Giotto di Bondone
Giotto is considered as the crucial Wegbereiter the Italian Renaissance (Rinascimento).
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by sources is proven that Giotto grew up as a son of the Schmiedes Bondone in Florenz. Most experts are the opinion that Giotto was its actual name. Others mean, this is a short form of Ambrogio (Ambrogiotto) or Angelo (Angiolotto).
Its life testify thosearound 1450 written Commentarii (artist stories) Lorenzo Ghibertis, then of Giorgio the Vasari in the middle 16. Century were worked on and with it general admittingness attained. There one reports, Giotto grew up as a poor boy in Vespignano in the Mugello ( in close proximity to Florenz) and is discovered by the painter Cimabue when drawing on stone, while he guarded the sheep. The miracle boy drew ants so in a true-to-life manner that at it even experienced artists were astonished. These reports is the basis a core idea of the view of artist of the Renaissance : Those of the genius, assuch is born.
Giotto actually occurred as an apprentice Cimabues workshop. Soon it did not only receive orders from Florenz. Pope Benedikt XII. got it to Rome, where he was ten years long active; also the king Robert von Neapel took it into its services.It became finally famous as architect and sculptors, was well-known as beautiful spirit and poets. The writer Cennino Cennini admired it as Überwinder of the Greek art and praised its technical talents. The acknowledgment of its contemporaries was expressed also in material success: contrary to itsGiotto ranked colleagues among the Honoratioren, it possessed real estates in Florenz and in Rome. After 1320 it returned to Florenz, where it maintained a flowering workshop in the consequence.1334 he became leading building master at the cathedral of Florenz. Its Campanile carries its names,although its successors (the completion he did not experience any longer) deviated from his plans substantially.
Giotto died 1337 during the work on one „recent court “in the Bargello chapel in Florenz.
Giotto became also from Boccaccio in the Decamerone (6. Day, 5. History) and of Dante Alighieriin the “Göttlichen comedy “mentions; with both it was friendly. The poet Petrarca possessed one „virgin with child “Giottos and expressed its conviction, each art connoisseur must be hingerissen by it. Still Michelangelo has itself from Giottos „Ascension Day hl. Johannes “in Santa Croce in Florenz to energize leave, how a study of its hand shows.
one of the legends around Giotto means that this of a daily painted a small fly, which looked so deceptively genuine on a work of art of its master Cimabue that Cimabue itseveral times tried fortzuscheuchen, before it recognized the illusion. Cimabue is thereupon the opinion to have been that Giotto exceeded him. The fly became a symbol of artistic progress.
Giottos entire work treats religious topics. It is considered to that as „the actual founder of the Italian painting, particularlytoskanischen Freskomalerei. Both in the technology (it availed itself thereby the fig milk and the Eigelbs) as in the color giving it as newer one arose; it lent brightness and clarity to the colors… “(so Meyers encyclopedia of 1888). As most important aspects of its work however those are consideredhigh naturalness and Lebhaftigkeit of its figures, just as the preparation of the perspective.
Thus it overcame the ikonographischen standards of the Byzantine painting, which had affected the painters of the evening country since generations. It finally introduced the development, those to for the after-gothical art inItaly (Rinascitá) typical realism led. „Giotto now was it, which aligned itself to the present and real one… the lay wins place and propagation, like also Giotto in the sense of its time the Burlesken beside a Patheti place granted “(Hegel).
During forthe conventional painting two-dimensional figures were characteristic, which were arranged as symbols before one with symbols decorated laminar background, placed Giotto plastic modelled individuals into a perspective area, who maintain relations to each other. By its figures with width and fold throw equipping (like it the Plastikeralready in the Bamberger, farm servant citizens and in the Naumburger cathedral had done), lent he to them naturally working volume and weight. This shows already the Kreuzigung in the Santa Maria Novella in Florenz - one of its early work - clearly. According to Vasari was its representation of theHl. Franziskus in Assisi (see fig.) to unite critics even too naturally (and thus too laily) turn out.
Giottos Hauptwerk (and kept best) is probably the large fresco cycle in the Cappella degli Scrovegni all' arena in Padua, that out over 100 scenes from the life Mariaand passion history exists and 1304-1306 developed. Here it used painted architectural elements, which pretend the viewer niches (trompe l'oeil), in which allegorische figures seem to be located. Masaccio and still Michelangelo were directly affected of it. A famous scene from this cycle is the Anbetung of the kings,in the one comet-similar star in the sky floats (probable, beside the carpet of Bayeux, one of the earliest representations of the Halley's comet, which was to be seen few years before with the naked eye). „The Ognissanti “- Madonna in the Uffizien (see fig.) originates also from this periodand the only larger board picture is Giottos, which is received.
Remarkable it is also that before the time by Giottos `s fresco cycle were painted only very rarely blue in Padua sky and the color blue was used at all only extremely meagerly. This is at least partiallyto attribute to a lack of affordable blue pigments; gemalenes Lapislazuli, which Giotto began for its fresco cycle, was unbelievably expensive and came of “beyond the lake “(therefore also “Ultramarin “ mentioned).
At its contemporary Duccio di Buoninsegna in Siena one praises that participatingHuman one, the individual expression. Giotto against it arranged the feeling of the palpation barness and the depth in the area for the viewers of its works. It was it logically also, which turned away with the time from the traditional gold background and which sky over the landscape put on blue. It madealso the first serious attempts to realize perspective Verkürzung in landscapes and building representations.
The achievement Giottos stands lonely there in its time; only two generations later knew artists of the early Renaissance such as Andrea Orcagna, Altichiero there Zevio or Masaccio to the development activated by himtie.
The writing up of some works to Giotto is still disputed; this particularly applies to the Franziskuslegende in Assisi. Some works are regarded predominantly today as work of its workshop.
One further of the many legends, which climb around its life's work, mentioned, it has the envoythe Pope, who wanted to have a Probearbeit of it, nothing else as a as perfect circle free-handle painted, as one it with the circle not better have made could („Giottos O “).
- the Cappella degli Scrovegni in Padua
- the Basilica San Francesco in Assisi
- the chapels of the Basilica Santa Croce in Florenz
- the Navicella at the old Petersbasilika in Rome
- Campanile of the Florentiner of cathedral
- picture the dream of the Joachim
honours Giottos became also scientific projects of the today's time with his nameprovided, see Giotto.
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| | * Literature of and over Giotto di Bondone in the catalog of the DDB
|Commons: Giotto di Bondone - pictures, videos and/or audio files|
|NAME||Bondone, Giotto those|
|SHORT DESCRIPTION||of Italian painters|
|DATE OF BIRTH||1267|
|PLACE OF BIRTH||close Florenz|