Ghana

Republic of OF Ghana
Republic of Ghana
Flagge Ghanas
Wappen Ghanas
(detail) (detail)

Wahlspruch: Freedom and Justice
(close., „liberty and justice “)

office language English
capital Accra
system of government Präsidialrepublik
president John Agyekum Kufuor
surface 238,537 km ²
number of inhabitants 21.029.853 (conditions July2005)
Population density of 82.6 inhabitants per km ²
gros domestic product/inhabitant 384 US-$ (2004)
currency Cedi
time belt UTC
national anthem God Bless Our Homeland Ghana
Kfz characteristic GH
Internet TLD .gh
internal. Preselection +233
Lage Ghanas in Afrika
Karte Ghanas

Ghana (dt.: [ˈgaːna], English.: [ˈgɑːnə], in former times Gold coast; ) d'Ivoire, Burkina Faso, Togo lies as well as in the south on the gulf of Guinea in west Africa and borders on Côte (Atlantic). The volume TA lake is the largest lake of Ghana.

Table of contents

geography

major items: Geography of Ghana

the 540 kilometers long coast is littlearranged. From the coastal valley the country rises to the high country from Ashanti (300-800 M. and. M.). Northeast the Voltabecken attaches. The country drains to a large extent over the Volta, that in its underflow by the Akosombo dam to the largest artificial lake thatEarth is accumulated. The northern areas rank already among the large landscape the Sudan.

The annual amount of precipitation amounts to in the north by 1,000 mm, in the western coast region up to 2,200 mm. With Accra it hardly reaches 800 mm. Only in the damp-hot southwest grows evergreen damp forest, which changes into raingreen damp forest. The forest stands are threatened by the progressive Rodung. Landinward Feuchtsavanne and Trockensavanne follow.

cities

the largest cities are (conditions 1. January 2005):

the apparently accurate, official data for the number of inhabitants of Ghanaian cities are to be enjoyed with large caution, the estimations of different sources to Tema about vary between 200.000 and 500.000 inhabitants.

See also: Vegetation in Ghana three different

vegetation zones outweigh list

of the cities in Ghana [work on]. The tropical rain forest and the damp forest are in the southwest of the country, the north and the middle part of the country are characterized of the Feuchtsavanne,into tree and Grassavanne one divides. In addition a narrow strip of the coast exists also as Küstensavanne. In the evergreen tropical rain forest one finds the most sumptuous vegetation of the country. It is very species-rich and the all year round constant temperature and thosehigh air humidity promote that plant growth much. The surface at tropical rain forest amounted to originally 85,000 km ². Within 50 years the surface shrank around more than half on 40.000 km ².

population

the most important ethnical groups of Ghana are Akan (round 41%), Dagbane Dagomba (12%), Ga-Adangme (8%), Gurma (6%), Ewe (4%) and Yoruba (3%). In Ghana large language variety prevails also depending upon definition between 46 and more than 100 languages; the office language is English and languages of Ghana.

ThoseMajority of the population, less than 60%, has the Christian faith. Besides particularly minorities of trailers of indigener groups of religions ( about 23% of the population) and Muslims exist in the north (over 16% of the population).

The life expectancy was 2002 with men at 55.3 yearsand with women at 57.9 years. The Pro-Kopf-Einkommen (BSP) was with approx. 300 euro.

social situation

the prevailing social structure is the extended family, which holds ready on the one hand for each assistance and support and for problems „catches it “, on the other handin addition, their „tariff “requires, and many must up to the half of their wages to the family transfer. These structures do not yield however in the cities ever more up and often already find one children, those of their parentsmore to be supplied.

