under globalization one understands frequently processes of an increasing global cross-linking about humans, institutions and/or states. Sometimes the associated changes of economical, social and/or cultural conditions are called globalization effects. The globalization is made possible and supported by the technical progresswithin the ranges information and communication, production, capital, transport and traffic, on political level by the increasing liberalisation of the world trade.
Table of contents
the term globalization, which 1961 emerge for the first time in a English-language encyclopedia, originating from the social sciences, penetrated after 1990 into the public debates in the German-speaking countries. Another, little common designation is Mondialisierung (after the term Mondialisation preferred in the French: Le of moons is called “the world”). Some it call the described process not as globalization, but Entnationalisierung or Denationalisierung, in order to express that the national state in the course of the globalization ever more onPower and meaning lose.
Briefly: Globalization means: increasing inter and intranationale economic and not-economic entwinement.
aspects of the globalization
principal and goods traffic
the world-wide statistically provable trade rose between 1950 and 1998 around that17-fache, while statistically documented production the sixfold increased by goods itself only around. The number of the direct foreign investments rose between 1970 and 1998 of 21 to 227 billion US Dollar.
- Influence of the industrial nations.Modern branches of industry need today for their specializedand qualitatively high-quality goods of markets, which exceed the demand of their domestic national economy. These markets find it to a majority in other industrialized countries, partially - in particular in the consumer goods industries - also in developing countries. Commercialpolitically industrial nations usually step thereforefor the opening of markets straight for high-quality industrial products. The national capacity to act in these countries however e.g. becomes. by the fact reduced that locations for company headquarters and manufacturing plants are selected also after the internationally compared steering wheels and delivery load, whereby states upTax receipts - is it from taxations of enterprises or from direct and indirect taxes - which pay persons employed, for the financing of the public expenditures are dependent. This can to political impulses for unpleasant changes (e.g. Retreating longwall system of the welfare state) contribute.
- Influence of the developing countries.Developing countries haveby relatively low wages with relatively low life costs the possibility, connection to the world economy of achieving economic growth and relative prosperity. On the other hand market opening and adjustment for world markets often leads its shade side the fall to drastic structural change, not internationally competitive enterprises inimportant extent to be can.
- Influence of the developing countries.Developing countries, which are coined/shaped by political instability, unsatisfactory right security and insufficient infrastructure, can tighten usually even with lowest wages hardly productive foreign investments. Developing countries are frequently excluded from the globalization process in this way,which their backwardness still strengthens. Many of these countries have relative to high tariffs to the protection of their fragilen economic structures and the income achievement. On the other hand become above all the competitive agricultural products from developing countries in the industrialized countries by high there import duties or establishing of import quotas onlylimited market admission chances grants. Besides many developing countries depend on only one raw material, so that fluctuations of the world prices can affect catastrophically their economics.
- Role of producing enterprises.Many enterprises produce meanwhile world-wide (global Players) and have so the possibility, thosedifferent labor costs, investment, to use tax and other conditions in the different countries to their favour within the enterprise. National operating smaller enterprises, which do not have these possibilities first, are multiple by the competition of internationally operating enterprises in their existencethreatened. Many in a forced manner, for their part e.g. see themselves. To shift jobs into “cheap wage countries”, which can have again negative reactions to job markets and domestic demand in “high-wage countries”, if none develop there according to remunerated new jobs.
- Influence of banks and financings.Financialintermediate applyowing to modern EDP as the main accelerators of the globalization, because amounts of billion are movable within seconds over the globe. On the other hand they stand in a global competition around as profitable an investments as possible. This leads to the fact that her for their part investments of funds alsoactive and so social aspects to the goal of high profits into the background step, and on the other hand even are forced to cost-efficiency.
