Glass

of these articles treats the solid glass. For further meanings, see glass (term clarifying).

By glass (of Germanic glasa „the shining, resplendent one “, also for „amber “) one understands an amorphous not crystalline solid. Materials, which one in the everyday life lifewhen glass (for example drinking and Fenstergläser , television disks and lamps ) are designated only one cutout from that variety of the glasses.

Glass is an amorphous, i.e. essentially not crystalline substance. Usually glass is produced by melts,in addition, the formation of glass is possible by the heating up of Sol gel and by shock waves. Thermodynamically glass is called frozen, undercooled liquid. This definition applies to all substances, which are melted and cooled down accordingly fast. That means thatwith the solidification of the melt to the glass incipient crystals form, for the crystallization process however sufficient time does not remain. The solidifying glass is fast too firm, in order to permit still another crystallization. The transformation range, that is the transient area betweenMelt and solid, lie with many types of glass around 600 °C.

Despite the not defined melting point glass is a solid body. Even if it deformed under long-term application of force, one might not call it liquid. The slow deformation under a constantKraft appears also in crystalline solids and as creeping is designated. Reports of flowing Kirchenfenstern cannot be confirmed and the idea of the liquid glass seem on a wrong translation to decrease/go back.

SiO ₂ as crystal: Quartz crystal
SiO ₂ as glass: Quartz glass

hydrocarbon connections like plexiglass is no glass, but a plastic. Plastics possess organic compounds, even Silikone are saturated and as more or less out-differentiated chains structured with organic remainders.

Those generally linguistic usage meaning-basic characteristic of glass is transparency. The optical characteristics are as various, as the number of glasses. Beside clear Gläsern, which are permeable in a broad volume for light, one can block the permeability by addition from special materials to the melt. For example one can optically clear glasses for infrared light make, those undurchdringbar for radiant heat are blocked. The most well-known controlling of the permeability is the colouring. The most diverse colors can be obtained. On the other hand there is already obscure glass, that due to its main components or the additionfrom Trübungsmitteln opak is.

Customs glass has a density of approx. 2,5 g/cm ³. The mechanical characteristics vary very strongly. The fragility of glass is proverbial. The breaking strength is determined strongly by the quality of the surface. Glass is to a large extent resistant to chemicals.An exception is hydrofluoric acid, it loosens the silicon dioxide and changes it to Hexafluorokieselsäure. Generally glass has a high electrical resistance.

Table of contents

characteristics

structure

Kalk-Natron-Glas

although glass to the oldest materials of mankind heard, existsstill ambiguity in many questions of the atomic structure and its structure. Meanwhile the generally recognized interpretation of the structure is the network hypothesis, which was set up by Zachariasen 1932. This means that in the glass in principle the same connection conditions are present as in the crystal.With silikatischen Gläsern thus in the form of SiO 4 - tetrahedrons.

As the two-dimensional illustrations of the quartz and quartz glass show, the difference is appropriate for lattices and there a network in the regularity of the structure - here. The fourth oxide connection, inthe third dimension shows, is not not represented to the better descriptiveness. The connection angles and distances in the glass are not regular and the tetrahedrons are distorted. The comparison shows that glass has exclusively a short-range order in form of the tetrahedrons, however nonecrystalline long-range order exhibits. This missing long-range order is also responsible for the very heavy analysis of the glass structure. In particular the analysis middle range, thus the connections of several basic forms (here the tetrahedrons) is the subject of the current research and becomes the today's largestProblems of physics counted.

One calls the material, which determines this essential structure of the glass, non-columnar. Beside the mentioned silicon oxide also different materials can be such as boron oxide and not-oxidic like Arsensufid non-columnar. Single-component glasses are however the exception and quartz glassis the only economically meaning. Further materials merge themselves differently into the network structure. Here network transducers and stabilizers are differentiated.

Network transducers are built into the stand formed by the non-columnar. For usual customs glass - lime alkali glass (more gebäuchlicher is however the closer term Kalk-Natron-Glas) - is this sodium - and/or potassium oxide and calcium oxide. These network transducers tear the network architecture up. The bridge oxygen of the silicon oxide tetrahedrons is blown up. In place of the firm atomic bond a weaker electrovalence of soda with the oxygen steps.

Intermediate oxides such as alumina and lead oxide can as non-columnar and - transducers function. However they are not alone capable of the glass formation.

