Gold

this article treats the metal gold; other meanings see gold (term clarifying).
Characteristics
platinum - gold - mercury
AG
outer
Rg

[Xe] 4f 14 5d 10 6s 1
,197
79
outer ones

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generally
name, symbol, ordinal number gold, outer one, 79
E-number 175
series of transition metals
group, period, block 11 (IB), 6, D
appearance metallically yellow
proportion at the Earth's shell 5 · 10 -7 %
Atomically
atomic mass 196.96655
atomic radius (computed) 135 (174) pm
Kovalenter radius 144 pm
van the Waals radius 166 pm
Elektronenkonfiguration [Xe] 4 f 14 5d 10 6 s 1
electrons per energy level 2, 8, 18, 32, 18, 1
1. Ionization energy 890,1 kJ/mol
2. Ionization energy 1980 kJ/mol
physically
state of aggregation firmly
modifications -
crystal structure cubically face-centered
density (Mohshärte) 19300 kg/m 3 (2,5)
magnetism -
melting point 1337.33 K (1064.18 ° C)
boiling point 3129 K (2856 °C)
molecular volume 10,21 · 10-6 m 3 /mol
heat of vaporization 334.4 kJ/mol
heat of fusion 12.55 kJ/mol
steam pressure 0.000237 Pa at 1337 K
speed of sound 1740 m/s with 293,15 K
specific thermal capacity 128 j (kg · K)
Electrical conductivity 45,2 · 10 6 S /m
heat conductivity 317 w (m ·K)
Electron affinity 4.3 - 5.1 eV
chemically
oxidation conditions of -1, 0, +1, +2, +3, +5
oxides (basicity) outer one 2 O 3 (more amphoter)
Elektronegativität 2.54 (Pauling scale)
Normalpotenzial 1.498 V (outer 3+ + 3e - → outer ones)
of isotopes
isotope NH radioactive half-life DM DE M eV DP
195 outer ones {syn.} 186.10 D ε 0.227 195 Pt
196 outer ones {syn.} 6.183 D ε
β -
1.506
0.686
196 Pt
196 Hg
197 outer ones 100% outer is stably with 118 neutrons
198 outer ones {syn.} 2.69517 D β - 1.372 198 Hg
199 outer ones {syn.} 3.169 D β - 0.453 199 Hg
NMR characteristics
197 outer
nuclear spin 3/2
gamma/ wheel/T 4,582 · 10 6
sensitivity 2,51· 10 -5
Larmorfrequenz with B = 4.7 T 3.43 M cycles per second
as far as possible and common, are used SI-UNITs.
If not differently notes,
the indicated data apply with standard conditions.

Gold (of indogermanisch ghel: shining, (yellow))are a chemical element and a precious metal in such a way specified. The chemical contraction outer one for gold is derived from that latin designation Aurum .

Table of contents

characteristics and characteristics

gold consists of only a sturdy isotope and belongs thereby to the 21 pure elements. The heavy metal is soft like tin and of remarkable coloredness. It is not attacked by acids generally; oneException forms the acid mixture „for aqua regia “, a mixture from hydrochloric acid and nitric acid. In aqueous cyanide solutions gold is easily soluble under admission of oxygen as complex connection. In sour hydrothermalen solutions gold is relatively well physically soluble. The moreover one it separates easily in many metals to alloys. Some the unusual characteristics like the gold-yellow color and high ductility, can be explained after newer computations best with the relativistic effect.

Gold becomes for thousands of years for decorationand in the form of gold coins as currencies uses. It belongs to the Münzmetallen.

gold synthesis

gold develops with nuclear fusion processes in Supernovae. Since center the 20. Century of human hand nuclear fusion and - initiated splitting processes (nuclear fusion respectable. Core fission)confirm the feasibility of the long-preserved dream of the Alchimisten. The execution of the gold synthesis is however uneconomic considering the yield and costs completely.

Thus the “synthesis of gold” designates only a concentrating of the natural occurrences.

gold asMineral

gold Nugget

gold occurs in nature as gediegenes mineral . It crystallized in the cubic crystal system, has a hardness from 2,5 to 3, a deep color, which admit accordingly as “gold-yellow” are, and identical line color. In fine distribution is it depending upon grain size yellowish, ocher-brown to magenta violet and is then called gold magenta. With increasing temperature Feingold at chroma loses and is lightyellow glowing, before it melts. The melted metal is lemon-yellow, easily greenish and receives its intensive yellow-orangeColor only again if it is completely cooled down.

