Giraffe

of these articles describes the kind of mammal Giraffa camelopardalis. For the constellation, see giraffe (constellation).
Giraffe
Stehende Giraffenkuh mit Jungtier in der sambischen Savanne
standing giraffe cow with young animal in the Zambian savannah
systematics
Subclass: Higher mammals (Eutheria)
putting above: Laurasiatheria
order: Paarhufer (Artiodactyla)
subordination: Wiederkäuer (Ruminantia)
family: Giraffe-well-behaved (Giraffidae)
kind: Giraffa
kind: Giraffe
scientific name
Giraffa camelopardalis
(Linnaeus, 1758)

the giraffe (Giraffa camelopardalis) is a mammal from the order of the Paarhufer. It is the highest landliving animal of the world. To the distinction of related Okapi (the” forest giraffe “)it is called also steppe giraffe.

Table of contents

characteristics

males (bulls) will weigh the Schulterhöhe up to 5,50 m high and up to 900 kg, amount to between2,0 and 3.5 M. The females (cows) are usually somewhat smaller and easier. The neck of the giraffes is unusually long, nevertheless exists the neck spinal column, as with nearly all mammals, from only seven Halswirbeln, which are however strongly extended. The long neck meansalso a challenge for the circulation system of the giraffe: Finally the brain must be supplied reliably with sufficient blood. Therefore the heart of the giraffes is particularly high performance. It can pump 60 litres blood per minute by the body, weighs 12 kg and provides for a blood pressure,that three times is as high as with humans. The tongue is extremely long and muskulös: It can become long 45 cm and is qualified for seizing.

Massaigiraffen
Massaigiraffen

the sample of the hair dress consists of dark marks, which stand out against the brighter basic colour. Depending upon subspeciesvaries the form and color to marks. The lower surface is bright and ungefleckt.

Two tap-like horns mount with both sexes the head. In rare cases behind it a further pair of horns grows. Some giraffes have besides a knochigen peak between the eyes, that similarly as thoseHorns is structured.

Giraffes can run and reach fast top speed of 55 km/h, are thus by means of short distances faster than a running horse. The long legs can carry the giraffe however only on firm underground. Swampy areas are avoided by the animals therefore, and rivers to placeinsurmountable obstacles.

spreading

giraffes are in African savannahs common. Today they live only south the seeing era, particularly in the grass steppes of east and South Africa. The existence north the seeing era were exterminated promptly by humans: during the early antiquityin the Nile valley and approximately in 7. Century in the coastal plains of Morocco and Algeria. In 20. To century giraffes from many wider ranges of their circulation area disappeared (see humans and giraffe).

way of life

giraffe eats giraffe head from the soil (Brehms animal life
) into close opinion

the figureand the physiology make possible for the giraffe their nourishing way: Giraffes prefer the sheets from the crown region of the trees, with preference acacias. The giraffe seizes a branch with its tongue, leads it into the muzzle and feasts by withdrawing the head the sheets off. Tongue andLips are so constituted that they do not take damage despite the thorny branches. A giraffe about 30 kg of food exterminates each day; for this it needs sixteen to twenty hours. The liquid need is erased to a large extent from the food, so that giraffes can get along for weeks without drinking.If they drink nevertheless, they must spread the Vorderbeine far, in order to lower the head far enough; likewise they proceed, if they take up food of the soil, which they do however only under very unfavorable circumstances.

Giraffes live einzelgängerisch or in loose federations. That hangsSocial behavior from the sex: Females do always to herds of 4 to 32 animals together, which change again and again however in the composition. Young males form before the sex-ripe own federations, before they become loners. Meeting two bulls one on the other, mostly comes ita ritualisierten fight, with which the animals stand next to each other and strike their head against the neck of the competitor. At the mating time such fights can fail more aggressively and accept a violence, with which one of the competitors is unconscious struck.

The carrying time takes 14-15 months. Usuallyonly one calf is born. The birth takes place in standing, so that the newborn children from 2 m height fall to soil. Right after the birth are heavy giraffes about 1.8 m high and 50 kg. They stand within one hour firmly on their legsand begin to run after few hours. However the calves are only united after 2 to 3 weeks with the herd.

A calf remains about one and a half years with its nut/mother. With four years it sex ripe, with six years reaches it the full size.In the wilderness giraffes can become 35 years old 25 years, in shank.

Against Raubtiere attained full growth giraffes with impacts of their front hooves defend themselves. Because of its size and Wehrhaftigkeit giraffes are attacked only rarely therefore. In the Etoscha national park lions were observed thereby, like them giraffes started andthem sitting on the back through-bit the neck. This is however a rare exception.

Young animals fall against it frequently lions, leopards, Hyänen and game dogs to the victim. Despite the protection by the nut/mother only 25 50% of the young animals reaches the adult age.

humans andGiraffe

Hans Hennig: Two giraffes (1977)

the North African populations were bejagt early by Romans and Greeks. Occasionally giraffes were used by the Romans for animal looking in the Kolosseum. Altogether the giraffe was however in Europe little well-known. There is a constellation at the northern starlit sky named giraffe, this is not however a new creation and has a mythologischen origin.

In black Africa giraffes were hunted mainly by falling plates. The long chords were used for Bogensehnen and music instruments, the skins applied with many peoples as status symbols. The meat is tough, but enjoyable. ThoseHunt methods of the African could not endanger the existence however. With the arrival of white settlers the principal reason for the giraffe hunt became the pure pleasure. Large game hunters praised themselves with the number of them shot giraffes, and in many areas the animals rapid became rarer. Today are giraffesnearly everywhere rarely. Only in the states of East Africa there are rich existence. However in the Serengeti national park about 13,000 giraffes live. The IUCN does not lead the giraffe as threatened, since around its total stocks no concern exists. However some subspecies are close to becoming extinct, like the following sectiondescribes.

subspecies

Massaigiraffe
Massaigiraffe

due to the samples and the habitat one differentiates between eight to nine subspecies. These are:

several of these subspecies are threatened. The three first mentioned subspecies became particularly rare. The Angola giraffe is exterminated in the country, thatyou originally gave the names, Angola.

The Uganda giraffe has centralbrown, large marks, which are irregularly formed and are separated from relatively broad white volumes. Marks of the Massaigiraffe are smaller and darker and approximately star shaped. Are unique marks of the net giraffe, which darkensPolygons are, between which very narrow white volumes run, so that the impression of a net develops.

One regarded the subspecies original as independent kinds. While this is today excluded, about the exact demarcation of the subspecies still one argues. Also within a subspecies steps occasionallya patchwork up, which is perfectly atypical for the region, so that one cannot determine the origin surely always on the basis the design.

Beside these there were one or more subspecies in North Africa, which were already exterminated in the antique one. There on Egyptian representations oftenin-colored giraffes sometimes to see is, one speculated whether the there subspecies was ungefleckt. There are however also representations of gefleckter giraffes.

other

the word giraffe originates from the Arab Zarāfa (زرافة) and means” the lovely one “. The first giraffein Europe Julius Caesar left 46 v. Chr. bring to Rome. First in more recent time was 1827 an animal named Zarafa. The Romans called the giraffe camelopardalis, because they felt reminded by them of a mixture from camel and leopard. Thereforealso the scientific name of the giraffe agitates:Giraffa camelopardalis. Occasionally it was called also in the German Kamelopard or Kamelparder.

Giraffes inform themselves within a sound range not audible for humans with frequencies under 20 cycles per second, the Infraschallbereich in such a way specified.

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