Glasübergang

usual crystallizes a melt when falling below the melting point. Thus ice and silicon dioxide become from water in falling below of 0 °Ckritallisiert at 1727 °C to Cristobalit. The melting point is defined exactly and with its under or excess changes numerous characteristics such as viscosity and density abruptly.

In contrast to the transition from melt to crystal is from melt toamorphous solid (thus glass) more gradually. Here one speaks not of a bloom point separates of transformation range

attitude of the glass characteristics

further aggregates is among other things:

below a table with thatapproximate compositions of important glasses. The percentage figures are in weight percentage.

Type of glass SiO 2 aluminium 2 O 3 well 2 O K 2 O MgO CaO B 2 O 3 PbO TiO 2 F As SE Ge of width unit
quartz glass 100% - - - - - - - - - - - - -
container glass 72% 2% 14% - - 10% - - - - - - - -
floating glass of 72% 1.5% 13.5% - 3.5% 8.5% - - - - - - - -
lead crystal glass of 60% 8% 2.5% 12% - - - 17.5% - - - - - -
laboratory glass of 80% 3% 4% 0,5 - - 12.5% - - - - - - -
E-glass of 54% 14% - - 4.5% 17.5% 10% - - - - - - -
enamel 40% 1.5% 9% 6%1% - 10% 4% 15% 13% - - - -
Chalkognidglas 1 - - - - - - - - - - 12% 55% 33% -
Chalkognidglas 2 - - - - - - - - - - 13% 32% 30% 25%

glass colouring and decolorization

most glass sorts are produced with further additives, in order certain characteristics to be affected as their colouring. For the glass colouring, and/orfor the decolorization of Gläsern, which are caused by impurities of their raw materials, above all metallic oxides are used. In principle one uses the complementary color for the removal of color passes. Decolorization means are called Glasmacherseifen.

  • Ferric oxides: Color depending upon priority of the iron ion green cyanor yellow and in connection with pyrolusite yellow as well as brown.
  • Copper oxides: bivalent copper colors, univalent blue colors red, from this arises the copper ruby glass in such a way specified.
  • Chromoxid: In connection with ferric oxide or alone for the green colouring one uses.
  • Uranium oxide: A very fine yellow or green colouring (so mentioned “Anna-yellow” or “Anna-green” - glass) with greener fluorescence under that UV light results in. Such glasses were manufactured particularly in the time of art nouveau. In England and America this glass sort is also as “uraniumglass " or “vaseline glass” admits.
  • Kobaltoxid: colors intensively blue and also for the decolorization one uses.
  • Nickeloxide: violet, reddish also for the grey colouring and for decolorization
  • manganous oxide (pyrolusite) as Glasmacherseife for the distance of the Grünstichs
  • selenium oxide: pink colorsand red, the pink colouring is called “Rosalin”, while the red is called selenium ruby.
  • Silver: fine silver-yellow gold
  • results in: Only in aquae regiae and colors ruby red, one of the most expensive glass colouring is dissolved.

organization thatGlasses

natural glass: a Tektit. The green color probably agitates from the ferric oxide in the erschmolzenen sand

according to kind of the genesis: Beside artificial are also natural glasses: Obsidian is volcanic origin, Impaktgläser and Tektite results from meteorite impact, and Fulgurite with lightning strike. These glasses develop from melting Sanden. A crystal lattice can also by effect of a shock wave its structure lose and an amorphous body become. Among this diaplektischen glass ranks Maskelynit, which developed from feldspar.Also it is to be manufactured possible with the help of the Sol gel process glass without melts. An example for this are silicate of aero gels.

According to kind of the Chemismus: Beside Kalk-Natron-Glas, which corresponds to the usual customs glass, there is quartz glass from pure silicon dioxide, lead glass for z.B. Crystal drink kristalltrinkgläsern, television judges and optical lenses. The lead in the glass shields the electromagnetic radiation, has a high refractive index and an even dispersion. Water glass is water soluble. Borosilikatglas is chemically resistant in particular and becomes with laboratory instruments, mess kit in addition, opticalGlasses uses.Boron phosphate glass (boron tri oxide, phosphorus pentaoxide) and alumosilicate glasses are further special glasses. To the group of the not-oxidic glasses among other things fluoride glasses and Chalkogenidgläser belong in the infrared optics. As a special case in this classification one must understand glass ceramic. It is produced as glass, throughthe warming oh treatment is obtained partial recrystallization. Like that it is strict-taken no more glass, but a glass crystal mixing body.