Admixtures of copper let appear reddish it pink or, lower the fusing temperature and increase at the same time hardness, firmness and polishing barness considerably. Rising silver portions change the color of the pure gold over lightyellow after lightgreenand finally too knows; Fusing temperature and hardness change thereby only very little. Most metals, so also the well-known Platinmetalle, mercury and the iron metals lead as admixtures against it in rising portions to a decolorization in form of one ratherdirty-yellow-grey to grey-white alloy. They contribute at the same time in addition, to a substantially larger hardness and firmness.

Since gold is a relatively poorly reactive element, it usually keeps its gloss and color and is easy therefore in nature to recognize.It sometimes found with quartz nationalized in Hydrothermaladern, occasionally also together with Kupfererzen. Decomposition and erosion of goldhaltiger rocks often lead to the deposit of the relatively heavy metal at the soil of flowing waters. This can lead too relatively expanded stores, outeach geological age to come can.

The component at the earth's crust is extremely small with approximately 0.01 ppm (according to 0.000001 per cent). Due to the high price, which is paid for genuine gold, the exploitation is however already worthwhile itself with relatively low gold content.

occurrences

the occurrences are scattered over the whole world; about 40 per cent today of the bergmännisch promoted Golderzes come from the USA, South Africa and Australia.

The annual promotion amounts to today about 2300 tons, about a hundred times moreas in the last century. In the meantime is worthwhile itself the dismantling of rock, which contains only one gram of gold per ton rock. Important gold quantities result with the refining of other metals, like copper, nickel or the other precious metals, so that underFor circumstances only these “impurities” an occurrence interesting make. Into small quantities gold comes also into Germany forwards (bsp: Thuringia). Also in the rubble banks of the high and upper Rhine as for example with Istein small quantities are, in particular to Flitter. Of Germany largest Goldlagerstättewith historical Goldbergwerk is in the north Hessian basket oh. Remarkable gold-pure are contained of the moreover one , those of the use, processing and wear of Goldlegierungen (abrasion of fillings, decoration track links, loss, etc.), come into the clarifying dredging of the cities.

12 states cover 66% of the world-wide gold promotion off

in Europe are the Romanian gold ore occurrences today of economic importance. Nearly all European rivers lead traces of gold with itself. The largest available gold reserve is however the seawater of the oceans, where it in smallest concentrationsas chloride complex is solved. This gigantic volume in the Kubikkilometer yardstick represents a not uninteresting size and exceeds so far the bergmännisch promoted gold by far. After the First World War the chemist Fritz Haber tried, this gold among other things by electrolyticTo win procedure. The average yield was however too small with 0,004 Milligramm gold per ton of sea water for an economic utilization.

An important source of the precious metal the re-use from old noble-metalliferous materials, like electronics scrap iron, is not too forgotten galvanic shop dredging, pigments,Filter types of dust, cinders, Dental and decoration processing wastes.

the largest promotion nations of the world

the most important gold promotion nation at present South Africa , followed of the USA , is Australia and the Russian federation. In Europe there is no considerable promotion of gold.

Deliveries and reserves
rank country deliveries (in t) ¹
2003
deliveries (in t) ²
1995
reserves
1996 ²
range ²
(years starting from 1996)
1 South Africa 420 ,524 19,000 36,3
The 2 USA 277 ,320 5600 17,5
3 Australia 262 ,254 3400 13,4
4 soot. Federation 180 ,132 3100 23,5
5 Peru 173 k. A. k. A. k. A.
6 People's Republic of China 170 ,140 k. A. k. A.
7 Canada 141 ,150 1500 10
8 Usbekistan 85 75 3000 40
9 Indonesia 82 k. A. k. A. k. A.
10 Ghana 67 k. A. k. A. k. A.
11 Papua New Guinea 62 k. A. k. A. k. A.
12 Mali 58 k. A. k. A. k. A.
13 Colombia 47 k. A. k. A. k. A.
14 Tanzania 45 k. A. k. A. k. A.
The 15 Philippines 38 k. A. k. A. k. A.
16 Brazil 37 72 800 11,1
17 Chile 37 k. A. k. A. k. A.
18 Argentina 30 k. A. k. A. k. A.
19 Kazakhstan 27 k. A. k. A. k. A.
20 Kirgistan 24 k. A. k. A. k. A.
- Earth (entire) k. A. 2300 46,000 20

¹ source: Trade paper - the world in figures (2005)
² after USGS

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Use

it is not all gold which shines: Nancy Johnson and their gold medal with the olympic plays in Sydney (shoot Luftgewehr 10 m). Olympic gold and silver medals must consist of at least 92.5 per cent pure silver. The so-called “gold medal” is to gild additionally with at least six gram of gold.

