the word God stands in its general sense as generic and/or. Comprehensive term for so-called transcendental (i.e. the experiencable world - in whatever way always - exceeding) powers, those for their part influence on the life in thattake experiencable world for us. In a God or several Gods believe, is called then, (1) the existence and/or. Effectiveness of such a power and/or. to assume such powers, as well as (2) its life on encouraging this göttlichen power and/or. these göttlichen powersto orient in the world.
In, an extended sense derived from it the word God can generally stand for everything, which individual humans last life orientation is („this or that one is its/its God “). The word God filled in each case with different meaningsstands then for competitive with one another life orientations, under which the individual God conceptions look for their place all only and their ever specific kind of the God faith to express have.
Table of contents
the word trunk of God is very old and exclusive in the Germanic areadeveloped. Designations are medium high-German, old-high-German Got, gothical Guth, English God, Swedish Gud. All designations decrease/go back to the Germanic *guda (call) God , which originally neutral sex had, because it summarized male and female divinities.
After the Christianisierung became thatWord reinterpreted and within the entire Germanic language range as designation usually as male felt Christian God uses. Since then it is only well-known under the God. To the origin the term became however God is called (see. the Femininum in hebr.„ruach “).
The origin of the Germanic word is not completely clarified until today. It developed assumed that that the term from substantivierten the second participle of the indogermanischen *ghuto-m the verbal root *ghau ( = [on] calls). After this thesis would be God[by magic word] called natures. Further it can be led on the indogermanische root *gheu (= to pour) back, according to which God as that, which [with] drink victim is sacrificed to be understood would be. <ref> see. German dictionary of Jakob Grimm, see http://www.dwb.uni-trier.de/index.html</ref>. Kluge's Etymoli dictionary of the German language encourages the point of the derivative of pouring and/or. Drink victim by comparison to the avestischen, old-Indian. Tatsälich e.g. exists a difference in the Bedetung and origin of the term in the indogermanischen languages to. semitischen languages. Whichamong other things Effects on the abenländisch Christian theology had, which occupied and in the argument with the urspünglichen religion used the term.
Different God conceptions
the polytheistische conceptionfrom Gods manifested itself among other things in the mythologies of the antique ones. One of the most important conceptions was those of the Greek and Roman Pantheon. The told myths around these Gods belong into the present to the collective memory of the western world. Stillin the Middle Ages and modern times of Europe the faith in some figures remained, above all on God inside like Fortuna and Venus. In addition, Amor, Melusine, Cupido and around the popular Arthusmythen some figures of the celtic myths. Many national states, cities and aristokratischeFamilies have so their establishment myths, which are reducible on figures of the polytheistischen God conceptions.
of the Monotheismus, that itself first in the teachings Zarathustras, in the Aton - cult the Echnaton and in the Judentum trained, particularly by the relatively recent religions such as Christianity and Islam one represents.
Different forms of monotheistischer God conceptions are:
- the Theismus, the faith in a personal God, which creates the world has, itreceives and steers;
- the Deismus, after the God creators of the world is, but since the creation no more does not intervene in the happening of the world and itself no longer revealed;
- the Pantheismus, its trailers God as that nottranscendental epitome all universal Seins and all working forces define;
- the Theokratismus, the faith that God is not only creator of the universe, but also direct ruler of the universe are and/or. to be is.
Jew and Christianity
the Hebrew word „El “, which means probably „powerful “or „strong ones “, becomes in the Bible in the Pluralform „Elohim “in purchaseon the creator of the universe, in the singular also on other God natures and (rarely) even on humans uses. Often the term for one is used „highest feature “. This inclusive general term for something Göttliches of the exclusive name of the only God becomes Jahwe, which is inseparably connected with its rescue act at Israel (exodus 3.14), distinctive.
„Theos “, which Greek word for God, come of probably the verb „theo “, platzieren. „Theos “is therefore literally a Platzierer, a Unterordner. In the new will it comestherefore on the context on, in order to recognize, who is meant with it. Jesus as rulers on the throne is called God (lift-RA-hereditarycalled 1.8) and Paulus (Apostelgeschichte 28.6), when by it a miracle was worked. Also the own bodya God can be (Philipperbrief 3.19). Jesus is called „only-witnessed God “( Johannesevangelium 1.18). Its father is however the God all (Epheserbrief 4,6; 1. Korintherbrief 8.4).
The Jewish and Christian God become (like also the God Islam and the Baha'i) the attributes omnipotence (Omnipotenz), knowledge (all knowledgeness), quality, love, eternity, unchangeableness and infinity attributed. See also: Monotheismus
the Jewish and Christian God carries the name JHWH (assumed discussion Jahwe, falsely often Jehova), for that- old Jewish practice following - also in modern Bibles often by the title „GENTLEMAN “is replaced. In addition some further names and name additives for Jahwe are used, among them Zebaot (also “Sabaoth”, German: “Master of the army crowds”).
Jesus Christ becomes in the new one Will as „a son of God “marks. The gospels report that it stressed this title also for itself. Christian reflection led to the theory of the three-agreement of God: The God is community of father, son and holy spirit. ThatSon divided the people fate up to death at the cross (people becoming of God /after Karl Rahner the “absolute self report of God”) and takes by death and Auferstehung all, which trust him under the power of death and, into thoseCommunity of the dreifaltigen God on (realm of God conception).