In the basic form of the product and the production procedure: The glass industry is arranged usually into bottle glass -, flat glass, and special glass production. Bottle glass designates bottles andCanned goods glasses. These mass products are blown by machine. Products with high order are pressed. To it glass components and drinking glasses belong. For lamps is a special production procedure necessarily, likewise for tubing glass. Flat glass is called depending upon production procedures floating glass or rolling glass. The basic product is oneWindowpane. Final products are z. B.Automobile glass, mirror, annealing glass, laminated glass. Fiber glass covers optical waveguide cable, fibre glass and applies also with glass-fiber reinforced plastics. Optical glasses are lenses for microscopes and binoculars. Mouth-blown glasses exist practically onlyin arts and crafts, as well as with expensive vases and Weingläsern.

After their brought trade names: Antique glass, Diatretglas, Flintglas (lead glass as optical glass), Hyalithglas (opakes glass, in 19 the century uses for board and Pharmaglas), crowning glass (optical glass), Kryolithglas (opakes, white fluoride glass)

After their label names as generic term: Ceran (glass ceramic for z. B. Cook fields), Jenaer glass (heat-firm Borosilikatglas) both of bulkhead and Pyrex (Borosilikatglas) of Corning in the anglo-saxon linguistic area a synonym to Jenaer glass.

see also to Liste_der_Gläser

production process

mixtures

quartz sand as raw material

for the production of Kalk-Natron-Glas, that approx. 90% of the produced glass quantity constitute, the following raw materials are used:

Quartz sand as nearly pure SiO of 2 - carriers for network formation. It is important that the sand a small (<0,05%) Portion of Fe 2 O 3 possesses, since otherwise with white glass disturbing green colouring arises.

Einlegemaschiene einer Floatglasanlage
Einlegemaschiene of a floating glass plant

soda (well 2 CO 3) serves 2 as sodium oxide carrier, that as network transducer and as fluxing agent serves and the melting point of the SiOlowers. In the melt carbonic acid becomes free and separates as gas from the glass. Sodium can be supplied also as nitrate or sulfate of the melt.

Potash (K 2 CO 3) supplies potassium oxide for the melt, like Natriumoxidas network transducer and fluxing agent serves.

Feldspar (NaAlSi 2 O 8) registers 2 and well 2 O alumina ( aluminium 2 O 3) beside SiO into the mixture. This leads to an increase of the glass hardness.

Lime serves as network transducerand the firmness of the glasses increases. Pure CaO has a too high melting point, so that CaCO 3 is used. With the melt it changes itself to carbon dioxide and calcium oxide. CaO increases the hardness in moderate addition (10-15%).

Dolomite is a carrier for CaO and MgO.Magnesium oxide has similar characteristics as calcium oxide on the melt.

Waste glass or self-pieces of broken glass from the production break is likewise given to the mixture. Waste glass from the glass recycling however only in the container glass industry, where their portion until over90% amounted to can. Beside saved raw material this becomes apparent in the smaller energy consumption, since pieces of broken glass melt more easily than the mixture. Problems with the waste glass recycling are a bad color separation, foreign components such as metals, ceramic(s) or special glasses. The foreign matter does not cause glass errors throughcomplete melt opens and damage in the glass fusion tub, since metals penetrate the fireproof soil.

For special glasses are used also red lead, boraxes, barium carbonate and other rare ground connection .

Doghouse of the Schmelzwanne with Einlegemaschiene

melt

thoseGlasschmelze consists of different phases: The rough melt with the Erschmelzen of the mixture makes the beginning. This covers the Rauschmelze and the homogenization. To the Erschmelzen of the firm components the Läuterung comes, in which the gases in the melt are eliminated.Being away the glass follows, in which the material is cooled down for further shaping.

With chargenweise working daily tubs and port furnaces happen all these steps successively in the same basin. This historical production procedure finds today only with art-relating to craftsProduction and special, optical Gläsern in small quantities instead of. In the industriellen continuously working furnaces find yardstick use excluding. Here the succession of above steps is not temporal, but spatially separately. The quantity of the glass withdrawal corresponds to that of the supplied mixture.

The mixturewith an inserting machine of the Schmelzwanne one gives up. At temperatures of approx. °C the different components melt 1480 slowly. The movement of convection in the glass bath produces homogeneity. This can by a Bubbling, the Eindüsung of air or gases into thoseMelt, to be supported.