Gold serves in the form of gold coins and gold ingots as international currency and of many central banks the world one stores, although today the currencies are covered for no more by gold reserves. A natural applicationgold finds beyond that in the decoration industry, which converts it to rings, chains, bracelets and other decoration. The precious metal content is authenticated by the Repunze.

Because of its corrosion resistance and aesthetic qualities it becomes in the dentistry as filling or substitute for kariöse teeth assigned. Also the electronic industry uses gold due to the reliability of the characteristics, corrosion resistance and good workability: Thus Verbindungsdrähtchen between chips and their Gehäusebeinchen from high-refined Feingold are manufactured, whereby itself for example a gram of the precious metal problem-free to oneDrähtchen of more than three kilometers of length to take off leaves.

Safety references
R and S-sentences of S: 1

Goldfolie, also gold foil mentioned, is used since the antique one. Made of hochgoldhaltigen alloys, it is rolled and struck more thinly than the wavelength of the visible light.In the top illumination it shines gold-yellow, in the back light seems greenish-blue the source of light through and illustrates also the impact sample of the metal, why it is also mostly laid on on an accordingly prepared document. It, over non-metallic articles, is used here Bilderrahmen,Books (gold cut), furniture, figures, architectural elements, stucco, icons etc., to miss the appearance from genuine gold to. With 1 gram gold foil one can cover a half square meter of surface. Gold reflects infrared, red and yellow wavelengths of the light importantly better than the higher-energyblue blue-violet and ultraviolet rays of light; therefore warmer coatings, glasses, optics and mirrors thereby are vaporized.

Within the food range it in the form of gold foil and gold foil flakes serve E 175 as food color for gilding meals, for example for coats of sweet goods andto the ornament of chocolates, and in beverages, for example gold water. Metallic gold is considered as innocuous.

1-DM-Goldmünze of 2001

gold connections can work partially very malicious. The colorless gold cyanides and the lemon-yellow Tetrachlorogoldsäure rank among it. Some gold salts become welfare-end Rheumatism therapy assigned. Gold injections were given in former times against rheumatism; in more recent time however lower-priced medicines displace a treatment also gold. However medical gold has side effects - it damages the liver, the blood and the kidneys, with inappropriate, and/or. not medical-controlled income.

Gold finds various applications decorative, for example in galvanic coatings of metals and plastics. On Porzellanglasuren, artificial dentures ceramic(s) and glass gold pigments can be burned. Historical the mercury gilding of metals as can be prove already was with the help of the gold mercury alloys , so-called amalgams, in thatThe antique only useful method, in order to manufacture durable gold platings on silver, bronze, or other Unedelmetallen. This method separates today due to the strong poison effect of mercury steams. The mercury gilding is meanwhile because of legal regulations to the environmental and health protection also for restorationforbidden. With the development of galvanic gold plating baths in late 19. Century and 20. Century was qualitatively extended and replaced this range in the possibilities.

Gold pigments became historically in the glass production since that 16. Century assigned (gold ruby glass), are however todayto a large extent by more inexpensive procedures replaces.

Not without mention to remain also the gold salt Natriumaurothiomalat is not to remain which, although in the past something comes from the mode, is used as basis therapy against chronic Polyarthritis (rheumatoide Arthritis).

Goldlegierungen

red gold

red gold are consisting a Goldlegierung of Feingold, silver and copper. The relatively high copper portion, which lies over the silver, is responsible for the named-giving red colouring. Red gold may in Germany as gold designation and as gold333 to be gepunzt, if the gold portion is larger than 33%. In other countries this is only starting from a gold portion of 37,5% (gold 375) and/or. 58.5% (gold 585) permissible. Colloquially red gold in the GDR was called also “Russian gold”.

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Weissgold

as weissgold one designates the Goldlegierungen, which result in a white-yellowish Goldlegierung from admixture of decolorizing alloying metals. As alloying additions nickel, which palladium and rhodium or silver use, becomes main platinum beside metals. The decolorization of the by nature yellow gold retirescertain mixing proportion of the assigned additives in. Nickel white gold is hard and can be rolled, pulled or forged up to the spring temper. Since nickel can cause allergische reactions, it is meanwhile banished from all modern decoration alloys. Palladium white gold is comparatively softer and becomese.g. for the production of jewel versions or decoration uses. Neat certifications made of weissgold are usually rhodiniert on galvanic way. The coat with rhodium, a further platinum beside metal, causes a color improvement, to a pure white and a hard gloss, as well as an improved scratching firmnessopposite the uncoated metal surface from pure weissgold.