- regional training of the globalization. The European Union extension to the East lets a job misalignment fear into countries with lowest production costs. On the other hand flows from Germanyfrom capital into countries with lower taxes (and. v. A. Switzerland, Austria). In other regions likewise developments run to free trade areas: so in North America the NAFTA - zone, in South America of the Mercosur and in Asia of the ASEAN - area.
transportand passenger traffic
the number of the person kilometers in the international air traffic and the transportation quantity of the air freight increased itself a hundredfold since 1950 more than. The extent of the goods transported to lake rises since 1920 strongly. With the expansion of the course, automobile and air trafficexpand the transnational passenger traffic and the tourism .
the number of the telephone connections at the world-wide telephone network increased tenfold since 1960. Beside the telephone develop with the mobile telephone, the VoIP - Telefonie, the video conference over IP, the fax and the Internet new communication technologies. Internet-based Telefonie makes a co-operation possible global interlaced by a practically free permanent communication connection in high quality. Particularly over Internet the transnational communication processes multiplied and the number of the Internet connectionsrises further exponentially, however over the globe very unequally distributed and in in a totalitarian manner governed countries strictly supervised.
proponent of a globalization of the culture see therein a development to the world-wide availability of elements of all cultures(for example restaurants of German tradition in Africa, African music in Germany, the Chicken Tikka in India, the appropriation of the English language by former colonies etc., invented in England). The displacement of the native cultures plays itself, says it, frequently only on onesuperficial level off. Influences were locally modified and merged into the own cultural value conceptions. In addition improve the situation of many humans, and/or. Groups of people by the contact with the western culture (for example equal rights of the woman). It forms one„in addition, universal “culture out, hybrid forms from different traditions and the modern trend ( postmodernism) would develop - and afterwards for the post office postmodernism etc.
under globalization of the culture understands above all the critics of one out for theirView existing „western “dominance the propagation „more west “value conceptions and life-styles. A substantial spreading of western values takes place particularly over the television and the cinema , in addition, music and mode (like for example the tie) became world-wide from the westaffected. The mass tourism into the exotic vacation countries however leads - so the critics - there ever more frequently to the clear decrease of the cultural traditions, because in the course of an increasing dependence nearly only for the tourists one live and one work.
Globalization does not however only lead to a spreading „of the western “culture, but also the global influence „more east “cultures becomes clearer. „Western ones of “entrepreneurs and politicians state more frequently the site conditions better for them abroad „eastern “and place thereby whatfor „“one keeps western, partly in question. The behavior of a part „of the asiatic “employees for example is seen in „the west “pretty often as positive example of the effect „asiatic values “, which is understood as „dynamics “, of which one learn can.
Sothe propagation of western value conceptions and life-styles does not only encounter criticism, but on the other hand also more conservative representatives of a culture, which they than „Christian abendländische “culture characterize, see themselves pressed by globalization effects. The effects of these fears show up then for example in the discussionaround ratio regulations with the broadcast for German and non-German music or here to country in the debate around “guidance culture” or the “head cloth debate”.
In connection with the Konfliktpotenzial of the globalization on cultural level the key word becomes often “fight of the cultures “brought in the play. The US-American politics policy Samuel P. Huntington set up a prognosis, after which humans can maintain ground in the future only by the “fight of the cultures” in its book “Clash OF Civilizations”. Critics doubt this prognosis and warnbefore regarding the “fight of the cultures” as inevitable fate which could get material extents in the course of a fulfilling prophecy. This key word is to be analyzed critically, since it underlines latent conflicts and let possibilities of a peaceful solution appear utopian, independentlyof the tolerance of different cultures among themselves.
basis of all globalization is even a with one another of the peoples in regulated, legal courses, international right traffic. Apart from a multiplicity of international-law contracts in the year 1961 the decided are Hague convention number 12 for the release of foreign public documents from the authentication and/or. Legalisation the most important legal rule. The Entbürokratisierung and simplification of right traffic between the states, planned therein, made a globalization possible, as she presents herself today, only. It makes possiblebecause of the high member conditions an almost global right traffic, without the diplomatic services must be taken up (see also Apostille and Legalisation).
of globalization processes are various and complex, they describe a multiplicity into one another more flowingeconomic, political, economic, social, cultural and technical processes. They place new requirements against co-operation between states and against the development of supranational organizations (see also world company, world economy).