In the ringing inheritance realm, which follows the Schmelzbereich directly and is separate from this more frequently also by a barrier in the melt, in the melt remain-end blisters driven out. Via the high tenacity of the melt this is done only muchgradually and there is necessary just as high temperatures as in the Schmelzbereich. Since the Läuterung is intending for the glass quality, there are various measures to support around these.

That ringing inheritance realm follows the structurally clearly separated refiner. There for thoseShaping lower temperatures than for the melt and Läuterung are necessary, must the glass be away before. Therefore one speaks also of conditioner. The channel, the Schmelzwanne and refiner connects, is called flow and works according to the siphon principle. With flat glass tubs are bloom andRefiner only by a constriction separately, since a flow would let an optical unrest in the finished product develop.

From the refiner the glass of far flows for the point of the withdrawal. With the production of bottle glass this is the feeders or Feeder. Heredrops are led into glass machines standing under it. With flat glass the glass flows over the lip into the floating bath.

shaping

depending upon product is differently formed glass. One differentiates between above all glasses, which gedüst pressed, blown,gesponnen or to be rolled.

IS machine with bottle production
  • bottle glass is manufactured in several procedures by presses, blisters, sucking and combinations of these techniques. Here dominates the IS machine, which works in blowing blowing, or press blow moulding. For Tafelware with high order press blow mouldings are used, thosekarusellförmig work.
  • Glass fibers are produced by spiders in the TEL procedure so mentioned.
  • Flat glass is manufactured in the floating procedure, pulled, rolled or poured
  • for tubing glass

of cooling

relaxation-cool

in each glass article develops during the shaping mechanical stresses as consequence of stretch differences inMaterial. These tensions can be measured with optical tension examiners (tension double refraction). The Spannungsanfäligkeit depends on coefficients of expansion of the respective glass and must become thermally balanced.

For each glass leaves itself between the upper cooling temperature (viscosity of 10 13mPa·s) and a lower cooling temperature (10 18 mPa·s), usually between 550 °C and 350 °C, a cooling range specify. One reduces the tensions by defined slow cooling within the cooling range, annealing.

The time, into the one glass article thatCooling range continuously can, depends considerably on the temperature which can be over-bent depending upon type of glass, the strength (thickness) of the article. In the bottle glass range this is between 30 min and 100 min, with large optical lenses with 1 m diameter and more, can a slow cooling of one year necessarily its, in order to thus avoid visible tensions and picture distortions of the lens.

The controlled reduction in temperature can be made with different furnaces. One differentiates between periodic cooling furnaces and continuous cooling courses. Cooling furnaces are suitable only forSpecial fabrications and Kleinstchargen, since after each withdrawal of the workpieces the furnace must be brought temperature. Industrially cooling courses are used. Here production on steel mats (bottle glass) becomes and/or. Roles (flat glass) slowly by gradated heated furnace segments transports.

Hohlglasproduktion: Konservengläser nach dem Verlassen der Kühlbahn.
Bottle glass production: Canned goods glasses afterleaving the cooling course.

refinement

  • by chemical and physical gaseous phase separation finest metallizations can be applied. The most window and autoglasses will also provide impermeable coatings for infra-red light. The radiant heat is thereby reflected and heating of the interiors throughSun exposure reduced. At the same time the calorific losses are reduced in the winter, without impairing thereby transparency substantially.
  • Another coating technology prevents the contamination and supports the self cleaning of Fensterglas. An outside, hydrophilic coating with titanium dioxide prevents the droplet formation of the rain water, thereit their surface tension lowers. Rain water can run off evenly on the disk and along-pull dirt particle. Additionally absorbing coating the emergence of active oxygen can be made possible, organic compounds decomposed by a UV light. Also silverings are possible
  • for manufacturer information ( pdf )
  • with optical devicesreflection-reducing layers are used. Glass can be also sharpened, so that optical lenses for eyeglasses and different optical devices thereby can be manufactured.
  • To obtain by additional sandblast a frosted glass effect, so that the glass only translucently however no moreis transparent
  • Aimed a recrystallisation can be caused by accurate annealing of a glass manufactured from lithium, aluminum and silicon oxide. The material is now no more glass, but a glass ceramic with extremely small thermal expansion.This applies z. B. with cook fields and Spiegelteleskopen.

history of the glass production

early period and antique one

Roman Tropffläschchen in form of a Gladiatorhelms, 1. Jh. n. Chr., Roman-Germanic museum, Cologne

natural glass such as Obsidianbecause of his large hardness and the sharp break since earliest time for tools such as wedges one used. Thus it was used in metal eyes the South America up to the arrival of the Spaniards for weapons and tools.

