|gothical one *Gutiska razda|
|spoken in:||(become extinct)|
|office language in:||(become extinct)|
|ISO 639 -1:|
|ISO 639 -2:||got|
The gothical language (self-designation: *gutiska razda) of the Germanic trunk of the Goten spoken a eastGermanic language is and owing to the Wulfilabibel in such a way specified oldest us the delivered Germanic writing language.
The gothical differentiatesitself of the common-Germanic v. A. by failing the ending vowels with the A and with the i-trunks (with the latters only with preceding long vowel). Thus for example the gothical word became from Germanic *stainaz gothical stains (“stone”) and out Germanic *gastiz gasts (“guest”).
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in 4. Century translated gothical bishop Wulfilathe Bible in the gothical (Wulfilabibel). Besides there are only few other gothical language certifications, i.e. few rune inscriptions, the Skeireins (Bible interpretations), a fragment of a calendar and eastgothical document signatures from that 6. Century.
After the end the gothical realms (Ostgotenreich in Italy 493 - 555 and the Westgotenreich in Spain 466 - 711) also the gothical language was lost to a large extent, whereby in Spain already since the crossing of the gothical gentleman Mr. (only about 2-3% of the population were Goten)from the air anise mash to the catholicism and the mixture exerted by it of the different groups of peoples (novels, Goten, Sweben, romanisierte Celts) under king Rekkared I. (Reign from 586 to 601) the use of the gothical language in favor of the earlySpanish colloquial language decreased/went back.
Only on thatPeninsula Krim, with the part of the Ostgoten, the later Krimgoten stayed there, knew itself Krimgoti of the immigration center of the 3. Century n. Chr. until around 1800 hold, when it displaces finally from the tatarischen languagebecame. Connections of the gothical language with Scandinavian languages, which are usually brought with the origin from South Sweden (see Scandza, are disputed), indicated in the gothical master legend, in connection. There are nevertheless remarkable similarities in the vocabulary of the Swedish one (in particular the dialect Gutamål spoken on Gotland) and the gothical one, while to the old high German points gothical similarities interesting in morphologic regard.
in the gothical one gives it the same four cases (Kasus) as i.e. in German, Nominativ, genitive, dative and accusative. In some forms dips still another fifth Kasus, which Vokativ, up, which merges however ever more with the Nominativ. The moreover two times (tenses) exist (past and non--past) andthree numbers (singular, Plural, dual). The dual exists however only with Pronomina and verbs.
the gothical know five short and sieved long vowels:
|In front||in the back|
|closed||< i> [i]||< egg> [i:]||<w> [y] 1||< w> [y:] 1||<u> [u]||< u> [u:]|
|Halfclosed||<e> [e:]||<o> [o:]|
|Half-open||< ai> [ɛ] 2||< ai> [ɛ:]||<outer> [ɔ] 2||< outer> [ɔ:]|
|Openly||<A> [A]||<A> [A:] 3|
- 1 only = υ, οι in Greek leaning words (swnagoge = συναγωγή, Lwstrws = Λύστροις).
- 2 before /r, h, ʍ/ (taíhun “ten”, waúrd “word”), in the Reduplikationssilbe (saíslep “slept”) and in Greek and latin leaning words(apaústaúlus = ἀπόστολος, laíktjo = lectio).
- 3 only from spare stretch (brāhta < * “ brought” branhtē).
From the Germanic Diphthongen is only: [iu] <iu> received. Some researchers think that the Germanic Diphthongen ai and outer in WulfilasLanguage still as [ai] and/or. [outer] , during others were expressed mine that they had been monophthongiert. Into the gothical name the writers for it write a Monophthong to latin starting from that 4. Century (Austrogoti > Ostrogoti).