Generally speaking country is to be felt a strong migration direction the south. Young persons from the central region of Ghana pull after Accra and Tema, in order to find work there, while young people from the northern areas refuge in cities such as Kumasiand Sunyani look for. Since their state of training is limited mostly small and the work offer, land a great many this young people on the road. The state of training of the population is altogether relatively low. There is a 9-jährige compulsory schooling, yet are still around those29.5% of the population illiterate.

history

(S. also in emergence its name northwest from the old

realm Ghana, that has major item present history of Ghana ) the modern State of Ghana geographically was some thousand kilometers convenient andin no historical continuity to the modern state Ghana stands. Insisted on the area of the today's State of Ghana in before-colonial time several large realms and/or. Federations, e.g. the Ashantireich in central west Ghana, that only at the beginning 20. Century finally of the BritishColonial gentlemen was defeated, the kingdom of the Dagomba in north Ghana and the federation of the Fanti in the south.

Cape Coast Castle

at the gold coast coast mentioned of Ghana lined up since that 17. Century the fastened addresses of European powers (Portuguese, Englishman, Dutchman, breaking citizen,Sweden, Dane) in a density together, as in no other area of Africa.Largely Friedrichsburg in Princess Town e.g. was in 17. Century one brandenburgisch - Prussian colony and/or. fastened address.

Around 1820 the Colonial Office took over the British commercial posts onthe gold coast. There were agreements with the people of the Fanti, which were defended against the Ashanti from the inland. In the year 1874 the British explained to the coastal strips as the crowning colony. The Ashantiland inside the country and also thoseNorth territories north of it were annektiert finally 1901 and administered by the governor, whose residence was in Accra, directly. In some coastal towns became already in the middle 19. Century indigene local councils been entitled.

1925 came it under governor Gordon Guggisberg to a constitutional reform. InAshantiland and in the north territories was introduced the “Indirect Rule”. The there chieftains were directly subordinated to the governor in Accra. To the actual “Colony” at the coast a Legislativrat with 29 members was introduced, in which for the first time nine African representwere.

In the Second World War participated over 40.000 soldiers from the gold coast on the side British of the Empire . The majority of it was used in Southeast Asia.

By the so-called “Burns constitution” 1946 was awarded to the north territories and the Ashantiland seats in the Legislativrat.The position of the chieftains was continued to strengthen thereby.

1947 formed the “United gold Coast Convention”, whose secretary Kwame Nkrumah was appointed. This and further leader of the UGCC one year later after unrests in Accra temporarily are arrested. ThisYear can be regarded as turning point in Ghanaian history. The “Coussey commission” furnished by Great Britain suggested furnishing a chamber selected by the population in order to smooth the way to the autonomy.

In the following two years above all those madeNational movement around Kwame Nkrumah - which had separated in the meantime from the UGCC and had created the “Convention People's party” (CPP) - about itself talked. It organized boycotts, strikes and demanded from Great Britain “Self Government Now!”.1950 became Nkrumah of the Britisharrested. Nevertheless the CPP could achieve a large victory with the lining up elections.1951 won it the elections with overwhelming majority. Nkrumah was released by governor Arden Clarke (1949-57) and taken up immediately to the government. Since 1952 he was a prime minister.

ThatAway into independence six years later was smoothed. 1954 was incorporated the north territories of the colony gold coast.

To 6. March 1957 the gold coast and the Ashantiland became independent as Ghana under prime minister Nkrumah. After a popular vote the British mandated territory stepped British Togo country, thus the part of the former German colony Togo, the new state standing since the end of the First World War under British administration. The connections to Great Britain were not cut however. As the first Black African country it became fullMember in the Commonwealth OF nation. The state monopolyism and bad foreign trade policy, as well as insufficient co-operation with international development organizations and an unsuccessful attempt for the establishment of a socialist system of government led under Nkumah to a substantial financial crisis and continuously a high national indebtedness.

