|of these articles is concerned with Gladiatoren as a sword fighter, other meanings under Gladiator (term clarifying).|
Gladiatoren (of latin gladius, one „impact sword “) were in antique Rome occupation fighters, who fought against each other in public looking positions on lives and death. ThatFight of the Gladiatoren is called Gladiatur against each other. Gladiatorenkämpfe were a component of the Roman life of 264 v. Chr. to beginning 5. Century after Chr.
origin of the Gladiatorenkämpfe
the religious background
the origin of the plays is not completely clarified. It is assumed that Gladiatorenkämpfe a religious meaningin the context of dead celebrations had. Grave painting from that 6. Century v. Chr. point to a etruskische origin. According to another theory the plays originate from Kampanien, where likewise in grave painting from that 4. Century v. Chr.Gladiatorenkämpfe are represented,whereby it would be to be considered that the Etrusker was in this time ruler Kampaniens.
the first Gladiatorenspiele
the first Gladiatorenspiele in Rome found 264 v. Chr. instead of, as Decimus Junius Brutus in memories of its briefly before the deceasedFather on the forum Boarium, a market place in Rome, three pairs of slaves to fight against each other left. Very soon further Roman noble ones, those followed the example of the Decimus with these than munus (= service, Plural: munera) demonstrations designated also their deceasedhonoured. The Roman historian Festus wrote in addition:
- „It was custom to sacrifice prisoners on the graves of courageous Krieger; when the cruelty of this custom everything was perceptible, one decided, to let Gladiatoren before the burial places fight…“
Defiance of thisQuotation is not the theory that Gladiatorenkämpfe were the mild variant of Greek and Roman people victims in honours of the deceased, in the opinion some historian applicable. They hold rather the opinion that with the bloody fights the characteristics of the deceased should be demonstrated.Those characteristics, which caused the size of the Roman realm after the understanding of humans at that time: Courage, Kraft, Tapferkeit, Entschlossenheit and Gleichmütigkeit in relation to death.
Organizers of these Gladiatorenkämpfe were wealthy private individuals - they were as only able, itself bothto carry out the costs of the Gladiatoren and the following aufwändige flank. In the course of the time above all Roman politicians discovered that the meeting of such was munera a suitable means to acquire itself the affection of the Roman population. ThoseSpectators pursued the happening closely pushed at the edge standing - there were not seat grandstands with the first meetings.
Gladiatorenkämpfe in the 1. Century v. Chr.
As the popularity of Gladiatorenkämpfen with the Roman people and one rose it asQuite recognized in this way to be maintained the plays more magnificently and more largely were produced. Shortly thereafter the first wooden seat galleries were established and first animal rushing (venationes) was taken up to munera. Both extensions of the program developed graduallyas firm of components of the meetings. The organizers were still wealthy private people, who were welcome each cause to provide the attention of the Roman people in this way. And the more unusual the meeting was, the rather rose the wealthy ones in the favour of the people.
By Gaius Iulius Caesar one delivers, it with arms from silver would have let equip his Gladiatoren, in order to impress the Roman population. On the extents, which such an bribery attempt of the Roman population could accept, reported Sueton, a Roman bio count, over Caesar:
- „Caesar organized plays of most different kind: A Gladiatorenspiel, theatre performances in each borough, by actors of all languages, in the same way circus conceptions, Athletenkämpfe and sea-combat (Naumachie). In the Gladiatorenspiel on the forumfought Furius Leptinus, which originated from a family of prätorischen rank, and which former senator and lawyer Quintus Calpenus…“
- „Five days lasted the animal rushing; the conclusion combat formed, in for two departments of ever five hundreds the mento foot, twenty elephants and three hundred riders faced…“
Gladiatoren in the Roman Empire of
were understood Gladiatorenkämpfe as public
task during car running, theatre performances and animal rushing as public task, were the Gladiatorenkämpfe to 42 v.Chr. a purely privately financed affair. This changed in the time of the state crisis after the murder Caesars. The Aedile decided Gladiatorenkämpfe in this year for the first time to align not only car running publicly but also. They found to that in the framework„ludi cereales” instead of, the ceremonies in honours of the goddess of cerium. These first were accompanied publicly financed Gladiatorenkämpfe of animal rushing.