As the first parliament of the world the German Bundestag has 1999a commission furnished, which itself systematically with the questions of the globalization busy, the Enquête commission globalization of the world economy - challenges and answers, (BT-Drs. 14/2350), chairmen of the Enquete commission were a delegate Ernst Ulrich von Weizsäcker (SPD), deputy the delegate Thomas Rachel (CDU). The final report of the commission was submitted 2002 to the parliament (BT-Drs. 14/9200 ).
World Trade Organization crucial
of the globalization the world trade organization (World Trade Organization) has international organizations [work on], their goal the liberalisationthe international trade is.
the international currency rear (IWF) plays a crucial role with the adjustment of world finances and at the management of the international debt crisis.
- Promotion of the international cooperation in the monetary policy.
- Expansion of the world trade.
- Stabilization ofinternational financial markets.
- Short term credits can assign, to the reconciliation of payment deficits
- monitoring of the monetary policy.
- To keep free the current international exchange of national restrictions of free foreign exchange traffic.
- Technical aid
the organization for Economic CO operation and development (OECD) has thatA goal of promoting international economic co-operation. It is mainly in the ranges economics and employment policy, energy (international energy agency), education and research as well as in international development co-operation active. The OECD is an organization of the western industrialized countries. The 1960created organization tries to coordinate the economic policy of the 29 member states and promote their development assistance. It covers all Western European countries - including Switzerland, Turkey and Tschechien - as well as the USA, Canada, Mexico, Japan, South Korea, Australia and New Zealand.
internationally the labour Organization (ILO), to German international Labour Organization (IAO), a constant mechanism of the Völkerbundes with the goal of the safety device of the world peace on the basis of social justice was original. The ILO began its activity at the 11. April1919 to the conference of peace in Versailles. Since that 14. December 1946 is it a special organization of the United Nations and has its seat in Geneva. 1969 were awarded to the organization the Nobel peace prize. The ILO has 178 member states (Samoa became last to7. March 2005 taken up).
tendencies moving in opposite directions
restrictions by states
by this fall within the range goods traffic of tariffs, import restrictions for foreign products on the one hand and export subsidies for domestic offerers on the other hand; within the range passenger traffic visa obligation and/or. - not grant, requirement ofWork permits etc. Also subsidies for domestic production are restrictions of the globalization, if thereby one makes more difficult to the Marktzugang of foreign producers (e.g. Subsidies for the cultivation of sugar beets).
restriction by enterprises
not only of countries, but also of product offerersis tried to limit the globalization. In the goods traffic an example is the regional code with DVDs and the Kriminalisierung DVDs acquired legally by playing equipment manufacturers, software developers and owners, which tries with technical means to go around this designed trade restriction. The offer side tries in thisExample to limit by regionalization of products with the global sales the free choice of the demand side with the global purchase. The fact that such regional segmenting can be not only an accepted site condition, but a maintained marketing instrument points itself for example also to thatDifferences with the implementation of internationalization (I18N) and localization (L10N) on the one hand in commercial and on the other hand in free operating systems for computers.
the effects of the globalization are very controversially discussed:
as positive effects thatGlobalization become and. A. called:
- Globalization promotes growth, increases the prosperity and creates more goods varieties. Globalization is not by any means an argument around one world-wide given prosperity in that the one wins firmly, which the other one loses.
- By job markets growing world-widerise the exports, other goods more cheaply imported than are produced and to create in their countries of origin of more incomes and rising demand. Thus the international division of labor makes high additional prosperity gains possible with functional markets, by using factors of production world-wide more efficiently. Not functionalMarkets cause however prosperity losses. Because they actually prevent necessary adjustments changing basic conditions.
- With the competitive intensification of the world-wide trade relations and supraregional division of labor go under utilization of the komparativen cost advantages an increase of the world-wide productivity and the prosperity of the producers involved.
