|of these articles is concerned with the sounding bell. Further see: Bell (term clarifying)|
with bell one designates usually a sounding music instrument (exact Aufschlagidiophon) with characteristic hood form (downward open hemisphere, which is convex curved downward extended first concave and then). A bell is usually a body of revolution, i.e., it possesses rotational symmetry around its axle center.
Table of contents
among other things is far common it in the form of church-bells.
Are connected, then one speaks several bells to an instrument of a bell play.
production of bells
bells are usually manufactured by pouring into a form. One differentiates between the loam form, sandform and cement copying method. The used cast material is called bell food and is usually a tin bronzefrom 76-80% copper and 20-24% tin. First a bell stump is bricked, which is coated with loam. The loam layer is taken off with a rotary scraper. On the loam layer a layer of wax is applied, which represents the Fom of the bell. All ornamentsand writings are applied from wax. On the layer of wax several layers loam come in different refinement. The wax is out-melted and the form is dried. After entrenching the casting can be implemented. As date for this traditionally the symbol-pregnant Friday afternoon becomes- the hour of death Christi - selected.
In Bochum of the Bochumer association in the industriellen frameworks bells from casting steel were poured from 1851 to 1970. Until in the middle of the fifties became over 20.000 bells manufactured and into all world exported, among them soexposed copies like the peace bells of Hiroshima. This number dropped until the end of the sixties so far that the owner at that time Krupp let production adjust. Before the Bochumer city hall reminds still another 15,000 kg heavy casting steel bell alsoa ring diameter of 3,13m to this time. It was already poured 1867 for those Paris world exhibition.
Steel bells were acquired mostly as replacement for bronze bells seized in the world wars for war purposes. Under its shorter life span (corrosion) and the substantially higherWeight, which loads bell chair and tower strongly, many of these steel bells were replaced in the past years again by bronze bells.
the sound behavior of bells exhibits some characteristics.
An art characteristic of the bell pouring consists of it, the pitchto specify before the casting by the shaping and the alloy in such a way that a trimming is not necessary by subsequent sharpening.
The characteristic alive ring effect results from the acoustic Doppler effect, there by swinging the bell a relative motion between acoustic sourceand ear exists. Fastening the bell takes place via the Klöppel attached freely swinging at a leather at the bell helmet.
The bell hangs traditionally in a bell chair from oakwood, which must take up the forces arising when swinging. There it is to its crown with Eisenbändern to the yoke so mentioned (wooden carrying axle) fastens. The load of the bell chair leaves itself by the so-called. Bend reduce. Here the bell swings not around its crown, but around a deep-convenient axle more near at their emphasis.Thus however the Doppler effect is reduced strongly and a ringing works less alive.
Being certain bells, which are brought by a kind hammer blow to sounding, are called impact bells and possess a more sterile sound.
Characteristically of the sound behavior of bells, tubes, gong, etc.it is that apart from the harmonious overtones also further overtone stranger frequencies arise. This therefore agitates that in contrast to (linear) a string or an organ pipe standing waves on the two-dimensional surface form, which frequency-modulate themselves mutually.
The pitch of a church-bellby the impact clay/tone (nominal) one characterizes, e.g. c' + 7 . The supplementing indication of number refers to sechzehntel half-tone steps (thus ever 6.25 cent) over or under the nominal clay/tone, which is referred to a being correct “A” with 435 cycles per second.The pitch is thus with e + 8 the same as with f - 8. The impact clay/tone is often in the frequency spectrum of the bell missing. It arises as a result of the acoustic perception in the case of fastening the bell over the residue hearing,as from the overtones the associated basic clay/tone derives becomes.
The frequencies outgoing from the bell are divided into three groups: Untertöne underneath the impact clay/tone, with a Moll Oktav rib exactly one Oktave more deeply, in the first Oktave above the impact clay/tone Prime, Mollterz,Quinte and mixture tones Oktave, Dezime, Undezime, Duodezime etc. for still higher frequencies.
The frequency spectrum of the bell becomes by the bell rib - which form, and the thickness of the bell - determines. Here the gothical triad rib in such a way specified until today is unsurpassed.Earlier rib treads were the straw hive and the Zuckerhut. Beside the gothical triad rib also the later French rib found a large spreading.
Ringing out the bell by fast following each other hammer blows becomes Beierncalled.
Important is also the reverberation time of a bell.With the Gloriosa amounts to it after the last repair in the year 2004 over 6 minutes.