Gladiatorenkämpfe as imperial privilege
It was above all Augustus, which established the meeting of Gladiatorenkämpfen as imperial privilege:
- „Three times I let organize in my own name Gladiatorenspieleand five times in that of my sons or grandchildren. With these plays ten thousand humans fought… Animal-rush with African Raubtieren left I in my name or in that of my sons and grandchildren in the circus or on the forum or inAmphitheater for the people six and twenty times accomplish, whereby approximately three thousand five hundred animals were hunted.“
- (Res Gestae Divi Augusti, 22)
the meeting of Gladiatorenkämpfen was integrated ever more into the emperor cult - applied in particular in the provincial towns. To thatIt was the senators still possible for times of Augustus to organize such plays but already 22 v. Chr. Augustus let note in a decree that in these cases any more than 120 Gladiatoren could not be used. At the same time Augustus limitedthe number of the days, on which Gladiatorenspiele could be organized:
- of 2. to 8. December
- in the days „of the Saturnalien” between that 17. and 23. December
- to the spring celebration „Quinquatrus” between that 19. and 23. March
whoit dared to organize privately Gladiatorenkämpfe ran, to pull in view of its increasingly closer connection with the emperor cult, danger, the anger of the Roman emperors on itself.
The relative rarity of the aufwändigen and expensive Gladiatorenkämpfe remained to a large extent constant over the centuries. Stillin the year 354 n. Chr. by the 176 holidays 102 for theatre performances, 64 for car running and only 10 for Gladiatorenkämpfe was used.
the characteristics of the Gladiatorenlebens
the first equipment of the Gladiatoren was simple: Everyone carried sign and a sword and was protected by helmet and splints. In the course of the centuries developed a number of different Gladiatorengattungen, those in their equipment differed partially clearly. The main equipment consisted of a sword, splints, a helmet, a sign and a metal belt, which should hold the Lendenschurz. The fighters rarely carried (upper) a body protection. Newer realizationsover the nutrition of the Gladiatoren it interprets on the fact that they tried to pad itself also by natural fat layers against smaller injuries; they saw thus not necessarily slim and through-train out. Reason for the fat pads and the strength of the Gladiatoren is into search their special Diät. They were Getreideknir” well-known in old Rome as „, since they ate almost exclusively grain and beans.
Most knowledge of the weapons of the Gladiatoren is to be owed to the excavations in Pompeji. They are supplemented throughreceive remained small statues and representations from Gladiatoren on gravestones, Fresken and the like. The different equipment, in which the Gladiatoren began against each other, are described in the article Gladiatorengattungen.
in the British museum in London is Relief, which shows two Gladiatorinnen, which will just dismiss from the public inspired by the fight honorably. Even the names, under which these two Gladiatorinnen arose, are well-known:Amazona and Achilla. Despite this delivered illustration female Gladiatoren was the exceptioninto the Gladiatorenkämpfen. Nero Mrs. (and also children) had already let against each other fight, normally served the employment of these person's groups rather the Erheiterung of the public - as for example under Domitian, which let women begin against dwarves.
The employment more womanlikeGladiatoren contradicted too much the philosophy of the Gladiatoren that in the arena the fighting demonstrated the old Roman military virtues of courage, steadfastness and victory will. Therefore were not many trailers for woman fights. Emperor Septimius Severus left in the year 200 n.Chr. the employment of female Gladiatoren forbid.
the social origin of the Gladiatoren
with the first fighters concerned it slaves or prisoners of war. Above all prisoners, condemned criminals and slaves than Gladiatoren were used also later. Alreadyin the 1. Century v. Chr. committed themselves also free citizens as Gladiator. Although Gladiatoren stood socially still lower than slaves, the interest was to become Gladiator temporarily so highly that the senate tried to limit this by a law. So are been toward end of the first republic nearly half of the Gladiatoren formerly free citizens its, who gave their liberty up with the entrance into the appointing and of the Gladiatoren.