Whether the glass production in Mesopotamien, in Egypt or to the Levanteküste was invented, cannot be said not with last certainty. The oldest text mention originates from Ugarit and becomes on approximately 1600 v.u.Z. dated. As oldest finds the Nuzi is considered - beads and the first bottle glass comesfrom the graves of the 18. Dynasty in 15. Jh. v.u.Z.

In the Nile - delta was found the oldest well-known glasswork and to investigations informed about the fusion procedure. Thus quartz rock was blended cut up, with sodahaltiger plant ash, filled into a crucible and ina closed furnace with 500-600 °C to a frit melted. This frit was broken after the cooling from the crucible, cut up, sieved again and in a second melt with 900-1100 °C to 10 cm deep and 5 - 8cm high glass blank melted. With a third melt the glass could by adding metallic oxides black, violet, blue, green, red, yellow or knows to be colored. A comparison of the maximally obtained glass fusing temperature of 1100 °C and the melting point of the copper1085 °C lie the conclusion close that both Schmelzvorgänge in furnaces of the same design took place. The Rohglas was supplied to the processing workshops. Such blanks were found in the ship wreck by Uluburun near the Turkish Bodrum, on 14.Jh. v.u.Z. is dated. The first well-known prescription is delivered from the library of the assyrischen king Assurbanipal, on approx. 650 v.u.Z. one dates: Take 60 parts sand, 180 parts of ash from sea plants and 5 parts of chalk and you receiveGlass. To this time already substantially more glasses was converted and it developed a new glass fusion technology.

Plinius the older one describes into the Historia naturalis the production of the glass. Chemical analyses and realizations of the experimental archaeology have Plinus in manyQuestions confirms. At the Roman time glass with river sand and soda from Egypt were melted. This Egyptian soda was diminished at the Wadi Natrun, a natural Natronsee in north Egypt, and exported over Alexandria from the Phöniziern in the Mediterranean. It contained more than 40% Natriumoxid and up to 4% lime, was thus ideal a fluxing agent. Plinius continues to write from glass sand camps in Italy, Hispanien and Gallien, but at none of these places in such a way meaning glass production developed as at the PalestinianCoast between Akkon and Tyros and the Egyptian glassworks approximately around the Wadi Natrun with Alexandria.

Emperor Diocletian put 301 u.Z. the prices for a whole set of products firmly, among other things for Rohglas. Differences became judaicum and alexandrium,whereby the latter is more expensively and probably decolorized glass. At this time glass production was essentially still arranged into primary and secondary workshops. In the primary workshops in large Schmelzwannen Rohglas was melted, which was then supplied to the secondary workshops, whereit in crucibles was melted and processed. In pray Eli' more ezer in today's Israel 17 glass fusion tubs were opened, which are large in each case 2 x 4 m. After the mixture had been inserted into the tub, the furnace was course-bricked and 10until 15 days for a long time beacons. Eight to nine tons blue and/or green Rohglas became in such a way in only one processing step erschmolzen. After the firing stop and the cooling was cleared away the Gewölbe of the furnace, the Glasblock was out-lifted and the Rohglas to the furtherProcessing dispatched. A ship wreck from that 3. Jh., which was found at the Southern French coast, had loaded more than 3 tons Rohglas. In Egypt raw glassworks were found, to in 10 Jh. were enough. The Egyptians used antimony for the decolorization, could thus manufacture colorless, transparent glass.

The secondary glassworks were generally speaking Roman realm common and manufactured bottle glass, flat glass and mosaic stones. The Rohglas was melted in a crucible and taken and processed with the whistle in the viscous condition from the furnace.At the whistle the glass could be blown up, which made the production of larger containers and new forms possible. Up to then if glass for beads, and for Trinkschalen was used Parfümfläschchen, above all container glass spread - in contrast in the Roman realmto the usual clay/tone, wood, Metal or leather containers glass is taste neutral - as well as Karaffen to the Kredenzen and in late ancient times also drinking glasses. First Fenstergläser were in Aix EN Provence and Herculaneum. The finds have sizes of 45 ×44 cm and/or. 80 × 80 cm. However nothing is well-known over the manufacturing process. The cylinder blow moulding and the casting technology are considered here.

the Middle Ages and modern times

in the early Middle Ages placed the Teutons everywhere, where those Romans had withdrawn themselves, glass, which attaches stylistic idiom smoothly to late ancient times already germanisierte. One assumes today for the Frankish glass still existing Roman glasses were recycelt.

