerously and without legal proceedings. Also in the occupied countries the Gestapo was active and fought the there resistance movements. The brutal treatment of whole population circles should find a direct continuation in Germany, afterthe armed forces from ever more countries had had themselves to withdraw. During the last war months the Gestapo exekutierte in many places differentiateless their prisoners, before the places of allied troops were taken.
Besides the Gestapo transferred crucial functions during the Second World War toConnection with pursuit, Deportation and murder of the European Jews. As also different police formations became Gestapo men the groups of employments abkommandiert, which accomplished summary Exekutionen behind the front. But the more important role with the murder of the European Judentums played the Gestaponot in the again conquered areas, but in Berlin, the political center of the “third realm”. Notorious Jew paper under Adolf calibration man was an Gestapo agency (IV B 4) in the RSHA, of where from the anti-Jewish measures were coordinated. The Deportationen becameunder the leadership of the Gestapo as arbeitsteiliger and bureaucratic process accomplished, during which the secret police co-operated closely with the National Railroad and availed themselves of the local police stations. Also those the Deportationen measures like for example the briefing into Jew houses became precededof the Gestapo planned and by the Stapoleitstellen implements.
Nachgeschichte of the Gestapo
the Gestapo had been explained in the Nürnberger processes as a criminal organization. High function carriers had to answer for themselves during the follow-up processes or became in the EuropeanForeign country for their acts condemns. The behavior of middle and lower ranks was legally evaluated by the arbitration board procedures, which made a continued employment in the public service impossible in many cases. For most former Gestapomitglieder the end of the Second World War meantthus a sharp cut, even if they submerged or fled from Germany.
Pretty often had former Gestapo member in the first postwar years with dequalifizierten activities their living costs to deny. 1951 amnestied the American High Commissioner John McCloy numerous of them, which in the sameYear into the Basic Law inserted article 131 facilitated the re-engagement of loaded officials. In consequence of these decisions numerous former Gestapo coworkers engaged again in the police and law apparatuses of the Federal Republic in the 50's. It can thus of a creepingand into the society of postwar Germany to be spoken, there these satisfy integration of the coworkers of this organization of the “third realm” after 1945 neither by political expressions nor by mourning work, thus a reflection of their own role in the LV state, were noticeable.
Also over that 2. World war outside became and/or. the term is used „Gestapo “for similar mechanisms in other countries. This very day the safety office of the French Fremdenlegion (Légion étrangère) is designated by many (former) Foreign Legionnaires with Gestapo or Deuxième office. One of the most important excessive quantitiesto the Gestapo Duesseldorf stores in main public records, where the activity of this secret police in the Rhine country documented.
the secret state police used the same ranks as the national Kriminalpolizei.
- Kriminalassistentenanwärter (SSG)
- Kriminalassistent in the period of instruction (sergeant)
- Kriminalassistent (sergeant)
- Kriminaloberassistent (technical sergeant)
- Kriminalsekretär (Csm)
- Kriminalobersekretär (second lieutenant)
- Kriminalinspektor (first lieutenant)
- Kriminalkommissar (< 4 service years = first lieutenant, > 4 service years = captain)
- Kriminalrat (< 4 service years = captain, > 4 service years = major)
- Kriminaldirektor (major)
- government and Kriminalrat (major)
- upper government and Kriminalrat (lieutenant colonel)
- Government and Kriminaldirektor (Colonel)
- Reichskriminaldirektor (Colonel)
in parentheses are located to the comparison the ranks in the armed forces (army).
- anatomy of the SS-state Bd. 1 contributionof H. Book home, (1965)
- Arsonson, Shlomo: Pure hard Heydrich and the early history of Gestapo and SD, Stuttgart 1971
- Gellately, Robert: The Gestapo and the German society. The penetration of the racial policy 1933 - 1945, Paderborn 1993
- Gellately, Robert: Looked and away-seen. Hitlerand its people, German publishing house Munich 2002 (also expenditure for license of the federal center for political education, Bonn 2003)
- Paul, Gerhard and Mallmann, Klaus Michael (Hg.): The Gestapo. Myth and reality, Darmstadt 1995
- Johnson, Eric A.: Nazi terror: The Gestapo, Jews and Ordinary Germans,New York 1999
- Holger Berschel, bureaucracy and terror Jew paper of the Gestapo Duesseldorf 1935 - 1945, meal 2001
- Butler, Rupert, on illustrated history OF the Gestapo, London 1992
- Rudolf Diels, Lucifer ante portas… it speaks the first boss of the Gestapo,Stuttgart 1950
- Christoph count, political police between democracy and dictatorship, Berlin 1983
- Holger Hillesheim, Wolfgang beautiful: The Gestapo. Three-part documentation of the ARD/SWR (1. Hitler's sharpest weapon. 2. Terror without borders 3. Henker at the homeland front. Erstsendung: 18.4.2005).
- Gerhard Paul/Klaus Michael Mallmann(Hg.), the Gestapo myth and reality, Darmstadt 1995
- January Valtin: Diary of hell. From the American of Werner Krauss. Kiepenheuer & Witsch, Cologne 1957 (today as expenditure for license in comet mA service and publishing house company ltd., impudent one). In the USA already1941 as „Out OF the Night “publish.
- Harsh ore Wagner, the Gestapo was not alone… Political social control and state terror in the German Netherlands border area, Münster 2004
Web on the left of
- http://www.historisches-centrum.de/zwangsarbeit/haft.htm detention places and prisons of the Gestapo
- entry over „Gestapo “in the Austria encyclopedia of AEIOU
- photo from the recognition-official card index of the Gestapo Vienna. A selection with at present over 3.200 photos of LV victims
- http://www.archive.nrw.de/archive/staatl/lav/index.html - in main seed archives Duesseldorf stores an extensive existence Gestapo documents