This step is from today's viewpoint due to the generally short life span at that time thatHumans only too understandably. A Gladiator had to fight only to in until three times per year and in the remaining time was well supplied.
Exemplary was also the medical supply, one let which angedeihen the Gladiatoren. One of the most famous physicians thatAntique one, Galen, gained its experiences during the time, in which he cared for into the Gladiatorenschule of Pergamon the fighters.
The historian Fik Meijer draws itself for those, which announced themselves voluntarily to the Gladiatorendienst, parallels to the noble ones, during19. and 20. Century voluntarily to the French Fremdenlegion announced:
- Perhaps „their situation leaves itself best with the some heruntergekommener Aristokraten in 19. and 20. Century compare, which committed themselves to the service in the French Fremdenlegion. Like thoseLegionäre of the modern times wanted to pull this Roman Aristokraten a conclusion line under its past life and decided for an existence, in which its earlier status had no more meaning. From now on they divided their life with proletarians and slaves, themperhaps before would have appreciated of no view.“
the life expectancy of a Gladiators
museum, Cologne after far common view with that during the Roman Kaiser eraGreeting at the Caesar:
- „morituri width unit salutant” - the Todgeweihten greets you.
This greeting is delivered for only one condition. It concerned one of emperors Claudius produced sea-battle (Naumachie) and not around a Gladiatorenkampf.Nevertheless these words describe the life situation of a Gladiators appropriate. Gladiatoren became rarely older than thirty years, their life expectancy varied in the course of the centuries substantially. In the 1. Century before Christ, thus still during the Roman republic, as itself the Roman noble ones the favour of the voters by generous munera bought, also generously with the blood of the Gladiatoren one proceeded. Iuvenal commentated this with the words:
- „Munera nunc edunt et, verso pollice vulgus cum iubet, occidunt more populariter” - „now they give Gladiatorenkämpfe and,as the Pöbel requires it with turned thumb, they kill popularly.”
Altogether there are little reliable data to leave from the time of the Gladiatorenkämpfe over it, how large the chances of a Gladiators were, the arena living. The historian G. Ville rated100 fights out, in the 1. Century after Christ it took place and stated with the fact that 19 Gladiatoren (of 200 took part fighters) in these one hundred fights lost their life. After evaluations of gravestones the age lay, at which they died on the average,at 27 years. Gladiatoren would have had thereby a life expectancy, which under that „the normal” Roman citizen was to only little. The historian Junkelmann points out that only the most successful Gladiatoren a tomb was set. The majority of the Gladiatoren died against itat the beginning of their career, since only the most capable first fights survived. One set no gravestone for this Gladiatorenneulingen died young, was usually buried her anonymous. According to the estimations of Junkelmann most Gladiatoren their death by force diedat the age between 18 to 25 years.
With each fight rose the self-assertion, experience and the popularity of a Gladiators. An experienced Gladiator with high trailer shank had clearly more chances by the public or play organizer to be begnadigt if it were subject in the fight.Surviving an experienced fighter quite lay in the self-interest of the public - only like that exciting fights were guaranteed also in the future. After the inscriptions on the tomb one in Sicilies buried Gladiators won this Gladiator 21 of 34 fights,nine fights went out undecided, and in the four fights, which it lost, it the public begnadigte.
Since Gladiatoren a part of the incomes from their fights was entitled, they had a certain chance with a longer duration of survival to redeem itself. Released Gladiatorenwith a wooden sword were distinguished. The strict Roman hierarchy offered little free space to the Gladiatoren for a life after the combat arena.
Gladiatoren were trained in special schools (ludi). Famous Gladiatorenschulen was in Capuaand in that 79 n. Chr. by a volcanic eruption Pompeji buried. One the largest Gladiatorenschulen was resident in Ravenna. According to estimations there were altogether somewhat more than 100 Gladiatorenschulen, which normally stood under line of a Gladiatorenmeisters, also thatOwner of the Gladiatorenschule was. Frequently Gladiatoren traveled in a troop (familia) from city to city. The owner of the troop rented its Gladiatoren that, which wanted to organize a Gladiatorenkampf.