yellow gold

yellow gold is a Goldlegierung made of Feingold with silver and copper (in the relationship 2:1). The relationship 2:1 is not compelling however. It affects the color - in this casetoo lightyellow. With a relationship of 1:1 one receives a fuller Gelbton.

titanium gold alloy

titanium gold alloy is with difficulty in the production and is medically used.

history

the so-called gold mask of the Agamemnon (approx. 1400 v. Chr.) inNational museum Athens
the golden Napoleon cup in urban museum the Simeonstift Trier

gold ranks among the first metals, which were processed by humans. This is on the one hand because of the fact that gold shows the remarkable yellow color and also gediegen, thus as element in thatNature occurs and from ores to be chemically isolated does not only have.

In addition gold can be worked on very well mechanically. The easy alloyage barness with many metals, the moderate fusing temperatures and the favorable characteristics of the alloys made gold very attractive as material.Due to its coloredness, which became corrosion resistance, which is the basis for the stability of the gloss, rarity and remarkable weight, it in many cultures particularly for ritual articles used. The gold production probably began in the copper time. In Central Europe leave themselvesgolden articles for the second millenium before Christ prove. It was processed for instance in the golden hat by boat operator city or the sky disk by Nebra.

Since age ago gold was very desired in Europe, Asia and Africa. The travel of the Argonauten to The probably earliest documented far navigation of the Greeks represents golden fleece after Kolchis. Old person the will speaks of the golden calf, which the Israeliten manufactured itself as Götzenbild, while Moses received the ten requirements, and of the gold country Ophir.Greed for gold became the reason for wars and conquest courses.

The new will mentions gold in connection with the Christmas Huldigungsgeschenken, which bring along the three ways from the morning country for the newborn Jesus after Bethlehem ( beside Weihrauch and Myrrhe)(see matte house gospel, chapter 2, verse 11).

The Egyptians exploited occurrences in Oberägypten and Nubien . The Romans for their part used find places in small Asia, Spain, Romania and Germanien. The dream of the Alchemisten of the Middle Ages was the production of gold.

Also in South America and Mesoamerika began humans already early with the gold production and gold processing. Thus for example the Mochica ordered at the beginning of the 1 in Peru already. Millenium over a highly developed culture of the gold processing, which included the alloy formation ( Tumbago and gold plating). Forritual purposes were manufactured articles by several kilograms of gold.

The first gold finds in central and South America attracted European, in particular Spanish conquerers after the travels of Christoph Kolumbus, those the indigenen cultures destroyed and the gold in Galeonen to Europecreated. Spain became so temporary the richest nation of Europe.

Gold finds again and again attracted large quantities of adventurers. In 19. Century came it on different continents to gold fever mass movements specified into the find areas of large gold quantities. Examples are California gold feverin the year 1849 or gold fever 1897 at the Klondike River in Alaska. Also in Australia and South Africa it came to gold fever. Hardly one the gold-looking for became however rich by mountain one niches gold dismantling or gold laundry.

Also today the varying gold price leadsoften to social distortions: Thus the falling gold price led to a strong depletion of the population in Africa, who lives on gold production. In the Brazilian Amazon area the informal gold dismantling is connected by Garimpeiros often with serious social and ecological consequences.

With nuclear methods one can manufacture gold in the gold synthesis also in principle artificially.

value

gold bar

the purity of gold is indicated historically in carat. 24 carat corresponds to pure gold (Feingold). With introduction of the metric system those becameConversion to parts per thousand data made. Thus the stamp “750” means in Goldware that the metal of 1000 parts by weight of 750 portions (i.e. 3/4) pure gold contains, according to 18 carat (“585” 14 carat, “375” corresponds corresponds to 9 carat and “333” corresponds to 8 carat).In addition, the purity can be indicated as a decimal number, for example as 0.999 or 1.000 (Feingold).

The price of the gold is determined on the open market. A certain procedure well-known under the name gold Fixing in London, the 1919for the first time, makes possible the indication of a gold price was used twice daily.

gold as currency or note coverage

historical was used gold as currency. A monetary unit corresponded to a certain quantity of gold. In Germany was during the German Reich of 1871until 1918 the legal tender the Goldmark, whereby gold corresponded to a gram exactly 2.80 Goldmark. This system could not be maintained in the course of the lost First World War and the associated reparations, which devoured the gold reserves of the German Reich. Thosefrom this resulting obligatory conversion to non-gold-covered money made only the hyperinflation possible of the 20's.

See also gold currency system

as Relikt from this time this very day the insured sum and the contribution in the property insurance in Marks of 1914 one expresses and by index numberson current values projected.

