Giacomo Meyerbeer

Giacomo Meyerbeer

Giacomo Meyerbeer (* 5. September 1791 in bird village with Berlin; † 2. May 1864 in Paris), actually Jakob Meyer Beer, was a German composer and conductor.

It was one of the most successful opera composers 19. Century and is considered asMaster of the French Grand Opéra.

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biography

the Jakobs Meyer Beer grew than son of the Jewish banker Juda heart Beer and thatAmalie Beer (geb. Malka Lipmann Meyer Wulff) in Berlin up. Its brothers were William Beer (the late businessman became and as an amateur astronomer admits became) and Michael Beer (later than writers admits became). Jakob became promptly under the direction of Franz Seraphinus Lauska, temporarily alsotrained by Muzio Clementi as the pianist and stepped as such already in the age of nine years to the public. Its later composition studies led the Kapellmeister B. A. Weber, then Carl Friedrich Zelter and of 1810 at Abbé Vogler in Darmstadt, where Carl Maria von Weberits schoolmate was. At that time it composed pieces of church of different kind as well as a Kantate: God and nature. Starting from 1810 it pulled the names together Meyer and Beer to a word and called themselves since that time Meyerbeer.

On that to the dramatic composition turning into, whichhe from now on all its forces dedicated, wrote he the opera to Iephthas Gelübde, which came into Munich to the execution, but only moderate applause found. It went to at the beginning of of 1813 to Vienna and dedicated themselves here still ten months long musical studies with Antonio Salieri. Therealso its second opera the two Kalifen, both in Vienna and in Stuttgart only small success had, exchanged it its past direction witnessing from serious artistic striving against a more obliging/more pleasing and sinnlich more impressive composition way, that perhaps Gioacchino Rossini example, its star evenly in coming upwas understood, participated.

Meyerbeer turned 1814 to Paris and at the end of of 1815 to Italy, where he wrote a set of operas in the again-Italian opera style for the Italian stage, justified by Rossini, of those however only Emma di Resburgo, Margherita d'Anjou and ILcrociato in Egitto (the Kreuzritter in Egypt) in Germany admits became, without having a thorough success however here; the remaining are: Romilda e Constanza, La Semiramide riconosciuta, L'esule di Granada and Almansor. They state all from Meyerbeer the hit,predominantly on outward effect aiming direction.

1824 returned to Paris, connected itself it with Eugène Scribe, to the effect-rich plot dramatist here, and the opera Robert owed le Diable (Robert the devil) to this connection her emergence, which, 1831 for the first time specified, in Francewith an up to then completely outrageous applause one took up and for the instant the two celebrated masters of those days, Rossini and Auber, colluded. The Sujet the same is effective despite some inconsistencies in szenischer regard and with exact knowledge of the stage nature with extraordinary fatearranged. The music increases the impression of the action; it is unusually concise, melody OS in the hearing falling, sinnlich responding and energetically exciting, often characteristically and characteristically of the situation, effect-rich by sharp, contrasting instrument valley colors.

Its next large work was likewise of Eugène the Scribe sealed, tooAt the beginning of of 1835 completed, but only 29. February 1836 specified opera Les Huguenots (the Huguenots), which in wealth the musical invention, dramatic effectiveness and skillful use all the French large opera to requirement standing art means „Robert “still exceeds, and in Paris as laterin completely Europe large attention made.

Giacomo Meyerbeer
Giacomo Meyerbeer

1842 Meyerbeer appointed by the king of Prussia as a successor Gaspare Spontinis the head conductor with the obligation to direct four months in the year the citizens of Berlin opera; but the position carried the character one nearly completely in truthHonorary office. On associated content of 4000 Thlr. did without Meyerbeer to favour of the chapel.

At compositions followed now, except smaller works required by its obligations than head conductor, the opera the field camp in Schlesien, for the inauguration citizens of Berlin of the opera house written and 1844 first specified;furthermore the music to the tragedy Struensee of his deceased brother Michael, which is considered with good reason as the most gediegenste, which wrote Meyerbeer for the orchestra, and its third large opera the prophet was for the first time specified, the 1849 in Paris and likewise on thatlarger German stages the round made. Into their the devil and the Huguenots are unmistakable sinking in music creative Kraft of the composer with all gloss of the effects and individual wealth of the characteristic against Robert, while the quantity of szenischen means of most unusual kind predominantly inthe foreground steps.

The last work Meyerbeers, which lived alternating from now on in Berlin and Paris, was less the re-writing „of the field camp “to for of Paris determined amusing opera the L'étoile you north (1854) and second, regarding the style purity like the inventionimportant amusing opera Dinorah, ou le pardon de Ploermel (1859 first specified); furthermore pieces of opportunity, to those it the Friedrich Schillers 100ster birthday (Schillermarsch, 1859), the coronation/culmination of William I. to the king of Prussia (torch/flare dances, 1861) and the second Londoner world exhibition 1862 (Festouvertüre) the cause offered.