- of acre fundendi, P. To glass burners in Swabian resound, Baden-Wuerttemberg (Web left)
- A. Brook ore in Karlsruhe, Baden-Wuerttemberg (Web left)
- Eifeler C. Mark Maas in break into-separate, Rhineland-Palatinate (Web left)
- art foundry allium hammer in allium hammer, Brandenburg (Web left)
- R. Perner in Passau, Bavaria (Web left)
- Rincker in sense, Hessen (Web left)
- Petit & Gebr.Noble-break in Ge, North Rhine-Westphalia into (Web left)
- work of art places of the abbey Maria Laach, Rheinland-Pfalz (Web left)
- luggage pool of broadcasting corporations in Sévrier Annecy south of Annecy
- brothers Kruszewski in Wegrów (Web left)
- Rüetschi in Aarau
- bend to Ben (London, united kingdom)
- Liberty Bell (Philadelphia, the USA)
- liberty bell (Berlin)
- pc. Peter bell, “thick Pitter”, in Cologne cathedral, 1923 poured of Ulrich, Apolda, nominal c°, largest freerunning ringable bell of the world, approx. 24,000 kg with difficulty, diameter 3.22 m
- Millenniumsglocke, new haven, Kentucky, approx. 33,000 kg weight, heaviest free-hanging ringable bell of the world
- Munotglöckchen, probably last by hand rungAlarm bell of Europe, surely however Switzerland
- Maria Gloriosa in the Erfurter cathedral. Nominal clay/tone e 0, was poured 1497 by Gerhard van Wou from Kampen, 11,370 kg heavily, diameter 2.58 m
- Pummerin in the step Hans cathedral in Vienna. 1711 poured, 1945 destroy,1951 again poured. 21,380 kg heavily, of it 813 kg of Klöppel. Diameter 3.14 m
- Zarenglocke in the Muscovite Kremlin. 1733 - 1735 of Ivan Matorin and his son Mikhail poured, approx. 200,000 kg. Bell Frankfurt
- city rings is rung neverthe harmonious tuning of all 50 bells of ten churches in the city center of Frankfurt/Main. Walbecker bell rings out, in the year since 1978 four times in the year to the church celebrations of first Advent ,
- Christmas eve, Easter and Whitsuntide 1000 poured bell. Allegedly oldest still existing bell of Germany
- Lullusglocke, which stands oldest dated bell
] for bells in mythology and
Out pre-Christianand/or. sculptures are received to before-Islamic time from God inside in bell form.
in the Tibetan Buddhismus becometo the symbolization of the transition between the worlds, in addition, completely laily for indicating the prayer times, holy bells (ghanta) rung. Japanese temple bells hang frequently in own dwellings and by an accordingly large piece wood (trunk) are from the outside fastened.
Also in the Christianity the bell ring indicates the time to the prayer. The moreover one they are to announce the arrival of the holy spirit. The ring of church-bells is besides Dämonen to frighten and to fleeing bring, like Durandus in 14. Century wrote. Outthis reason decorated themselves also humans in Europe - in particular the children - with Glöckchen: in order to repel bad spirit and the bad view.
To the same origins many customs in the alpine region decrease/go back, as for example the Ausläuten of the old andRing in the new yearly.
European customs, with which bells play an important role:
- Klaus removal in Arth
- Pelzmarti in Kandersteg
- Klaus chase at kissing night at the Rigi
- over seat with Trycheln in the northern alpine region
- Silvesterkläuse in Urnäsch
- clip agitating in center forest
- Chalandamarz in the Engadin
- that To Kurent with the Karneval in Slovenia
- Schellerlaufen in Nassereith
- Schleicherlaufen in Telfs
- Alpaufzug and Alpabzug
- ringing machine, ringing plant, bell room
- sharpness, Wolm, prescription ion bell, clip tree
- bell museum
|Wiktionary: Bell - word origin, synonyms and translations|
- bells. In: Meyers encyclopedia, 4. Aufl. 1888/89, Bd. 7, S. 437
- Margarete Schilling: Bells and bell plays. Rudolstadt, 1985
- Klaus Ellerhorst: Manual the bell customer (list of famous bells)
Web on the left of
- Campanologie forum: Newest messages from the bell world are here observably
- European research project for the investigation and monitoring of church-bells (English)
- bells in history and present
- extensive one private link list about bells
- bells of the Chinese antiquity of picturesand sound examples, as well as acoustics and musical tendency of the famous bell orchestra of Zeng of 433 v.u.Z.
- Large bell collection with more than 200 Geläuten from Bavaria, in addition photo of the churches and Download possibility of the clay/tone examples
- extensive Maturarbeit from D.Studer to the topic church-bells
- Carillon museum in branches/the Netherlands much over bells and bell plays on Netherlands and German. Many left.
- An information page over church-bells.
- DeutscheGlocken.de collection of Geläuten and bell plays (sound samples) with clickable Germany map
- pc. Bonifatius to Warendorf Freckenhorst here can do you among other things the bells by mouse-clickin different combinations to ring out leave!
- Bell ringing and dead bells in the traditional music of the county of Nice, France.