- The globalization accelerates the technical development. Thus improve and more favorable products became generally accepted faster in relation to weak locally produced products, which for the buyer of advantage is. Thus the buyer knows his life comfort better or with a small materialExpenditure cover.
- The poverty in the world and hunger decreased/went back by world-wide trade in the last decades drastically.
- The culture exchange causes that humans learn from each other. The number of the wars decreased/went back significantly.
major item: Globalization criticism
the criticism of the globalization critics
(the left spectrum assigned) the globalization criticism of the world social forum (WSF), of Peoples global Action (PGA), ATTAC, WEED and BUKO is not directed against the phenomenon of the globalization actually, but as neoliberal designated developmentas well as capitalism or the free free-market economy actually.
Meant is above all the deregulierte opening of the markets. Not all goods and services, including the educational facilities, the public traffic and the goods of the basic supply (for example drinking water) are thatAccording to demand to be unrestrictedly denationalized and everywhere sold and bought may. It is maintained that this form of the globalization leads to an increase of the world-wide social inequality. The critics criticize further a transparency lacking and a democratic authentication of committees like that World Trade Organization, the IWF or the World Bank.
It is criticized that the globalization concentrates on markets and business relations, which remain however unconsidered globalization by human rights , employee rights, ecological standards or democracy. The citizen has, contrary to groups of lobbiesthe economy, hardly still influence.
Also following the Stolper Samuelson theorem wage lowerings in richer countries are feared. It is again held out to that that in the reality the wages of principal-rich countries in the last decades (seen absolute) strongly to have risen to be supposed. Globalization opponentrefer however to relative numbers, which are to occupy actually sinking real income with most humans of the industrial nations. Here the technical progress with konsekutiver increase of the productivity is to play a role. Globalization opponents object on it that this industry-specifically quite occurs, toExample in on communication, electronics and microprocessors which are based industries like the call centers and software software-Schmieden, in addition, (if not global, so nevertheless regionally) in construction industry and with agricultural seasonal work or in outer Pair - employer-employee relationships; besides take (partly illegalisierte) the workers' migration ofguest so mentioned - and seasonal workers also objectively in many industrial nations too.
Furthermore globalization critics state that it comes to an increase of the world-wide social inequality. Globalization proponents object that transnational trade provides for one - absolute - prosperity gain. This leavesillustrate themselves at the komparativen cost advantage.
Often the introduction of world-wide social and ecological is demanded minimum standard.
Recently the term “equalizing” was launched, by Evelin Lindner (http://www.humiliationstudies.org), to work out with the goal, that the process of the globalization alsomore directly for all one would connect for the realization must, as it in the article 1 of the human right convention one demands.
Fundamental globalization opponents
a fundamental criticism at globalization by different sides one formulates.
Nationalisti, right-wing extremist groupings as for instance in Germany the NPDturn against the increasing standardization of the cultures and against the removing meaning of the national states (and thus of nationalism). Right-wing extremists turn thereby in particular against the Zuwanderung taking place in the course of the globalization, those the rassische stated by them Purity of the peoples endangers. Frequently this refusal of the globalization mixes itself also with anti-Americaistic attitudes. Occasionally also the opinion is held, „globalization “nothing else as „the globalization of the Americans “would mean.
The increasing environmental degradation is criticized by different ecological groups,there increase the exhaust gases, for example of airplanes, cars and factories, ever more. Also tropical diseases spread in moderate widths by the increasing tourism, because one can be infected for example in the airplane or in the airplane pathogen fast around the globeto be transported can. From considerations of the system theory originates the term of the global acceleration crisis, which by the physicist Peter Kafka was coined/shaped. Afterwards very faster and structural change global standardized leads inevitably into an unstable overall situation of the human civilization andthe philanthropic biosphere.