, Would not exist
Gods believe Atheisti view Atheisten, and/or. could not exist at all. This is justified usually with apparently scientific or general logical arguments (see also Theodizee). Apparently, because similarthe religious viewpoints of the world the realization value of the personal experience with that the non--experience one equates. The most well-known argument is so the reference to being missing a personal experience of God.
In 19. Century formulated Ludwig fire brook in reversal of the Biblical Creation report the thesis, humans created God according to its picture (projection). Friedrich Nietz leaned finally each God conception with the utterance „God is dead off “(out: „The merry science “).
Agnostiker against it close the existence of higher naturesnot in principle out. A certain relationship with the atheism, since both do not believe in a God, exists that in the logic of the Agnostizismus also only the experienced to be only accepted can, however the non--experience to dogma tables the argument do not become.The existence of God is conceivablly, however a little probable therefore for it in a kind scientific perspective.
Criticism of the God conceptions
since beginning of the religions gives it critical expressions to them. Different philosophies and kinds of faith, itself with the criticism torespective God picture argue, under the term religion criticism are treated.
The nature of God shows itself Jew and Christianity in the view of the clearing-up “also as the faith movement, which admires it in each case. It is after this view the Manifestation of the transcendental(over the perception of the particular and the present one of handing out) nature „of the cultural measures “and their joint sense structure (compares:Law; Conception of the world; Custom; Group feeling order; often connected with the requirement on universality and absolute truth).
From the view of some religion scientistsand Atheisten partly stands the behavior of sudden pain contrary to its characteristics: Old person the will reports of situations, in which God brother and child murder arranged and in wars even genocide, since the peoples exercised okkulte practices, “the GENTLEMANabhorred " (5. Mose 18, 12).
Sometimes in the religion science the JHWH is attributed - faith to external sources: Roots to be called and. A. Babylon (Inanna; today's Iraq, the homeland Abrahams), Egypt (the homeland of the Mose), Persia (strong dualism God - devil, Ahura Masda - Ahriman), phönizisch (El, Baal (hebr. ba-aluminium zevuv „master of the flies “) and finally Kanaan (fertility divinities Aschera/Astarte/Astaroth and Dagon as well as Moloch/Melech, hebr. „Gentleman “, who demands child victims). Conservative theologians deny such a dependence. Old person the will testifies a critical argument along and a joggle of these divinities, then the Israeliten in the Bible is warned expressly by God of it the GötzenMoloch their children to sacrifice, because “abhors the GENTLEMAN your God”.
For gläubige Monotheisten the essential question arises, why a all-powerful, good God does not prevent a suffering and misfortune in the world. This Theodizee - problem employs those for centuriesAnd is considered to theologians to some as an argument of the Atheisten, Pantheisten and Deisten (see also Leibniz). Main argument for the reality of the loving and all-powerful God despite the presence and evil and bad one is the human free will.
Like alsoto other religious phenomena, or the faith in übersinnliche natures or conditions, also to the monotheistischen God faith by Atheisten is generally objected, it concerns bare projection religion-critically.
in the Islam are particularly cruel instructions of God orits envoy Mohammed, which did not do anything after traditional Islamic view without the approval or the order of God, a problem. Here for instance those are today as punishments which can be evaluated extremely cruelly with the Hadd passing in such a way specified (Steinigung, cutting offMember masses to call Kreuzigung). Also the Genozid at the Banu Qurayza is to be hardly still justified today. Requirements, in the name of God of wars to the propagation Islam to lead (Dschihad), could in the age of atomic threat to a danger forthe existence of mankind become.
- the Bible
- of the Koran
- Erich Zenger: The God of the Bible. Special book to the beginnings of alttestamentlichen God faith Stuttgart: Publishing house catholic Bible work 1979, ISBN 3-460-31811-2
- Markus of jokes (Hrsg.): The God andthe world of the religions. 1. Aufl. Religion & culture publishing house, peppering castle 2003 ISBN 3933891140
- Campbell Joseph: The masks of God, 4 Bde. Newer realizations from archaeology, Ethnologie and anthropology ISBN 3-423-59034-3
- Jack Miles: God, a biography [over the God of the old personWill]. Old persons the will as a literature creation of mankind; a God, which goes with a large convertableness into action.ISBN 3423307110
- Wolfgang Cramer: God proofs and their criticism. Examination of their conclusive force. Frankfurt/Main 1967 ISBN 3525774109
- John A.T. Robinson: God is different. 1967, B0000BMW32
- Tilman Moser: From the God poisoning to a bearable God.
- Bandini: Who's who in the sky. (The God world of A-Z) ISBN 3-423-32539-9
- Pascal Boyer: And humans created God. 2004, ISBN 3608940324
- pure hard Schmidt: The God of the love is not responsible for wrong, pain and death. Texts and poems in the area of conflict between natural evolution and Christian faith. Helmbrechts 2004 ISBN 3-8311-0704-1
- Bô Yin Râ: The book of the alive God. ISBN 3-85767-073-8
- Friedrich Nietz: „The anti-Christian “.
Web on the left of
|Wiktionary: God - word origin, synonyms and translations|
|Wikiquote: God - quotations|
|Commons: God pictures - pictures, videos and/or audio files|
- catholic faith information to the topic „God “
- where you are God? (Ways to the Christian faith experience)
- bibliography to the God teachings
- whois God actually? (View of the witnesses Jehovas)
- God's Immutability. Entry (English) in the Stanford Encyclopedia OF Philosophy (inclusive Literature data)
versus God faith:
- In which God can one still believe as more critical and scientifically coined/shaped humans?
- Who is God actually?Analysis of the God attributes inclusive but relevant Bible places