In Rome there were four Gladiatorenschulen, which called largestLudus Magnus and was connected with the Kolosseum by a tunnel. These four were in national possession and stood under the supervision of an official, who was carefully selected and who ranked among at the highest paid Roman official.In view of the danger, which proceeded from a death-courageous, battle-tested group with humans, one wanted to make sure in this way to regard the risk small as the Roman population.
Teachers of a again enlisted Gladiatorrekruten were usually old, experienced fighters, those their pupilsthe courses of motion typical for the respective branch of service ground in. The pupils practiced at stakes, and Vegetius described in 4. Century training practice, which were identical for soldiers and recruits:
The Gladiatoren usually practiced with wooden weapons, which were clearly heavier than those, which were used later in the arena.Thus their perseverance was trained.
the expiration of a daily in the arena
conditions munus on, turned the play organizer (editor) to a Gladiatorenmeister (lanista), with thatExecution was assigned. A contract fixed, how many Gladiatorenpaare had to begin, how the Begleitprogramm looked, like for a long time the meeting last should and also the payment regulated. Few days before the beginning munus were publicly presented the fighters. Important one Information for the spectators was, in who mating the fighters would begin against each other, in who order the fights would be accomplished and in many fights the respective Gladiatoren were successful. The previous evening it added a fixed flank for the Gladiatoren,also the public was certified.
the combat day
as Augustus the meeting of Gladiatorenkämpfen as imperial privilege established, then it coined/shaped also the expiration of a Gladiatorenkampfes crucially also. Up to the augustinischen time as independent meetingit merged held animal rushing into the expiration of a combat daily also. The individual operational sequence of a Gladiatorenkampfes varied, but the following described operational sequence was typical for one day in a Amphitheater in the nachaugusteischen Kaiser era:
- in the morning hours as the first animal fights were organized. This could be for example the fight of a bull against bar. The poet Martial reports also overFights between bull and elephant, lion and leopard or Nashorn against buffalos.
- When occasionally circus numbers followed intermediate play, in which trained animals arose.
- Afterwards animal rushing, with which Gladiatoren did not fight, followed but special venatores and bestiarii. These particularly trained fightersone regarded still smaller than Gladiatoren, it carried also completely different equipment. Their weapons were above all the Jagdspeer. First harmless animals were rushed as for example Antilopen or deer. Hunted, the hunt for more dangerous animals began goods theselike robbery cats, elephants or bears.
- During the midday criminals in the arena were executed. That could be an execution, with that the criminals the animals was accused (which corresponded to a condemnation damnatio ad bestias) or they were forced, with weaponsto begin against each other. The winner of a duel had itself to place then to the next condemned one. A chance on a pardon did not give it; that survivors was executed last in the arena by venatores (munera sine missione).
- In the afternoon program beganwith the invasion of all Gladiatoren, which presented themselves the public. To the presentation they returned to the Katakomben.
- As Vorübung (so-called prolusio) to the actual Gladiatorenkämpfen Gladiatoren, in addition, occasionally representatives of the aristocracy stepped, with blunt or woodenWeapons against each other in pairs on. With very large meetings this could drag on prolusio also over several days. A participation of a Roman noble one at such prolusio was not honour-actively regarded contrary to „the genuine “Gladiatorenkampf as. Also Roman emperors -as for example Commodus - are here their courage to look to have placed.
