the Gliederfüsser (Arthropoda) is a trunk of the skin animals (Ecdysozoa). To them as different animals belong as insects, Tausendfüsser, cancers, duck shells, spiders, scorpios, mites and the become extinct Trilobiten.
Gliederfüsser are very more successfulTrunk. Approximately 80 per cent of all well-known rezenten animal species are Gliederfüsser, most of it insects. Developed they probably in the kambrischen explosion. In 530 million the year old Burgess slate are all three to Unterstämme existing today and in addition the Trilobitenand other today no more existente groups already represent.
The next relatives the Gliederfüsser are the Bärtierchen (Tardigrada) and Stummelfüsser (Onychophora), with which they are sometimes combined into the Panarthropoda, although that no arranged legs exhibit. In traditional systematicsthis group for morphologic reasons with the Ringelwürmern is combined into the Articulaten or member animals. Newer molecular-biological data speak however against a closer relationship with them and for a closer relationship with the thread worms (Nematoda) and other skin animals.
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common is them an arranged figure with maximally a pair member masses (legs, mouth tools, antennas) for each segment, an external skeleton reinforced by Chitin, withGrowth repeated by Häutung to be replaced must, a move-lateral heart with open Blutkreislauf and a belly-lateral cord leader nervous system with a ganglion for each segment.
The original structure of a segment consists member masses of the trunk part with a ganglion and a pair more zweiästiger (more biramer).The lower interior branch is called leg branch or walking leg, the external branch Kiemenast, with which also the functions are suggested.
During the diversification of the Gliederfüsser in the course of the evolution it came to groupings or also fusions of segments for example into head,Central and abdomen with function separation. The head represents a fusion (Tagma) of several segments, the member masses of the original segments is reshuffled to antennas and mouth tools. The central body often grew together to a Tagma, whose member masses lost the external branchhave and as walking legs to serve. Such member masses are called einästig (university RAM). With the abdomen the member masses can be completely regressed or consist only of the Kiemenästen. With Gliederfüssern, which have no visible Kiemen, the respiration takes place either over into thoseBody surface in-inverted Kiemen (lungs) or over at the surface supplied with blood a inverting, the tracheae.
With original Gliederfüssern like the Tausendfüssern the arrangement to a large extent still consists of almost identical segments. It is however already by fusion somethe front segments come to the head, which possesses from several ganglia grown together a brain and to mouth tools formed einästige member masses. The Trilobiten had a similarly repetiven figure, however still had zweiästige member masses.
With that the Tausendfüssern intimate insects is the Tagmatisierung further advanced: Those the head of nearest three segments merged into the central body (thorax), which therefore possesses three pair member masses. They are einästig, the respiration been made by tracheae at the abdomen, which can consist of differently many segments without member masses.The fundamental figure of the insects is to be recognized exemplary with ants and wasps.
With the other Unterstämmen the fusion of the segments took place in other variants, then the central body of the spiders from four segments is formed, why it eight legs, if the member masses of the abdomen have were lost, however the leg branch lost and is appropriate for the Kiemenast as lung in a inverting of the abdomen. With the water-living crustaceans the member masses of the trunk are often still zweiästig and the rear segmentsare frequently to a member-measureless Telson united, as for instance the Schwanzruder of the cancers.
most Gliederfüsser increase sexually and develop directly or over larvae.
systematics are until todayunclearly and disputed. Classical systematics of the Gliederfüsser differentiate crustaceans between
- the Unterstämmen of trachea animals (Tracheata or Uniramia) for example with the Tausendfüssern and
- insects of crustaceans (Crustacea), also called
- Kieferklauenträger (Chelicerata) for example with the spiders or scorpios
in addition come thosebecome extinct Trilobiten as the further large's group.
Molecular-genetic, morphologic and paläontologische studies supply family trees lying apart partly far.
The following Kladogramm reflects the classical organization of the Gliederfüsser, like it among other things from Ax (1999) and Paulus (1997) on the basis of morphologic dataone represents.
Gliederfüsser (Arthropoda)|--N. N. | |--Kieferklauenträger (Chelicerata) (among other things Web spiders and scorpios)| |--† Trilobiten (Trilobita)||--Mandibeltiere (Mandibulata) |--Crustaceans (Crustacea) |--Trachea animals (Tracheata) |--Sechsfüsser (Hexapoda) (among other things insects) |--Tausendfüsser (Myriapoda)
thosesystematics standing down follow in contrast to this the Mandibulata Pancrustacea concept, that by modern studies of the Systematiker Zrzavy and G. Giribet supported is combined and both molecular-genetic and morphologic data. Therefore the following picture results:
Gliederfüsser (Arthropoda)|--N. N. | |--Kieferklauenträger(Chelicerata) (among other things Web spiders and scorpios)| |--† Trilobiten (Trilobita)||--Mandibeltiere (Mandibulata) |--Tausendfüsser (Myriapoda) |--Pancrustacea |--Sechsfüsser (Hexapoda) (among other things insects) |--Crustaceans (Crustacea)
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