Long time corresponded to gold 20.67 US Dollar in the United States of America an ounce. Later, in the Bretton Woods system, this equivalence on 35 US Dollar was raised.

To 17. March 1968 was split the gold price and a zweigliedrigesSystem was introduced. The price could adapt freely to the market, the other one was fixed. 1973 were released the gold price and the possession of gold were again permitted in the USA. China has the private property of gold 2003 againpermitted.

To 21. January 1980 was the price for a fine ounce gold on a record high of 850 US Dollar, to 21. June 1999 on a lowest point of 252,90 US Dollar (London Fixing). A rising demand left the price 2004 over the 420-Dollar-Markerise. In the year 2005 the gold price continued to rise and reached in September more as 475 US Dollar and in December more than 530 US Dollar. Many experts expect that fears of inflation in the euro country and in the USA the gold price further clearly into thoseHeight will drive. At the beginning of of May 2006 already cost the ounce gold over 658 US Dollar.

Because of the function of gold as currency reserve the gold possession was occasionally forbidden in the USA. From 1933 to 1973 gold possession was only in form of decorationand Münzsammlungen permits. President Franklin D. Roosevelt konfiszierte gold over “Executive order 6102” and president Richard Nixon prevented that non-American central banks of US Dollar could change at a fixed price against gold.

Gold often as long-term value plant one regards. This applies particularlyin times of hyperinflation. However the gold price can be substantially affected by market participants with large gold reserves, about central banks and gold mines - societies. If the gold price is to sink, then gold is lent to provoke ( in order Leerverkäufe) or sold or however gold productionone increases. If the gold price is to rise, then the central banks buy up gold and/or. gold production is throttled. However here the gold-possessing central banks have also only reduced possibilities, there the entire gold possession of all central banks only about 19% of the world-wide existing gold quantityfrom 153.000 tons corresponds (dec. 2005) (edge length corresponds to a cube [world gold cube] with approximately 20 m).

Since gold has a small utilizable value and its production must adapt therefore hardly to consumption, is the gold price much volatil that is called,it varies also within short periods considerably.

For this reason gold applies today as unsuitable for note coverage, particularly since with increasing money supply as counterreaction of the central banks on the normally sinking peripheral speed also the gold quantity would have to constantly along-grow as covering. Thisfunctioned normally not.

The today existing gold quantity would not be sufficient nevertheless as value covering for an important currency. At present existing gold corresponds to a current market value of 2.5 trillion € (January. 2006) and hypothetically thus straight would be once suitable, the national debtTo cover Germany and Spain.

If the compensating growth of the money supply were stopped by lack of gold, the consequence would be either a deflation because of lack of currencies or moving from the gold reserve away. The latter happened several times, as described above, in that history.

deflation by gold

  • the deflation starting from 1929 in Europe above all by the fact was released that due to decreased/gone back gold reserves (it concerned only borrowed gold) associated cash notes were drawn in and were not again spent. The gold possession became then inforbade to the consequence. In the USA the entire private gold had to be delivered by law with national acceptance places at the fixed price by 35 US-$/ounce. This gold prohibition lasted then until 1971 (Bretton Woods agreement).
  • In the Middle Ages gold was used directly as currency.Since there were hardly gold mines, the gold quantity hardly increased. This had it the consequence that gold increased ever more in value, developed a continuous deflation. One assumes that only by the discovery America 1492 and by ofthere to Europe flowing gold the gold value again sank and this continuous deflation was thus terminated.

the designation gold

also gold, which stands for valuable and preciously, one designates also different valuable things. Usually an adjective becomes before itset, like for example “black gold” for oil.

Examples:

scrap iron collecting tanks name copper “gold , there itobtain the highest price under the usual metals for copper.

to connections

gold seems +1 and +3 in his connections mainly in the Oxidationstufen. Besides one knows also -1, +3 and +5-wertiges gold. Gold connections are however muchunstably and decompose when heating up easily under emergence of elementary gold.

Gold (III) - oxide (outer 2 O 3) is not accessible due to the noble character of the element by burn with oxygen. Instead one goes from Trichlorogold hydrate sturdy in aqueous solution(AuCl 3 (H 2 O)) (as acid actually with Hydrogentrichlorohydroxidoaurat (III) H [AuCl 3 (OH)] to designate) out, that, with caustic solution shifts, as gold (III) - hydroxide precipitates. With drying this water splits and results in gold (III) - oxide off. Above 160 °C the oxide disintegrates againinto the elements.

Gold chloride (AuCl 3) develops when the release gold in aquae regiae.

see also

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