forest glass

with „de diversi artibus “of theBenediktinermönches Theophilus Presbyter is to us for the first time a longer written source at the disposal, those the glass production, which describes a blowing of flat glass and bottle glass as well as the furnace technology. Theophilus, which was probable in Konstantinopel, mixed ash of dried beech wood with sieved river sandin the relationship 2:1 and dried this mixture in the furnace under constant agitating, so that it could not melt or stick together, one day and one night. Afterwards this frit was filled into a crucible and at one night under strong heatto glass melted. This at the beginning 12 Jh. perhaps probably in Cologne text developed forms the basis for the Kirchenfenster of the gothic and also for the forest glass. Plant ash with all impurities supplied also a part of the lime, which was necessary for the production of good glass. In order the enormous quantity of wood, which was necessary for the ash production for beaconing the furnaces and more still not to have to carry over long ways the glassworks becamein remote forest areas put on. These forest glassworks manufactured predominantly glass for the urban population, which was greenish discoloured by the sand contaminated with ferric oxide.

In Georgius Agricola' s „de RH metalica “gives it a short description to the glass art. It hadfrom 1524 to 1527 in Venice lived and probably the island Murano to visit may do, the detailed descriptions of the furnaces let which assume. As raw material transparent stones, thus, are thus marble in the fire burned rock crystal and white stones and inPounding work zerstossen and in the form of rough semolina to be brought and thereafter one sieves. He continues to state common salt, magnet stone and soda. Common salt and magnet stone are rejected of later authors than uselessly, to marble and soda gave it to altarsand in Milan are however in Germany not too received, only a suggestion: „salt from caustic solutions is represented “, refers to a Veneziani secret.

The glass furnaces of the forest glassworks and in Venice were port furnaces, them were out with more burned Loam bricks bricked , egg-shaped constructions with 3 m diameter and up to 3 m height shifted refractory clay. In the lower stick the beaconing area was appropriate also in or for two semicircular openings for the wood A THROw. In the center the flames struck by a largeround opening into the second stick, in which the ports were located. This about 1.20 m high area was all around provided with 20x20cm large furnace gates, by which the mixture could be taken be inserted and the glass. In the upper floor, by onesmall opening was connected with the Schmelzraum, lay the cooling furnace, which was hot only 400°C. The cooling furnace was provided with a small opening, by which finished workpieces were registered. In the evening the hole between Schmelzraum and refrigerating chamber with one becameStone locked, so that the glass could over night cooling.

Venice

at the beginning of the Venedi glass tradition stands probably the trade with Byzantine glass products already in 10 Jh. Were imported and exported to completely Europe. First Glasmacher finditself in the registers of the 11Jh. They are genant „phiolarius “, Flaschenmacher. A trading vessel averaged at the south coast of Turkey around 1025 transported less than 3 tons Rohglas did not sink from Caesarea in Palestine came. Whether it forVenice was certain, cannot not with certainty be said, but it is obvious. To 1295 all Glasmacher on the island Murano are settled and its freedom to travel by set is limited. On this island cut off by the world Angelo Barovier, that could Center 15 Jh., the secret of the glass decolorization air and for the first time beautiful clear clearly transparent glass in Europe manufacture. „Crystallo “the soda lime glass with manganous oxide was decolorized and the world fame of the Venedichen of glass to be the basis should. The soda becamefrom the Levante or Alexandria imports, simmers leached out and, until a pure salt developed. As sand a pure Glassand from the river was used „Ticino “or gebrantes marble. A further venezianische Wiederentdeckung is „lattimo “(frosted glass), inopaques white glass, which was clouded with tin oxide and Knochenasche and which copied Chinese porcelain.

… Böhmi glass …

for this chapter: Glass production 1550-1700, pdf, 1.1 MT

Fensterglas

although already finds the use of Fensterglas in the Roman one Richly and in 9 already occupies. Century pc. Peter and Santa Maria in Rome a window glazing exhibited, are a broader use only with the arising gothic in 12. Century proven.