The consonants are:
|be correctless||be correctful||be correctless||be correctful||be correctless||be correctful||be correctless||be correctful||be correctless||be correctful||be correctless||be correctful||be correctless|
|catch sounds||< p> [p ⁽ʰ⁾]|
< b> [b̥] 1
<b> [b] 2
|<t> [t ⁽ʰ⁾]|
< D> [d̥] 1
<D> [D] 2
? <ddj> [ɟ] 3
|<k> [k ⁽ʰ⁾]|
< g> [g̊] 1
<g> [g] 2
|< q> [kʷ ⁽ʰ⁾]|
< g> [g̊ʷ] 1
<gw> [gʷ] 3.4.5
|fricatives||< f> [ɸ, f]||< b> [β] 4||< s> [s]||< z> [z] 4||< þ> [θ]||< D> [ð] 4||<g> [x] 4|
<h> [x] 5
|< g> [ɣ] 2|
|Approximanten||<j> [j]||<ƕ> [ʍ]||< w> [w]||< h> [h]|
|Nasale||< m> [m]||<n> [n]||<g, n> [ŋ] 6|
|lateral ones||<l> [l]|
- 1 in the Auslaut after a Nasal.
- 2 in the Anlaut and after oneNasal.
- 3 in the Inlaut.
- 4 in the Auslaut or before be correctless consonants.
- 5 before consonants.
- 6 forwards velaren Okklusiven.
Lautlich (phonological) changed less from the Germanic one to the gothical one than to the remaining old-Germanic languages. This hangs probably alsowith the fact together that the excessive quantity uses gothical - with exception of the altnordischen rune inscriptions - nearly three hundred years before the excessive quantity of the other Germanic languages.
This concerns the following sound laws:
- germ. e > got. i (also in the Diphthong European Union > iu)
- i and u become before r, h, ƕ too aí [ɛ] and/or. aú [ɔ] opened.
- Auslautverhärtung: b, D, g > f, þ, h (g)
- aggravation: ww, jj > ggw (triggws “faithfully”, ddj - waddjus “wall”)
most gothical verbs according to the urindogermanischen principle so-called “topic tables” of the conjugation are inflected, there them a vowel, from the reconstructed urinodgermanischen phonemes the *e begin or *o between roots and Flexionssuffixen. The other one, the “athematische” conjugation, where Suffixe are added directly to the root, in the gothical one, like also on Greek and latin, hardly still, the only examples of a athematische conjugation that is existedEnglish verb “ton” and latin “eats”, which means both “its”, and whose related forms also on Greek, Sanskrit and many other indogermanischen languages are athematisch.
Gothical verbs are, like also nouns and adjectives, either “weakly” or “strong”.Weak verbs have Präteritumformen - there or - TA, opposite the Präteritumformen up - þ / - t. Strong verbs do not use an umlaut, weak. This is also in the modern Germanic languages still like that.
Atta unsar,þu in himinam, weihnai namo þein. Qimai þiudinassus þeins. Wairþai wilja þeins, swe in himina suddenly ana airþai. Hlaif unsarana þana sinteinan GIF us himma daga. Suddenly us þatei skulans sijaima, swaswe aflet suddenly points afletam þaim skulam unsaraim. Suddenlynever briggais us in fraistubnjai, AC lausei us af þamma ubilin. Unte þeina is suddenly mahts sudden þiudangardi wulþus in aiwins.
Father ours, you in the sky, geweiht (is) your name. Come your realm. Become your will, as inSky also on earth. Our loaf (bread), to the daily, give us today. Also assign us (for the case) that we are debtor, as also we assign to our debtors. And do not bring us in temptation, but (he) solve us fromthe evil. Because yours is the kingdom and power and the glory in eternal (- keit).
Note: þ like English be correctless is spoken th.
the gothical language is a dialect of the eastGermanic language's group. It died with thatEnd of the Goten in 6. Century out. Only on the Krim still received the straggler remainder of the Krimgoten (or tetraxitischen Goten) his language to in 16. Century inside.
- William brown one: Gothical grammar. 20. Edition, again works on Heidermanns from franc. Collection of short grammars of Germanic dialects. Hauptreihe A, Bd 1. Max Niemeyer publishing house, Tübingen 2004. ISBN 3-484-10852-5, ISBN 3-484-10850-9
- William Tomaschek: The Goten in Taurien. Vienna 1881.
Web on the left of
- Project Wulfila
- gothical bad cells
- a free gothical language course
- a commentated link collection to the gothical
- “gothical elementary book” of William controversy mountain read in
- the facsimile the Weihnachtsgeschichte, on gothical ones
|Wikipedia on gothical ones|
|Wikibooks: Gothical - learning andTeaching materials|
|Wikisource: Gothical - source texts|