Giorgio de Chirico

Giorgio de Chirico, other way of writing Giorgio Di Chirico (* 10. July 1888 in Volos (Greece), † 19. November 1978 in Rome) was an Greek-Italian painter. It is considered as a general agent of the Pittura metafisica(Metaphysical painting), which as one of the most important forerunners of the Surrealismus is regarded.


De Chiricos parents were Emma Cervetto and Evaristo Di Chirico. Both were from Italy, but the father was as an engineer in Greece in the building of railwaysemployed. Giorgio de Chirico studied painting after academic training as engineer first at the polytechnic institute in Athens and after the death of its father from 1906 to 1909 at the royal academy of the arts in Munich.

Into the resident of Munich collectionsimpressed it above all the romantic mystischen paintings symbolistic Swiss of the painter Arnold Böcklin, to which of Surrealisten such as Salvador Dalí and max Ernst as one of their forerunners should be regarded. Further the dream pictures of the German painter, sculptor and commercial artist affected it Max Klinger. In addition it read like nearly all artists of the epoch Arthur Schopenhauer and Friedrich Nietz, who gave it with its descriptions of gespenstisch empty places in Turin, umsäumt with arcades and statues, the collecting main of its work.De Chiricos dream-similar city opinions consist of towers, arcades and deserted ideal architectures, times in central, times into multi-perspective space constructions added. Only individually used figürliche shade and “manichini” (member dolls) forms counterparts for the strictly architectural organization of this window blind world. Later de Chirico brought up for discussion thatfantastic, unconscious element in its compositions, by setting details to each other such as clocks, railways (in those the memory of its father is reflected) and verfremdete members into surreale relationship.

1911 established itself de Chirico in Paris. There it presentedin an exhibition „salon of the D `Automne “and with „the Indépendants “its pictures. He came in the French art metropolis with mean-ends to artists of his time together like for example with Pablo Picasso, with André Derain, Constantin Brancusi and the poetand critic Guillaume Apollinaire.

In the year 1915 it left Paris and pulled into the Italian Ferrara. There it concentrated on the three motives of cities, „Manichini “(member dolls) and Interieurs. Approximately from 1915 to 1925 de Chirico predominantly painted Quiet life. Typical are here above all the faceless indication dolls and antique motives for statue. From 1918 to 1919 also Giorgio Morandi of the Pittura was close metafisica and tested in ten works its suitability for its goals. De Chirico describes in itsAutobiography, how much it is continual anxious “together with Carlo Carrà, Ardengo Soffici and Giorgio Morandi, the sense for the tradition, those in Italy of the official, pseudoacademic art and the tölpelhaften Pfuschereien of secessionistic a folding brushes confuses and spoiledis to steer again into right courses. “

1916/17 created de Chirico with its brother Alberto Savinio and the Italian Futuristen Carlo Carrà “scuola metafisica” and thus a current, those the style of the Surrealisten around approximately ten years anticipated andup to the year 1920 persisted. The artists connected material and imaginary elements, which manufacture among themselves no or only a ancestorable purchase in their works. The artistic fantasy became the component of the screen layout. The associative character of the works brought dream something similarScenes out, in which a magic-metaphysical tendency prevails. Together with Carlo Carrà created de Chirico 1920 in addition the magazine Pittura metafisica.

In the year 1919 a style change in its mark way was to be determined. De Chirico began to paint more realistic and arrangeditself at the academic style out. Thus the work with the title originated in „to two document “in the year 1926. In the year 1924 it was one the founder of the magazine „La revolution Surrealist “. 1924 moved de Chirico again to Paris and were inspiredreceive from the Surrealisten, whose painting owed its much.

A break in its work marks the year 1930: Instead of orienting itself further at newer art currents, de Chirico turned away completely from the Pittura metafisica. Its remained neverthelessmetaphysical pictures influential for the Surrealisten. It turned one stresses baroque and pathetischen mark way too, criticized the modern painting sharply and painted from now on in a klassizistischen, academic style. Since he earned, copied and sold enough with these pictures notit also works of its metaphysical epoch, why dating is “more genuinly” Chiricos often not simple. From 1939 to its death de Chirico lived again in Italy.

Its house in Rome to the Piazza di Spagna is since 1999 asMuseum opened and shows one work-looks the artist.

works (selection)

  • „Piazza d'Italia “(1913)
  • „The Uncertainty OF the poet “(1913)
  • „Portrait prémonitoire de Guillaume Appolinaire “(1914)
  • „Hector and Andromache “(1917)

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