While it into of Paris the performance of its for 20 years completed, but he prepared, died fourth large opera L'Africaine (the African), always held back, suddenly to 2. May 1864. The corpse became testamentary regulation in accordance with for funeralbrought on the Jewish cemetery at the beautiful houses avenue to Berlin; in Paris for the Dahingeschiedenen however a great dead celebration was organized. One year later arrived the latter opera, with wasteful splendour equipped, under Fétis' line in Paris at the performance and found the most shining admission.

Meyerbeer left a fürstliches fortune, which he, as used already with lifetimes so also by will, for generous support of art comrades without means. In its will Meyerbeer set a Legat from 10.000 Thaler (Meyerbeer donation), whose interest assigns every two years to talentful young German composersbecome the purpose of a study stay of six months each in Italy, Paris and the German cities With, Munich and Dresden. For application around the scholarship only the pupils of the royal academic university for music (department for composition) are, the Stern conservatoire, the Kullak academyin Berlin and those Cologne conservatoires entitled. The application takes place via the composition of a achtstimmigen doppelchörigen vowel joint (text and topic given), a Ouvertüre for large orchestra and a dreistimmigen dramatic Kantate with orchestra (text given).

work

its operas have still toto the present its attraction on the public of all countries retains, in particular the Huguenots to write in those the extraordinary abilities of the composer, dramatic warmth, inexhaustible wealth characteristic melodies, the art, effectively for the Singstimmen and spiritful use of the orchestral instruments for the elucidation those which can be representedCharacters and situations step out most decided.

In addition still its capability, the art spirit of the music nations Germany comes itself to acquire and to its own new one to merge Italy and France, as it requires the French large opera, whose substantial characteristic forms evenly that Eklektizismus. straight into thatrepeated one pointed out to past years, how the eminent meaning was Meyerbeers for the advancement of the large opera. Thus it became the model smelling pool of broadcasting corporations of Wagners, who denied and in Antisemitismus changed this influence however afterwards.

works

operas

  • Jephtas Gelübde, Munich 1812
  • Wirth and guest, or from joke Ernst, Hoftheater, Stuttgart 1813
  • Romilda e Costanza, Teatro Nuovo, Padua 1817
  • Semiramide riconosciuta, Teatro Regio, Turin 1819
  • Emma de Resburgo, Teatro San Benedetto, Venice 1819
  • Margherita d'Anjou, Teatroalla Scala, Milan 1820
  • L'Esule di Granata, Teatro alla Scala, Milan 1822
  • IL Crociato in Egitto, Teatro La Fenice, Venice 1824
  • Robert le Diable (Robert the devil), Opéra, Paris 1831
  • Les Huguenots (the Huguenots), Opéra, Paris 1836
  • a field camp in Schlesien, yard opera, Berlin 1844
  • Le Prophète (the prophet), Opéra, Paris 1849
  • L'Étoile you north (re-writing of a field camp in Schlesien), Opéra Comique, Paris 1854
  • Dinorah ou Le Pardon de Ploërmel, Opéra Comique,Paris 1859
  • L'Africaine (the African), Opéra, Paris 1865 (postume premiere)

other works

(selection)

  • God and nature, Oratorium, royal national theatre, Berlin 1811
  • Klarinettenquintett in E flat major, 1813
  • Gli Amori di Teolinda, dramatic Kantate, 1815
  • Fantasie for clarinetand caper quartet, probably 1839
  • Pater more noster for mixed choir, 1857
  • fixed march to Schillers birthday, 1859
  • Festouverture to the Londoner world exhibition of 1862
  • four torch/flare dances for royal weddings
  • of songs, and. A. Le chant you more berger (with clarinet)

source

literature

  • pure Carpenter: Giacomo Meyerbeer. A Biografie after documents. Parthas, Berlin 1998 ISBN 3-932529-23-5
  • Heinz Becker: Giacomo Meyerbeer in self certifications and picture documents. Rowohlt, Reinbek with Hamburg 1980. ISBN 3-499-50288-7
  • Anselm Gerhard: The urbanization of the opera. Paris and the concert hall 19. Century.Metzler, Stuttgart 1992.ISBN 3-476-00850-9
  • „the invisible wall. The three hundred-year old history of a GermanJewish family “, W. M. Blumenthal, Munich: DTV 2004, 4. To edition, 520 S., ISBN 3-423-30788-9

see also

list of German composers of classical music

Web on the left of

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