Cylinder stretching procedure I…

Moon glass production in 18. Jhd. The board comes outthe Encyclopédie. The worker left carries wood to beaconing; centrically a glass drop is taken or the workpiece is heated; right in the foreground a glass drop is preformed through marbeln; in the background a disk ejected

with the moon glass procedure, the 1330 in Rouen is occupied, a glass drop with the Glasmacherpfeife to a ball is before-blown. This was blown up by the whistle and fastened with a drop of liquid glass to the opposite side to a metal bar. The further processing the ball became againbrought on temperature. With approx. 1000 °C were soft the glass enough, in order by means of centrifugal energy in plate form to be hurled: The ball opened around the hole, to which the whistle was fastened before. By this technology became glass plates ofapprox. 1.20 m diameter produce. Subsequently, the outside edge was cut to rectangles. These found use as e.g. Church glass with lead verges. The center piece with the connection point of the centrifuge staff is called Butze and for Butzenscheiben by 10-15 cm diameters was used.

Rolling glass production1908: the same process as 1688.

The rolling glass procedure became for the first time 1688 in Saint Gobain, which documented germ cell of the today's world company of the same name. Melted glass is poured, distributed on the rolling table and finally rolled. Contrary to the before specifiedProcedure was reached here an even thickness. Also were for the first time pulley size from 40 × 60 tariff possible, which was used for production by mirrors. However the uneven surface prepares problems. Fensterglas of this manufacturing process is often blind and mirror glass onlyto obtain by aufwändiges cold polishing.

Cylinder stretching procedure II…

industrialization and automation

highlights in the development of the glass industry

general

  • 1856 first glass furnace with regenerativ firing by Friedrich Siemens
  • 1847 introduction of forms made of metal tobottle glass production (Joseph Magoun)
  • 1882 Ernst Abbe bulkhead in Jena
  • glass works for optical special glasses [ work on] creates 1867 continuous Wannenofen of Friedrich
Siemens flat glass cylinder glass

at the beginning

20 with Otto. Century.

Around 1900 the American John developedH. Lubbers a procedure for the cylinder manufacturing. These could reach a diameter of 80 cm and were up to 8 m (!) highly. The cylinder was cut open and geplättet. The procedure was however very pedantically, in particular surrounding the cylinders inthe horizontal caused difficulties.

Long-range patent should follow 1904 from Emile Fourcault. The Fourcault process for pulling glass production, designated after it. The glass is taken in continuous. A refractory clay nozzle lies in the liquid melt. With pulling up by a cooling ducton approx. 8 m height it can be cut above. The Glasdicke is adjustable by the drawing rate. It was used starting from 1913 and meant a large improvement.

A procedure based on it let patent the American Irving Wightman Colburn 1905.The Glasband to the better handles rerouted into a horizontal cooling duct. To control with an own factory until 1912 tries the procedure, remained however in the long run unsuccessful, so that insolvency was announced. The patent went to the Toledo Glass company.1917 came now the Libbeys Owens procedure so mentioned for industriellen application. The advantages over the Fourcault process were in the simpler cooling. However could work at that several Ziehmaschienen on a glass fusion tub. Since the cooling furnace could be arbitrarily long in the length,achieved this procedure about the double production speed. In the future both procedures existed parallel. 1928 improved the Plate Glass company the advantages of the procedures of Fourcault and Colburn; it obtained a clear increase of the production speed with the Pittsburg procedure thereby.

Rolling glass productionprobably in the 20's: The Bicheroux process.

1919 succeeded max to Bicheroux the crucial step during the cast glass production. The liquid frit was formed thereby between cooled rollers to a Glasband, cut in the still warmed up condition to boards and cooled down in furnaces.With this procedure one achieved the today still usual pulley sizes of 3 x 6 m 1923 Pilkington and Ford: continuous rolling glass for automobile glass.

1902 patent of William E. Heal on the floating procedure, which decreases/goes back to an idea of Henry BessemerThe company Pilkington the technical problem of the floating glass manufacturing masters 1959 as the first. This principle revolutionized the flat glass manufacturing and became into the 1970er years general standard.

bottle glass

in early 19. Century new mechanical aids to blowing becamethe glasses uses. Forms were used, which already exhibited a relief as negative. The glass is pressed by the blow pressure into the cavities and the workpiece gets its form. However the lung strength of the Glasmachers is not sufficiently high fordeeper reliefs, so that mechanical aids were introduced: By tire pumps sufficient pressure obtained pdf.

Bottle glass production around 1910: the drop is blown in a form to the bottle.

Further innovations in the center 19. Century was the introductionof metal forms. For the first time 1847 replaced the forms the old from wood, developed by Joseph Magoun, which increased their durability considerably.