- The actual Gladiatorenkampf took place following the looking fights. The duel was usual, whereby certain mating was like retiarius against one murmillo classical combinations.
of the historians Junkelmann points out that the fight in the arena - which so-called Gladiatur - a wild hand mixture, but most more differentiated, exact rules a subjected combat haven was not. The fight usually became from twoArbitrators observes. They introduced also a tracing, if both fighters were too exhausted or separated the belts of the equipment; and they punished rule offences. One of the substantial tasks of the arbitrators was to be prevented it that an arising Gladiator thatfurther attacks of his opponent suspended was. A fight could end in four ways:
- by death one of the contractors during the fight
- by the fact that one gave up to the being subject and upon the requests of the public or the play organizer still in the arenaby his opponent execution-moderately one killed (fought it well, became released it usually; if previous fights had unblutig run, then the public wanted to see someone dying sometime)
- to task one the fighter and pardon of the Gladiators by the public or the play organizer(so-called missio)
- the decision that combat went out undecided (so-called stantes missi)
after Junkelmann was the last form to terminate a fight the rarest and was considered as quite fameful.
In the arena died less Gladiatoren than so far accepted- probably one of eight died.
A been subject Gladiator asked for grace, by stretching an index finger or laying down its weapons. The arbitrator contacted then the organizer of the plays - in the Roman Kolosseum this was usually the emperor,that the judgement to fall had. This however usually transferred the decision the spectators. In the general conception the spectators the death sentence fällten, if they showed downward with the thumb. There it in the Roman, pre-Christian conception world the termSky (realm of the good ones) and hell (realm of the bad ones) did not give, are it just as probable that a death sentence with the thumb was expressed upward - as symbol for the distance of nut/mother earth -; similarly applied in reverse directionthe thumb as indications of remaining on this earth, stretched downward. There are no historical vouchers for the fact that this like that was. It is also conceivable that with a thumb directed against the chest or throat the mortal blow symbolizesbecame, since the mortal blow with the sword was implemented by the Schlüsselbein into the heart. Is more clearly occupied, what those Roman spectator called in such moments. If they called center (let it go) or missum, then the been subject Gladiator was allowed livingthe arena leave. The call iugula (cut) against it announced the end of the Gladiators by execution. It was expected by the been subject Gladiator that he accepted the mortal blow seized on the soil kneeling into the neck or between the Schulterblätter. This becameexperienced in the Gladiatorenschulen, however it is improbable that also only one person expected to her death in case of emergency courageously.
The winner received a branch of oil and a money and left the arena by the Porta Sanavivaria, the gate of the healthand the life. The dead one was carried against it on one with cloths behängten Bahre by the Porta Libitinaria - the gate of Venus Libitina, the goddess of death and the funeral.
Romans and Gladiatoren - oneambivalente relationship
the example of manful bravery
the attitude of the Romans opposite the Gladiatoren was much ambivalence: On the side Gladiatoren were still lower settled in the social hierarchy than slaves, on which other side becamesuccessful Gladiatoren to famousnesses, from which one could be demonstrated the old Roman virtues such as victory will, death todesverachtung and bravery. Both for Cicero and for Seneca the courageously dying Gladiator was exemplum virtutis, an example of manful bravery. MarcusJunkelmann points out that Cicero what he preached the Roman people in its third Philippi speech in view of the grasp from Marcus Antonius after power
- „… which courageous Gladiatoren shows, by going down with, leaving also, the gentlemen of all countries and peoples do us - rather we want to fall in honours, when in dishonor lead the life of slaves”
for itself also converted. It died „the Gladiatorentod”, by darbot readily its neck the sword,as him the mercenaries of the Antonius caught.
some Gladiatoren possessed large trailer shank among the citizens of Rome, those the Gladiatoren asSexualobjekt regarded. Latin term Gladius, from which gladiator is derived, except in its original meaning „impact sword was used “in the vulgären linguistic usage also for „Penis “(similarly to Vagina, originally sword separated, transferred also the femaleSex organ).Graffiti, as they are to be found in Pompeji, suggest glowing followers of the Gladiatoren. A sexual contact with Gladiatoren was verpönt and socially strictly was outlawed, it came however nevertheless to sexual relations between Gladiatoren andCitizens. Gladiatoren enjoyed a similar call in the Roman society as today's Popstars. The banquet of the play organizer in the evening before a fight gave to the influential women of the city the opportunity to become acquainted with their Idole personally and often also intimately. Faustina,the nut/mother of the emperor Commodus, had witnessed their son allegedly with a Gladiator - probably however Commodus invented this history, in order to underline its special role. As particularly scandalous one felt the relationship between Eppia, a woman out enrichesFamily, the senator wife was, and the Gladiator Sergiolus. If one believes the Roman Satiriker Juvenal, Eppia did not follow that physically for a long time any longer attractive Sergiolus from love this way and that by the provinces.