Questioning of the phenomenon as such
one can criticize the globalization as such (and it thereby as feature to recognize) in addition, one can in question place whether there is globalization at all. Thus critics point out thatlarge part of the world production still on very few countries, in particular is concentrated on the triad. The triad countries the USA, Japan and Germany combine also straight times 8% of the population of world 49% of the world of gross national income (BNE) on itself. Before tenYears still 9% of the population of world and 53% of the world BNEs had been.
Commercial stream flow primarily between industrialized countries and cover only individual islands of the developing countries, whereby China represents a special growth pole at present. Direct investments find predominantly between thatIndustrialized countries instead of. Crises meet primarily the developing countries (e.g.Argentina), not the industrialized countries.
|Wikiquote: Globalization - quotations|
- global Governance
- global village
- global learning
- global history
- enterprise location
- world trade organization
- Other globalization
- Ulrich Beck: What is globalization? ISBN 3-51840-944-1
- Claus Heinrich Daub: Global economy - global responsibility. Basel 2005, ISBN 3-906129-23-3
- fair Future - a report Wuppertal of the institute. Limited resources and global justice. Publishing house C. H. Beck, Munich 2005, ISBN 3-406-52788-4
- Jagdish Bhagwati: In Defense OF Globalization. Oxford University press, Oxford 2004, ISBN 0195170253
- Thomas's L. Friedman: Globalization understand. Between market place and world market. ISBN 3612267957
- Hans Olaf handle: The ethicssuccess. Rules for the globalisierte society. ISBN 3430142865
- Henning Klodt: Ways to a global competition order. ISBN 3896652451
- Lester Thurow: The future of the world economy. ISBN 3593374013
- Paul R. Krugman: The myth of the global economic war. ISBN 3593361477
- Jürgen Osterhammel, Niels P. Peterson: History of the globalization. Dimensions, processes, epochs, publishing house C. H. Beck, Munich 2003
- Karl Schlögel: Planet of the Nomaden. Globalization and migration. Berlin, April 2006, wjs publishing house, ISBN 3-937989-16-1
- Beverly Silver: Forces OF laboratory.Workers' movements and globalization since 1870. Association A, Berlin 2005, ISBN 3-935936-32-X
- Elmar old father, Birgit reminding head: Globalization of the uncertainty. 2002, ISBN 3-89691-513-4
- Elmar old father and Birgit reminding head borders of the globalization - economics, ecology and politicsin the world company. 5. Edition. Münster 2002, ISBN 3-92958-675-4
- Berne pool of broadcasting corporations Cassen, Susan George, refuge Eberhard judge, Jean Ziegler: Another world is possible. 2002, ISBN 387975845X
- Klaus Werner, Hans white: The new black book mark companies.The machinations of the world companies. Deuticke publishing house, Vienna 2003, ISBN 3-216-30715-8
- Manfred Julius Mueller: Anti-globalization. Back to the reason!, 2002, ISBN 3831135886
- Naomi small: NO Logo! Riemann publishing house, 2002, ISBN 3570500284
- Naomi small: Over fences and walls CampusPublishing house, 2003, ISBN 3593372169
- Hans Peter Martin, Harald Schumann: Case of globalization. Attack on prosperity and democracy. Rowohlt, 1996, ISBN 3-499-60450-7
- Joseph E. Stiglitz: The shade of the globalization. 2002, ISBN 3-88680-753-3
- William Greider: Last stop globalization. New waysinto a world without borders, 1998, ISBN 3-453-15552-1
Web on the left of
|Wiktionary: Globalization - word origin, synonyms and translations|
- GERM - study and research group Mondialisierungen multilingual side with numerous scientific texts about globalization.
- Manual of the globalization
- Introductionduring globalization
- fundamental information of the federal center for political education
- Further left to the topic „globalization “ in the open directory Project
- entry (English) in the Stanford Encyclopedia OF Philosophy (inclusive Literature data)
- data for the extent of the globalization in individual countries: Globalization index of the market research place thatETH Zurich
- IMF: Globalization - threat or chance?
- A detailed explanation of the economic bases of the globalization
- human Dignity and Humiliation Studies, http://www.humiliationstudies.org