The first semiautomatic bottle blowing machine became 1859 of the Britisher Alexander my and Howard M. Ashley in Pittsburg develops. But stillwere manual work procedures of emergencies.(EN)

A milestone was the 1903 of Michael Josef Owens imported Owens machine as the first fully automatic glass machine at all. In a pipe immersed in the melt a vacuum is produced and so the problematic droplet size is accurately proportioned.The arm tilts back and presses the drop into the form. With the reversal of the vacuum in compressed air the drop is blown into the metal form and the workpiece receives its final shape. With this technology was it possible, tooto produce this time enormous quantity of four bottles per minute. One calls this technology suction blow moulding pdf (EN).

Despite this achievement by machine blown bottles remained still many years heavier than mouth-blown. In order to exceed the Glasmacher, the machines hadwork still very many more exactly. So it is to be also explained that the different production procedures were parallel operated still for a long time.

The Owens ACRE machine of 1912 in roundabout form.

Also substantial improvements of the drop withdrawal were realized. The drop feeder by Karl E. Pfeifferin the year 1911 did not have taken the glass drops any longer from above out of the melt, but dripped the melt by an opening in the Feeder (feeder). Even bottles could be manufactured by the possible more exact dosage of the glass quantity.

1924 become the IS machinepatented by the name givers, the first industrielle application follows Ingle and Smith few years later. This machine, which uses the advantages of the drop procedure only correctly, works after the blowing blow moulding. A drop is led and before-blown into a metal form. The preformedDrop is moved into a second form, in which the workpiece is blown full.

First applications of the new procedure followed few years later. The first machine of 1927 had four stations: A Feeder fed a machine and a this could parallel fourBottles manufacture (EN). The principle of the blowing blow moulding is also today still in the mass production valid.

For these chapters: pdf (EN).

glass art and arts and crafts in the antique one

Egypt

in the first Egyptian glass art bloom(18 to 21 dynasty) are staff-formed containers, which decrease/go back to models in clay/tone, stone or metal. One knows Lotoskelchbecher, garnet apple containers, Krateriskoi, Kohl pots and Kohlpalmsäulchen, which are regarded as purely Egyptian form. Particularly since Thumosis III import container forms come from thatMediterranean area (Amphoriskoi, lens bottle, Hänkelfla, Bilbils and special forms) in addition. The containers are usually dark or white grey. As decoration one sees thread ornaments in zigzag or greed landing form in yellow, knows, and light blue as well as tordierte to threads in lightdarkly the contrast. All these containers serve thatKeeping of oils, Parfümen and other making up implements.

In the second Egyptian glass art bloom (third meantime to Perserherrschaft) the forms are kanonisiert and are limited to Arybaloi, Alabastra, Amphoriskoi and Oinuchoi. Special forms are very rare, all containers are verziert with a thread decoration.

In the third Egyptian glass art bloom (brightism) arise together with new arts of manufacturing a completely new form world. Beside Intarsien and beads we find polychrome mosaic bowls and the containers of the “Canossa group”.

Roman realm

the Romans manufactured Diatretgläser,usually bell-shaped, splendid drinking containers until today because of their artistic quality to be admired. One of the most famous Roman glasses is the Lykurgosbecher [1] from that, in the possession of the British museum, 4. Century at that a three-dimensional figurative representation is appropriate,in the back light red and in the top illumination appears opak yellowish green.

See also: Glass painting, Tiffany Glaskunst, glass on Mallorca, glass realm, Glasschleiferei, Glasmacher, Glasbläser,

see also

Wikiquote: Glass - quotations

literature

glass chemistry

  • bird, Werner: Glass of chemistry, Springer publishing house Berlin 1992 ISBN 3-540-55171-9

glass production

  • is enough, for Joachim: Raw materials of the glass industry, 3. over work. Aufl., Leipzig 1993, ISBN 3-342-00663-3
  • Scholz, refuge: Glass nature; Structure and characteristics, Springer publishing house, Berlin

historythe glass production

  • Nolte, Birgit: The containers in old Egypt, Berlin 1968
  • Foy, Daniele, Nenna, Marie Dominique: Tout feu tout sable, Aix EN Provence, 2001 ISBN 2-7449-0264-0
  • Kisa, A.: The glass in the antiquity, 3 Bde. Leipzig 1908


Web on the left of

Wiktionary: Glass - word origin, synonyms and translations

http://www.planet-wissen.de/pw/Artikel,,,,,,,B80C7558BC853467E034080009B14B8F,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,.html

 

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