Die Patrouillenboote GNS Anzone (P 30) und GNS Achimota (P 28) der ghanesischen Marine im Oktober 2005
The patrol boats GNSAnzone (P 30) and GNS Achimota (P 28) of the ghanesischen navy in October 2005

1966, 1972, 1978 and 1979 it came several times to a Militärputsch, also these governments became the difficulties not gentleman and the country fell under the rulethe kleptokratischen military junta of Ignatius Kutu Acheamphong still further in case of debt. Corruption and arbitrariness determined the policy of the country in the 70's. 1981 putschte the Fliegerleutenant Jerry Rawlings, after he in the meantime power to a democratically selectedGovernment had returned, a second time and prevailed first autocratic diktatorisch. During its rule it help Ghana and others by World Bank and IWF again to economic stability. 1992 it gave to Ghana a democratic condition, in free elections, opinion andPressefreiheit, which right to physical soundness and the equality before the law are guaranteed. The human rights fixed by the UN are likewise recognized. After the elections 1993 and 1996 continued to prevail to Rawlings as a selected president. After it after the conditionwith the elections 2000 not a third time to begin was allowed, won John Agyekum Kufuor (NPP) the choice against the former vice-president Atta Mills (NDC). Kufuor was confirmed with the last elections in December 2004 in the office.

flag

Major item: Signal of Ghana

you 1957 one introduced and to 28. February 1966 (after it was suspended) restored. The color red reminded of the blood poured in the liberty fight, yellow of the Bodenschätze, green stands for the fertility of the country (rain forests among other things).The black “star of hope” is considered as guidance star of the African liberty and about the Ghanaian population as hope carrier to an economic upswing is understood: The development of “third world country” to “first world country”.

economics

base data

The gross national product had a height of 4,7 billion in the year 2002 Euro. It grew in the year 2003 material by 5,2% with an inflation rate of 23,6%. The economic total situation stabilized for the year 2001 something. The governmentfollowed the disencumberment program of the World Bank and the International Monetary Fund (IWF) for the most highly indebted countries. The economic policy is considered as conclusive. Ghana still ranks nevertheless among the poorest countries in the world: still 2003 amounted thatPortion of the population with less than 1 US Dollar per day on 45% (see also: Table: The highest poverty world-wide).

between

1992 and 2000 the portion of the public expenditures for the health service

raw materials

Ghana is world-wide one of the most important gold promoters (which constitutes 32% of the export goods) and at the same time also the second largest producer of cocoa (20%), to the Ivory Coast. Above all machines are imported,Transportation equipment, fuels and food (in particular meat).

culture

the Ghanaian society is very harmony-stressed. Aggressions are uncommon. The Christianity plays an important role. The political culture is coined/shaped by a diplomatic Habitus. Politicians take over above all one morallyand numerous projects start preaching role for the improvement of the level of development. Economically prominently are first of all Lebanese immigrants.


In Ghana there is variety of different languages (see languages of Ghana).

administrative arrangement

Ghana is divided into ten Regions with in each case one “regionally Ministers” at the point. All Minister become regional at present. posed by the government party new Patriotic party (NPP ).

The regions of Ghana
region population (2000) capital
Ashanti region 3,612,950 Kumasi
Brong Ahafo region 1,815,408 Sunyani
cent ral region 1,593,823 Cape Coast
Eastern region 2,206,696 Koforidua
Greater Accra region 2,905,726 Accra
Northern region 1,820,806 Tamale
Upper East region 920,000 Bolgatanga
Upper west region 576,583 Wa
Volta region 1,635,421 Ho
Western region 1,924,577 Sekondi Takoradi

literature

  • Dennis Austin: Politics in Ghana 1946-1960. Oxford 1964.
  • Nicholas Mansergh: The Commonwealth Experience. London 1969.
  • William David McIntyre: The Commonwealth OF nation.Origins and impact 1869 - 1971. Minneapolis 1977.
  • Gocking, Roger: The history OF Ghana. West haven/Greenwood 2005.
  • Hutchful, Eboe: The IMF and Ghana. the confidential records. London 1987.
  • Filter old, Thomas: Ghana 1957 - 1987. Development, retrogression, indebtednessand IWF intervention. Hamburg 1988. (= Hamburg contributions to Africa customer, Bd.31.)

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