Spartacus or the dangerin the own city
Gladiatoren were outstanding trained, battle-tested men, who had to lose few. The Romans had for a long time assumed on the part of the Gladiatoren little danger threatens them. The men originated from different groups of peoples, and so long the weaponsin the weapon chamber under strict guard and was not accessible, considered one was located to the Gladiatoren outside of its practice time the endangerment small. This changed with the slave rebellion, in whose developing Gladiatoren were substantially involved. In the year 73 v. Chr.escaped from a Gladiatorenschule in Capua eighty Gladiatoren, which rapidly further slaves followed. At the beginning of only armed with kitchen measurers (the weapons in the strictly guarded weapon chamber were not accessible during the outbreak), the escaping arrived rapidly into the possession more professionallyEquipment, after they had successfully seized twice the weapons of the troop units set on it. Military successes of the slave army, which essentially stood under the direction of Spartacus, were only limited. A Roman army under the direction of Crassus placed thatSlave army in the extreme south of Italy and struck it destroying.
The danger of a renewed rebellion by armed Gladiatoren remained clear for the Romans in the memory. The Gladiatorenschulen in Rome became under supervision imperial civil servants (so-called. procuratores) posed, which were highly paid.In times of state crises one preferred it to shift the Gladiatoren from the cities.
the places of event of the Gladiatorenkämpfe
the forum Boarium - the cattle market the close Tiberinsel - was firstPlace of event of Gladiatorenkämpfen, which only smoothed at first, primitive meetings were. The forum Romanum was more suitable from space reasons than the forum Boarium and became therefore in the consequence the scene of the Gladiatorenkämpfe, their number starting from 264 v. Chr. continuously increased. Alreadyfew years, after Decimus had held its special commemoration ceremony for its father, were created for the spectators seat opportunities, so that they could attend the happening with somewhat more comfort.
Contrary to numerous other cities of the realm Rome had for a long timeTime no appropriate place for Gladiatorenkämpfe. That changed only with the building of the Kolosseums, with which an enormous arena covered with sand (the term arena comes from latin and meant „sand “) was created, from their ranksthe Roman spectators the happening to pursue could.
the end of the Gladiatorenkämpfe
among the Roman emperors gave it beside the large friends of the Gladiatorenkämpfe (like Commodus, Caligula and Claudius) also such, to this driving clearly reservedfaced (Tiberius or Marks of Aurel). Mark of Aurel for example forbade the employment of sharp weapons with Gladiatorenkämpfen and Augustus forbade Gladiatorenkämpfe, which were allowed to end to the fighting only with death one. There were not decided opponents of the Gladiatorenkämpfe: Emperor cult andGladiatorenkampf were closely with one another verwoben. Who expressed itself against the Gladiatorenkampf, expressed itself also against the institution of the emperor.
Critical voices were directed rather against unrestrainedly to look blood greed placed of the public and the brutal Begleitprogramm. Thus reports Seneca shocks over the along-daily executions, with which the executing with sharp weapons began against each other:
- „By accident I was in the midday program of the circus - expecting jokes, jokes and something relaxation, with which humans eyes recover from the people blood:the opposite is the case. Which fought before, was compassion; now one leaves to mirror-image moose, and it is the pure murder: they do not have anything to protect itself. The blow with the entire body suspended, they strike never in vaintoo. That most prefer to the regular combat's pairs and otherwise estimated. Why shouldn't they prefer it? Not helmet, not sign points starting from the sword. For what Finten? All that is delay of death. In the morning one throws the lionsand bear humans forwards, at noon the spectators. Murderers are accused to future murderers on their instruction, and they lift the winner on for a further murder; Conclusion is fighting death: with sword and fire becomes the thing expenditure-fenced. Thathappens, until the arena is empty.“
For Seneca exactly as for Cicero against it the Gladiator, which dies courageously and courageously in the fight against another Gladiator, in exemplary form symbolized Roman cardinal virtues.
Real and also effective criticism at the Gladiatorenkampfset only with the Christian writers in 2. and 3. Century, which made themselves the arguments of the Stoiker too own. In the year 325 n.Chr. then that issued to the Christianity zuneigende emperors Konstantin for the first time to the governors of the easternProvinces arranged edict:
- „In times, in which peace and peace relating to domestic affairs prevail, bloody demonstrations displease us. Therefore we order that there may be no more Gladiatoren. To become those, which were condemned their crimes because of in former times to it, Gladiatoren, to be supposedfrom now on in the mines work. Thus they pay for the punishment their crimes, without having to pour their blood.“
Gladiatorenkämpfe (munera) remained nevertheless generally speaking 4. Century much likes and offered to emperors and dignitaries important possibilitiesto the representation. However it ever more difficult to find Gladiatoren since then 365 the employment forbidden by Christians was. Also the use of soldiers and veterans was forbidden. Thus also the costs of the plays rose. Beginning 5. Centuryn. Chr. if the Gladiatorenspiele was finally forbidden by emperor Honorius - history that the death of a monk preceded this prohibition, which jumped into the arena, delivered with Theodoret, in order to prevent the fights, are however fewreliably - they are however still into the center 5. Century testifies. Animal-rush (venationes), against from Christian side by far less reservation existed, 6 became still at least up to the exit of late ancient times in. Century organizes andmost popular meetings remained together with car running.
continuing the ritualisierten duel
the Dutch professor for old person history Fik Meijer points thereupon that the Gladiatorenkampf its continued in ritualisierten duels to in 20. Century had. For thoseit calls individual time periods:
- In the Middle Ages „the judicial “duel as God judgement, with which two of a crime of accused of men fought against each other. The defeat was the proof of one's guilt: If the being subject not already died in the fight, then it was afterwards executed.
- Also the Middle Agesto add is the knightly duel, with which frequently enough likewise one died the involved one.
- Of 16. Century up to the beginning 20. Century goes the duel into action, which likewise runs off after strict rituals.
- The modern Boxkampf does not aimon the killing of the opponent off. The fascination, which it has for the spectators, is however not dissimilarly that, which a Gladiatorenkampf had for the spectators at that time.
Marcus Junkelmann refers with these comparisons to a crucial difference. The Gladiator,that the fight lost, was (if it not already deceased during the fight) the judgement of the play giver and/or. the public delivered: The public or the play giver could decide that it was to be killed and this taken place in form of a conscious,execution-moderate killing.
The Gladiatorenkämpfe was accompanied always also of executions and animal rushing. Fik Meijer points out also here that the form of the exhibition was not limited to the Roman time: Executions became to in 18. Century in Central Europe publiclycarried out and were regularly not less cruel, than which took place at midday in the arenas of the Gladiatorenkämpfe. Likewise animal rushing - the morning program of a Gladiatorenkampfes - in legal form is as Stierkampf to today public magnet; Dog fights and. A. are meanwhile legally forbidden, find however still a public.
Gladiatorenkampf and media
the fascination, which exercises the play with death on humans, have 19 since that. Century led to the fact that itself literature, screen end art andFilm with this topic argue.Edward Bulwer Lytton published 1834 its novel the last days of Pompeji, in which Gladiatorenkämpfe played a role. Further followed this novel, under it the 1895/96 published novel Quo vadis the author Henryk Sienkiewicz, thatfew years later with the Literaturnobelpreis one distinguished.
Parallel to it the screen end took care of art of the topic. Painter 19. Century such as Lawrence Alma Tadema, Francesco Netti and Jean Léon Gérôme painted Sujets from the combat arena. The Ölgemälde Pollice versofrom Gérôme from the year 1872 those is considered the Gladiatur to the topic has and as the picture as one of the most outstanding works, which coined/shaped our current conception over Gladiatorenkämpfe crucially.
The painter Gérôme had operated and intensively extensive searches inPompeji excavated arms studies. Its painting shows therefore the knowledge conditions of the time at that time over Gladiatorenkämpfe, only the combination of the articles of equipment is not applicable after today's knowledge conditions. The painting gives in addition the atmosphere of the crucial moment (supposed) appropriate again: Underthe light filtered by the Sonnensegel falls an excited quantity the execution judgement over the been subject fighter. Even the white dressed Vestalinnen, which always attended the Gladiatorenkampf valid as act of state, can be hinreissen to the deadly gesture. Both the Sonnensegel andalso the privileged seat of the Vestalinnen is occupied historical, only the direction of the thumb character, that the death sentence suggest, is assumption. The director Ridley Scott, which turned the film Gladiator in the year 2000, left itself after own confession of thisPaintings to its film inspire.
The film took up the topic of the Gladiatorenkampfes likewise very early. One of the first films, in the Gladiatoren is the 1935 developed novel filming Quo plays a role vadis?. Its continuation found the topic inClassical authors like the film Spartacus of Stanley Kubrick and cash success Gladiator of 2000, distinguished with Oscars.
Both Spartacus and Gladiator are not correct in their representation of the Gladiatorenkämpfe. While the film Spartacus is limited to it, Gladiatorengattungen begin tooleave, at the represented time yet did not exist, Ridley Scott continues despite its published requirement to draw an authentic picture substantially. The arms parts used in the film come of to most different time and the weapon arsenals of different peoples - specialized which in GladiatorenwaffenExpert Marcus Junkelmann calls among other things Wikingerhelme and components of Turkish arms; the represented fight is blood run stairs a Gemetzel and no of arbitrators accompanied fair duel and the fighters may itself in addition with robbery cats appearing in the arena to suddenly argue. Evenin the equipment of the combat arena remarkable errors can be found: The stone columns serve the Circus Maximus as Wendemarken of running bottom plates and are therefore not in the Kolosseum to be found, but in the stages aligned to running as for example.
- Augustus, Res gestae divi Augusti/my acts, Latin-Greek-German, hrsg. by corner hard webers, Duesseldorf/Zurich 1999. As Web left in latin/English also to find under: Quotation Augustus
- Cicero, Tusculanae disputationes/discussions in Tusculum II 41 text (Latin)
- Cicero, Epistolae adfamiliares/An its friends VII 1 text (Latin/English)
- Seneca, Ad Lucilium epistulae moral it at Lucilius. Letters over ethics, book I, letter 7 text (Latin)
- Sueton: De vita Caesarum/the Kaiserviten text (Latin), text (Latin/English)
- Vegetius: Epitoma rei militaris/outline of military affairs,Latin-German, hrsg. and over. of Friedhelm L. Mueller, Stuttgart 1997 text (Latin)
- Alan Baker: Gladiatoren - combat plays on lives and death, Munich 2002. ISBN 3-442-15157-0
- Marcus Junkelmann: The play with death - in such a way foughtRome Gladiatoren, Mainz 2000, ISBN 3-8053-2563-0
- kind of hitting a corner Köhne (Hrsg.): Gladiatoren and Caesaren: the power of the maintenance in antique Rome. Zabern, Mainz 2000. ISBN 3-8053-2614-9
- Fik Meijer: Gladiatoren - the play around lives and death, Duesseldorf 2004, ISBN 3-7608-2303-3 (a very much detailed and summary worth reading of the different aspects of the Gladiatorenwesens)
- Thomas Wiedemann: Emperor and Gladiatoren: the power of the plays in antique Rome. WBG, Darmstadt 2001. ISBN 3-534-14473-2
Web on the left of
|Wikiquote: Gladiator - quotations|
- over„genuine Roman sounds” in Hollywood films (Ridley Scotts Gladiator)
- Morituri of width unit salutant (everything over the plays)
|This article was taken up to the list of exzellenter articles.|